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quaintance, though of more recent date coupled with any of the successors of than Richardson's heroine. It was Gambetta - at least, not in the way I Mlle. Lange, of “ Madame Angot” no- would suggest. M. Henri Brisson is toriety, who had played the title-rôle in reputed to be as chaste “by temperaFrançois de Neufchâteau's adaptation. ment" as Robespierre, without being

, From which it would seem that the a “ libertine in imagination,” as the Spartans of the Terror had an eye for a latter was accused of being. M. de pretty actress as well as the Sybarites Freycinet is to all appearance as pure of the Directory. So the stern Clemen- as driven snow; he does not even pay ceau need not deny his connection with an occasional visit to the green-room the Comédie-Française ; he may take of the Comédie-Française or le foyer de beart of grace.

“Everything that hap- la danse at the Opéra, which in France pens has happened before," even in is supposed to be a test of a man's the best regulated of republics.

indifference to the blandishments of To those who know the French, one the fairer sex, though there must be of the remarkable features in the two exceptions, seeing that both MM. Flogreat scandals of the Third Republic quet and Clemenceau go often, and has been the apparent absence of a that the former, at any rate, is voted woman's name from both the “ Caffarel " above suspicion as regards amour, affair ” and the “ Panama imbroglio.” amourache, amourette, or amouraille I am not overlooking the part played away from the conjugal roof. For both by Madame Ratazzi and her fellow- he and M. Ferry have married into a adventuresses in the “traffic in decora- family, one might almost say a dynasty tious,” but no stretch of the imagination that of the Risler-Kestners qui ne could construe that part into a crime budine pas avec l'amour, either in the passionnel or a passion criminelle, as M. sense of Alfred de Musset, or in any Bérard des Glajeux, the eminent presi- other sense. Mme. Floquet made use dent of the Assize Courts, would say. recently of the expression, " Republic Gambetta, whose career bears more can nobility.” She was as justified in than an accidental likeness to that of doing this as some New England famMirabeau, disappeared from the scene ilies would be in using the words “Pulike Mirabeau when the régimes they ritan nobility.” The Risler-Kestners had endeavored to establish were vir- are both Puritan and republican. Altually very young, for — let there be no lowing for certain differences, Mmes. mistake -the Third Republic is not Floquet and Ferry remind one of Mme. unlike a girl in her teens who, by virtue Necker. If we are to believe the late of a long dress, would make herself though still living – Mme. Clemenout to be older tha

he really is. ceau, her husband is the galantin of Nominally, the Third Republic dates the Third Republic, as Barrère was from the 4th September, 1870 ; virtu- the guluntin of the Terror. Barrère ally, it dates from at least a year after said soft nothings to the fair petitionthe accession of Jules Grévy. Mira- ers that crowded his ante-chamber. beau's death was accelerated, if not He smiled on them, promised to look caused perhaps, by an imprudent sup- after their welfare, pretended to be per party at Mlle. Coulon's, the dan- moved by their looks and tears, and seuse ; Gambetta's death was attributed played with love as a kitten plays with to a wound received accidentally in his a ball of knitting wool. M. Rouvier attempt to wring from a lady the pistol is a widower, the widower of Mme. with which she intended to kill her-Claude Vignon, who had been marrierl self. Mme. Léona Lévy may be, for “spiritually” to Elliphas Lévy, one of all I know, dead, but I am not speak- the latter-day apostles of Saint-Simoning without foundation. Be this as it ismi. Mme. Rouvier, before and after may, no woman's name was coupled her marriage, aspired to the role of a with any of the successors of Mira- Mme. Roland in the Third Republic. beau, no woman's name is prominently Those who know aver that she woull

had no

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not have made even a 66 decent under- The scum of the Terror constituted study,” yet M. Rouvier still mourns itself the censor of stage plays and her loss, and, unlike Mr. Graves, in was abetted by a Santerre, or some“ Money,” refuses to be drawn into thing of the kind; the scum of the the net of any Lady Franklin who Third Republic in its second decade would fain console him for the absence constitutes itself the censor at the of his "sainted Maria.” M. Quesnay Comédie-Française, and with a Lissade Beaurepaire has the reputation of a garay at its head, hounds “ Thermidor " Fouquier-Tinville, i.e., invulnerable to off the stage, and the authorities are woman's charms. There are several powerless to reinstate the piece. DurMarats who have their Jane Evrards, ivg the Terror there were in the Palaisand an equal number of Dantons whose Egalité thirty-one gambling - houses, wives are not even mentioned. Both and citizen Charon, the spokesman of indulged in orgies now and then; they the Commune, estimated the number

"love affair” which influenced of “hells” in Paris at four thousand. their actions. Their successors have There were tripots” on every rung taken their cues from them, at any of the social ladder. Anarcharsis Clootz rate, apparently. M. Lozé, the prefect proposed to establish a 6 Redoute " in of police, has his prototype in the noto- Paris similar to that at Spa, Venice, rious General Santerre, who, like him, and Geneva. Not many months ago waged relentless war not only against the Café de la Paix virtually attempted dogs, but also cats, but who left the to establish a “ hell” by means of a houris of the Palais - Egalité unmo- billiard-table. It was done too openly, lested, and wanted to, apply the Mal- that is why it failed. There are more thusian doctrine “ with a vengeance

