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public roadways by which the public palaces until the Protector built Somerhad access from the Strand to the river set House, has come in for its full share and the boats, the other two being Mil- of notice, but the writers upon the ford Lane and Strand Lane, the en- subject have copied each other with trance to which latter still exists, a slavish fidelity, errors and all. The mere passage, between two shops op- same set of facts and assumptions has posite Catherine Street. Down the invariably done duty in all descriptions centre of Ivy Lane ran a brook, over of Durham Place. I wish in the preswhich the roadway of the Strand was ent article to break new ground, and carried by a bridge called Ivy Bridge. relate some hitherto unnoticed episodes This lane, which separates the library in its history. Stow has not much to of the duchy of Lancaster from the city tell of Durham Place, except of the of Westminster, ran sloping down to great festival of 1540, when the future the river between the garden walls of rivals, Dudley and Seymour, with Poytwo of the great Strand palaces, which, nings, Carew, Kingston, and Richard erected, as they all were at first, by Cromwell challenged all Europe to a bishops, were subsequently grabbed by tourney, and held open house with kings and courtiers for their own use. regal lavishness for a week at Durham To the east stood, on the Savoy de- Place, lent to them for the purpose by mesne, the house of the Bishop of the king, who rewarded each of them, Carlisle, which was granted to the moreover, with an income forever of a Elizabethan Earl of Bedford, and sub- hundred marks a year and a house out sequently came into possession, by ex- of the plunder of the Hospital of St. change, of Robert Cecil, afterwards the John of Jerusalem. The State Papers first Earl of Salisbury, second son of now and again give us
a ray of side the great Burleigh, whose own house light on the history of Durham Place. stood nearly opposite, on the site of We know how Somerset granted it to Exeter Hall; and on the west, covering Elizabeth for her life after he had beall the space now occupied by the headed his brother, who there had Adelphi as far as Coutts's bank, there coined the doubloons with which he rose the ancient mansion which for thought to bribe his way to the throne. centuries was the town palace of the We know on Somerset's fall how jealprince-bishops of Durham, known to ous Northumberland gave to the prinhistory as Durham Place. In the law- cess the great unfinished palace of the less times, when these mansions were dead Protector and took for his own first founded, it would have been dan-town house Durham Place, in which, gerous for any but ecclesiastics to have although it was nominally hers, she had resided outside of the protection af- never lived. We know something, but forded by the City boundaries, and so not much, of the fatuous splendor of it came about that all the way from the Dudley's life during the three years he Temple to Whitehall, along the banks lived here, of Jane Grey's ill-starred of the silent highway, which then was wedding in the house, of the plotting the principal thoroughfare of London, of her father-in-law, verily a lath there ran a string of bishops' palaces painted like a sword, and the weaker and religious foundations. Their out- lime-servers around him, to perpetuate houses and stable gates opened on to their rule and confirm them in their the rough country road we still call the ill-gotten gains, of the pitiable crumStrand, a road which even in the time bling down of the house of cards when of Mary, we are told, was filthy and the supreme moment came, and how upseemly, and remained so, indeed, Northumberland went forth from the until the great nobles made these pal- Tower to the scaffold, never to see aces their homes. Many books have Durham Place again, hoping in his been written about the Adelphi and its craven soul, till the axe fell, that his site, and Durham Place, which was by abject recantation would purchase his far the most important of the Strand worthless life. The Egerton Papers
(Camden Society) tell us somewhat in glorious Raleigh."? In all probability
2 detail of the arbitrary expulsion of Tunstal had never lived in the house at Raleigh from Durham Place, where, all. He was appointed to the see in by the grace of his mistress, he had 1530, and in 1540, as we know by lived happily and splendidly for nearly Stow's description of the already mentwenty years. These facts and some tioned festival, Durham Place was others in the subsequent history of the royal house, and so it remained until house are recited by every writer who 1603, when Lord Salisbury used Toby has touched upon the subject, and I Matthew, Bishop of Durham, as his have no desire to repeat at length inci- catspaw to claim it, in order that he dents which are already well known. might filch the best part of it — the One error into which most writers have Strand frontage — for himself, which fallen has been to jump at the conclu- he did to his own great profit. In any sion that whenever recorded history is case, it is certain that Tunstal never silent on the subject of Durham Place, got the house back again from Mary or the house reverted to the possession of Cardinal Pole, whatever promises may the See of Durham. Such does not have been made to him. Of the few appear to me to have been the case. It Spanish nobles of higli rank who stayed is usually asserted that Henry VIII. with Philip II. during the whole of his first took possession of the house by residence in England after his marriage forcing the bishop, Cuthbert Tunstal, with Queen Mary, one was Gomez Sauto exchange his palace for some other rez de Figueroa, Count de Feria, a property. This is founded on Stow's prime favorite and close relative of statement that Cold Harbour in Thames Philip. This nobleman had fallen Street was granted to the bishop be- deeply in love with Miss Jane Dormer, cause of “his house