" than four thousand hells in Paris pow. to the canine and feline inmates of the Enough, for the deeper one goes, the capital only.

more one is leminded of Alphonse So far the resemblance between the Karr's “ Plus ça change, plus c'est la men of the two periods. Mirabeau même chose.” Even the struggle bewas known to have accepted money tween the Jacobins and the Girondins from Marie Antoinette, Danton was is represented in a way in the Chamber suspected of having done the same. of Deputies to-day, and M. Godefroi If Gambetta accepted no money from Cavaignac might become a Robespierre Louis Napoleon, it was probably be- if he had the chance. What a magnificause none was offered.

Those who cent opportunity he would have of will refer to his speech at Belleville in sending to the guillotine a president February (or March), 1870, will have with the name of Carnot ! no difficulty in arriving at the conclu

ALBERT D. VANDAM. sion that the future dictator would have become a minister under the Empire — if the Empire had lived - - as Mirabeau would have become the

From The Gentleman's Magazine. Emile Ollivier of the constitutional monarchy under Louis XVI. Robespierre, the incorruptible, was proved

MELITE FRIAR.1 to have trafficked with a journal, Le

THE great misfortune which hapDéfenseur de la Constitution, as the in

pened at Almeida ? was soon known all corruptible M. de Freycinet is suspected of having trafficked with Le Télégraphe. 1 Diary of Events at the Convent of Bussaco in If the “giants” of the Terror did not September and October, 1810. Written by José

de S. Silvestre, friar of the convent and eye-witness blackmail Panama companies, it was of all that occurred. Translated, by the kind perbecause there were no such companies mission of Senhor J. Martins de Carvalho, owner to blackmail; as I have said, the differ- of the original manuscript.

· The explosion of the powder magazine, which ence of their corruptibility lies in the caused the death of five hundred persons and the difference of their opportunities. surrender of the fortress to the French.




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over Portugal, and ou August 31, 1810, shown his room ; but though it was the the French army, commanded by Mas- best he objected to it because it had sena, continued its march in the direc- only one door, and chose another which tion of Viseu.

had two doors but was not so well The Anglo-Portuguese forces under lighted; this one he ordered to be the English general, Lord Wellington, scrubbed, and while it was drying he were encamped on the slopes of the inspected the ground and roads as far Estrella Mountains, but, not being as Mortagua. strong enough to oppose the French The officers of the staff took possesadvance, they retired as far as the sion of all the cells except that of bridge of Murcella ; and so rapidly was brother. Antonio dos Anjos, which no this movement effected that nothing one would have because he had filled was heard of it at Bussaco until just it with all the potsherds, rags, and old before the troops began to arrive. iron he could pick up. The prior also,

On the afternoon of September 20, from motives of policy, was allowed to one of Lord Wellington's aides-de-camp remain undisturbed. knocked at our gate, and the moment While the convent was thus occupied it was opened he said, “I wish to see the friars slept in the church, sacristy, the convent at once. The general- library, pantry, and wherever they commandiug-in-chief slept last night at could find room. The cloisters were Lorvao, and will be here to-morrow invaded by persons of all sorts and conabout this hour. The French are ditions an event which had never already at Tondella."

happened since their foundation ; and Having first told the prior, we showed the general having given orders that the officer over the convent. He se- the bells should not be rung during the lected the best of the unoccupied rooms night, we had to assemble for matins at for the general, and ordered it to be eight o'clock in the evening. whitewashed and scrubbed ; then, after During his stay at the convent Lord drinking some wine, he set off in great Wellington got up at 5 A.M. ; at seven haste for Lorvao. Orders were given he went out to inspect the camp and to prepare all the other rooms, and the troops, returning about 4 P.M., and day ended with much alarm on our part dined at five. He sent us a niessage at the prospect of having to put up with not to be alarmed, as he would let us such things as had never before been know as soon as it was necessary to heard of in this convent.

leave. The prior, however, to be on The advance of the French being the safe side, ordered the oldest friars confirmed the following day, the prior to set out at once, and despatched a gave orders for the administration of cart laden with valuables to Coimbra. the holy sacrament, that the conse- About midday on the 23rd the noise crated wafer might be consumed, and of firing near Mortagua announced the no irreverence be suffered by the great approach of the enemy, and burning God whom we adore day and night. houses could be seen in the same direc

At 8 A.M. the quartermaster-general tion. The English officers watched what arrived, and gave in a list of fifty offi- was happening, and seemed very sad. cers for whom it was necessary to find The firing continued next day, but quarters. This list was signed by the with little effect, as only our outposts commander-in-chief and was

were engaged, and the main body conpanied by an order not to supply any tinued to retreat. further accommodation without instruc- A large number of peasants were. entions from him. The English troops gaged in making a broad road along the then began to appear, and their num- crest of the ridge in the direction of bers increased so fast that in an hour Murcella, and in repairing the one the convent and grounds were crowded which passed through the convent with officers and baggage. The general grounds, so that artillery might ascend arrived about the same time and was without difficulty.