near Charing one of Mary's maids of honor, and marCross being taken into the king's ried her, and although the secret of
inds, Cuthbert Tunstal was lodged in the union had been well kept, circumthis Cold Harbour." It is certain, stances made it necessary to openly however, that Katharine of Aragon avow it before the king and his cousin lived here during her widowhood, be- left London for Flanders in September, fore Henry VIII. came to the throne, 1555. Feria was again in London withi as many of her letters to her father in the king in March, 1557, for a few Spain are in existence dated from this months, but in January, 1558, he came house, ranging over several years prior back in another capacity.
The war to her marriage with Henry in 1509. was going badly for Philip and EnOn the very year of Mary's death, gland. The French had taken Calais, Cuthbert Tunstal wrote a letter 1 to and Guines was on the point of fallCardinal Pole thanking him for obtain- ing; if the contest was to be carried ing for him the reversion of the house ; on at all more money and more men and it is usually assumed from this that must be squeezed out of unwilling Enhe actually entered into possession of gland, or otherwise peace must be it. But he did not; and it is the story made, with England for a scapegoat. of Durham Place during this time, Philip could not come himself, so ho namely, the last years of Mary and the sent his haughty, overbearing cousin first few years of Elizabeth, that I wish Feria as his ambassador to bully and to tell.
bribe the English courtiers and coerce The historians of the house gener- the sorely beset queen. He came with ally make slort work of the matter by a large train of servants and with great saying,
" When Elizabeth came to the magnificence ; his English wife, a counthrone Tunstal was again driven from try knight's daughter only as she was, this house, and about 1583 Elizabeth as proud as himself; and he was granted it to its greatest tenant, the granted the use of Durham Place, fur
2 The Adelphi and its Site, by H. B. Wheatley, 1 Calendar of State Papers, 1547-1580, p. 105.
nished from the queen's own house, Feria arrived in London and took up as other great ambassadors had been his residence at Durham Place on the granted it before him. Egmont had 26th January, 1558, having, as he says, been lodged there with his splendid lingered on the way in order not to train in January, 1554, when he had bring the unwelcome news of the surcome to offer Philip's hand to Mary. render of Guines by the English, which Chatillon, the French ambassador, too, news had crossed the Channel with had been given the use of the house him. In addition to Durham Place, during his short embassy in 1550, so where he and his household that there was nothing extraordinary lodged, he had the same privileges as in the granting of the house to Feria. to an apartment in the queen's palace Only that former ambassadors had as those which appertained to an Enstayed for a few weeks, whereas Feria glish privy councillor ; privileges which and his successor remained in posses- he tried very hard to have confirmed to sion for five years and a half, and him by the new queen when Mary died, made of Durham Place a trysting-place in order as he says that he might keep for treason during most of that time. his foot in the place and spy out what Whilst Elizabeth was striving against was going on. But Eliz eth and Cecil terrible odds with all her subtle state- kuew full well what his object was, and craft to lay the foundation of a united were quite shocked at the idea of the nation on the broken elements of civil representative of a possible suitor for and religious discord, her task was her hand sleeping under the same roof hourly rendered more difficult by the as the maiden queen, so Feria had to plots hatched in her own house at depend upon his paid agents in the Durham Place. All the disaffected and palace, and even in the Council itself, discontented found a welcome there ; to bring him news to Durham Place of emissaries from Shan O'Neil .flitted what was going on. With the evibackwards and forwards at night by the dence now before us we can form an river gate. Stuckley whispered here approximate idea of the appearance of his willingness to desert with the Durham Place at the time. The Strand queen's ships to the king of Spain, and was a rough, unpaved road, with a here Hawkins himself humbly begged fringe of shops and taverns on the to be brought. Lady Sidney, Robert northern side, whilst on the south side Dudley's sister, Dudley himself, Arun- were the back walls and outer courts of del, Lumley, Montague, and Win the riverine mansions. The principal chester found in the secret rooms at land gateway of Durham Place stood Durham Place open but discreet ears exactly opposite the spot now occupied to listen to their plans for preventing by the Adelphi Theatre. The English the establishment of Protestantism in custodian or porter, who was in the pay England, and for bringing the country of the queen, had his dwelling just inagain under the sway of the pope. side the gate, where he could spy those Madcap Arthur Pole appealed first to who went in and out on the land side. Durham Place when he wanted aid for On each side of the gate in the outer his silly plot in favor of Mary Stuart, courtyard were stables and outhouses, and long-headed Lethington came at and in and around the gateway in the dead of night by the silent river on a street were benches where idlers and similar but far more serious errand. hangers-on sat and lounged through the The publication of the correspondence day gossiping in various tongues, and of the Spanish ambassadors in England boasting of the prowess of their reduring the reign of Elizabeth (Rolls spective countrymen.
On the other series), adds many interesting pages to side of the street, nearly opposite, was the history of Durham Place, and ren- a tavern called the Chequers, which ders the memories of the house more drove a roaring trade with the men-atimportant than ever to the students
1 It was afterwards called the Queen's Heal, and of the Reformation period in England, here Old Parr lodged when he came to London.
arms, court-danglers, and serving-men open to the public under the superviwho were constantly passing to and sion of the custodian at the outer gate, from Whitehall and St. James's. Op- who was responsible only to the queen, posite the gateway, across the large and was a constant source of friction outer courtyard, was the door of the with the foreign occupants of the great hall, generally standing open for house. the neighbors to pass through it to Feria stayed at Durham Place until the inner or smaller courtyard, in which August, 1558, taking an active part in stood a water conduit fed by a “spring the distracted councils of the queen ; of fairwater in Covent Garden." 2 Be- and then, having found that Mary's yond this inner courtyard stood the hopes of an heir were again fallacious, house itself at ihe bottom of the slope and having bullied and frightened the on the bank of the river at the spot queen and Council into raising all the now occupied by the arches that sup- money they could beg or borrow for port Adelphi Terrace. It was a castel- Philip's service, he went back to lated structure, with its water-gate Flanders, leaving his English wife in placed in the middle of the curtain be- London, with a Flemish and a Spanish tween two turrets, and leading - not, ambassador of lower rank than himself as usually was the case, through a gar- to represent his master. But when den, but straight from the steps into Mary was known to be dying, he the house itself by an enclosed pent- posted back again to be on the spot house doorway. The domestic offices, when the great change took place, and and probably the chapel, were on the Durham Place was avoided like ground floor, but the principal dwelling- plague-spot thenceforward for many rooms were all up-stairs and in the tur- days by the courtiers and tiine-servers rets. Aubrey, in his letters (vol. iii. who wished to stand well with the new 573), thus speaks of Raleigh's occu- queen. pancy of one of these
irrets : “ Dur- The proud Spaniard repaid distrust ham House was a noble palace. After by bitter resentment, and soon found he came to his greatness, he lived there that his arrogance made him an unfit or in some apartment of it. I well instrument for cajolery. So he sent remember his study, which was on a for a softer spoken diplomatist to act as little turret that looked into and over his tender,” and the wily, silken the Thames, and had a prospect which Bishop of Aquila became his guest at is as pleasant as any in the world.” Durham Place. Feria could not for
The water-gate of the house was not long brook the need of paying supple the only approach to the river, as there court to the people over whom he had was a space with trees on each side of ridden roughshod, and an excuse was the house, with a dwarf wall fronting soon found by which he might be withthe water, and a descent on one side by drawn without an open confession of which the neighbors were allowed to his unfitness, and in May, 1559, he left get water from the stream for washing Durham Place for good, leaving his and similar purposes. It will thus be English countess and the Bishop of seen that the only really private part Aquila in possession. was the house itself between the inner At Dover he met Baron Ravenstein, courtyard and the river; the great hall who was coming from the emperor to and both courtyards being practically offer the hand of the Archduke Charles
to Elizabeth, and as such a match 1 In the next century, when the Strand front would only have subserved Spanish inwas built over, the parishioners wanted this hall terests if it had been effected by the for a church for St. Martin's parish, the hall, they aid of Spanish diplomacy, Feria asked said, being only used as a passage.
? A century later the water of this spring was the German to become his guest at found to be foul, and, as its source had been for- Durham Place, which he did, and was gotten, an examination was made. The spring was re-discovered under a cellar of a house in Covent made much of by the countess and the
bishop. But he wore out his welcome
very soon, particularly with the latter, Challoner, the English ambassador in a portion of whose apartments he occu- Spain, warned Cecil that the crafty pied, and the bishop sneers at him for old fox” was getting to know too much his constant attendance at mass. “He about what went on at court, and that is quite a good fellow," he says, “but some decent excuse should be sought this surely must be the first negotiation for turning him out from so advantahe ever conducted in his life.” The geous a coign of vantage as Durham countess soon came to high words with Place, with its water-gate and its close the queen, and in a month or so left proximity to the palace, whence spies Durham Place in dudgeon to join her and courtiers might come and go sehusband in Flanders, thenceforward to cretly, as we now know they did, at all see England no more. With her went, hours for the information of the king in addition to her escort Don Juan de of Spain's ambassador. We may be Ayala, her grandmother, Lady Dormer, sure that the hint was not lost on Cecil, and that Mistress Susan Clarencis, who but the bishop was cuuning, and to was Queen Mary's most devoted at- turn him out without good ostensible tendant. From that time, namely, cause would have been too risky at a July 1559, the bishop was temporary time when Philip's future action was master of Durham Place by favor of still uncertain. So the queen's porter the queen, against whom he never in charge of the house was told to take ceased to intrigue as far as he dared. careful note of those who went in and
We have already glanced at the out by the Strand gate, and particularly structure of the house itself; it may be those who attended mass in the ambasnow interesting to give some account sador's chapel. But still the weak of the household of the bishop, which point in the position was the watermay probably be considered a typical gate, the key of which always remained
First, there was a chaplain at in the possession of the bishop or his three crowns a month and his board, majordomo. Various stratagems were a chief secretary at twelve crowns a resorted to by the English porter to month, a chamberlain, two or three obtain possession of it, but in vain, and gentlemen-in-waiting, a groom-of-the- more decided measures had at last to chambers, and six pages, all without be taken. The bishop's confidential any fixed wage, but who lived on prom- secretary, an Italian named Borghese, ises, perquisites, and what they could was bribed by Cecil to tell all he knew pick up, eating, however, at the bish- of his master's practices, and great op's expense, and mostly clothed by promises of high position and a rich him. Then there were two couriers at marriage in England were held out to three shillings a month, which they him as a further reward for his treachrarely got, a cook, a buyer, a butler, ery. This made him arrogant and and a pantryman, at a crown a month boastful, and led to a slashing match cach, two cantineers, two “ lacqueys," with the bishop's Italian gentleman-intwo Irish grooms, and two washer- waiting, whom Borghese nearly killed. women, at nominal wages of from He boasted that he had friends at three to five shillings a month when court, snapped his fingers at the offithey could get them, which was very cers of the law and at the bishop's uncertain. Small as the wages seem cajolery, and threats, made a clean to us, the expense of the establish- breast of it to Cecil, and things began ment was very great, as these people to look bad for his late master. Dr. and a host of friends and hangers-on Wotton, a member of the Privy Counwere fed roughly but abundantly at the cil, went to Durhamı Place, and gravely bishop's cost, the humbler sort eating formulated series of complaints in the great hall and the gentlemen of founded on the secretary's information. the household in the upper chambers. Most of these complaints were trivial,
The bishop had hardly been in pos- being to the effect that the bishop bad session of the house for a year when said and written various depreciatory
LIVING AGE. VOL. LXXXIV. 4332