On the 25th the French advanced to was closed, and all who had passed Moura, a village not more than half a through were either killed or taken league distant; there they halted and prisoners. detached forces which took possession

The other French division occupied of the heights on both our flanks. The the village of Sulla, and had ascended allied army responded to this move- the height until close to our batteries, ment by taking up a position along the when the fog lifted and allowed them summit of the range on each side of to be clearly seen. Owing to a hot fire the convent. The hilltops were occu- from our artillery a great part of this pied by artillery, and a battery was column retreated rapidly down the hill, placed within our grounds, so as to and our riflemen hissed them loudly, command the Sulla gate in case the which caused much amusement to enemy effected an entrance. The wall those who heard it. The firing was on both sides of this gate was knocked continued on both sides until 4 P.M. down to half its original height, and The following morning, after having loopholed for musketry. Two regi- confessed and said mass, I went out ments were held in readiness to repel with another priest to see the battle. any attack, and a barrier of oak-trees At the door we met' a peasant weeping was placed on the outside ; so that we bitterly. I asked him what was the were prepared for anything that might matter, and he replied in a broken happen, though in the end none of voice, “Don't you see those wounded these defences were required.

Frenchmen ?? On looking down the The regular life of the convent was hill I saw the men he pointed out, and entirely interrupted by the many dis- indeed they were in such a miserable turbances around us.

condition that, without wishing it, my On the morning of the 26th the gen- own tears began to fall. One of them eral ordered all his baggage to be re- was shot through both cheeks, blood moved. This caused us great arm, rar out of his mouth, and some of it and some of the friars made ready to had clotted on his lips — he could not leave. At midday, however, the bag- speak a word. The others were not so gage was brought back, and the gen- badly hurt, except four or five who had eral ordered dinner. This comforted lost so much blood that they trembled us a little.

with cold. The English made a large The French appeared in large num- fire and laid them round it. I hurried bers on the opposite hills, and gradu- away from the place, not being able to ally drew nearer. One column marched bear the sight of so much misery. into Moura, and others occupied the On the summit I found the surgeons neighborivg pine woods. At 2 P.M. busy with our wounded, who, though our artillery and riflemen opened fire, numerous, were not in so bad a state as the latter from the slopes of the hills. the Frenchmen. I went further on, This continued for a couple of hours hoping to see something of the fight; with but little effect, except that an but in this I was disappointed, as the English general was severely wounded. enemy's bullets swept the top of the The following day Lord Wellington ridge and obliged the regiments not asked for a stretcher, from which we actually engaged to keep on the oppoconcluded that the wounded man had site slope. either died or was so ill that he could On my return to the convent a solnot be taken to Coimbra in any other dier took me to see a French general way.

named Simon, who had been made Before daybreak on the 27th the prisoner, and had three bullet wounds French army was in motion, and, ad- in his face. 1 His secretary, who was vancing rapidly under cover of a dense fog, they broke our line near Santo An

1 “At the battle of Bussaco, when Massena made

the blunder of delivering a front attack on Lord tonio do Cantaro ; but, another regi- Wellington's army, posted on a height very diffimeut coming to our assistance, the gap.cult of access, poor General Simon, wishing to

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with him, had escaped unhurt. Lord started for some place beyond Agueda, Wellington gave orders that they where his militia were encamped. should be treated with the greatest con- Towards 11 P.M. the French retired sideration, and an English officer gave very quietly in the direction of Morup his room to them. Next morning, tagua, then turned towards Boialro and when their baggage was sent for, Mas- struck the Oporto road at a point not sena delivered it at once, and the gen- guarded by our troops. An English eral's wife took advantage of this officer commanding an outpost noticed opportunity to join him.

the movement, though only by chance, The Rifles suffered greatly, as they as the night was very dark. On receivwere not relieved, and had to sustain the ing his report, the general instantly got enemy's fire the whole day, throughout up, and at midnight set out with the which they showed great bravery. whole army for Coimbra. He sent us One of their captains told me that if notice that we should leave at once, and they had three such days not a man this advice was followed by all except would escape. Though no great num- Friars Ignacio, Antonio, and myself. ber were killed the wounded were very It was very dark, and raining hard, so numerous, and at night eighty carts we put off starting until the morning. were loaded with those who, after hav- I arose very early to see what the ing their wounds dressed, had been troops were doing, and met several brought into the convent yard. We regiments retiring in great haste. gave them wine and whatever else they When all had passed, we went to look asked for. One thing surprised us at the French camp; but only some immensely, and this was that although cavalry pickets, scattered at intervals many were dying and others were in along the road, were to be seen, and great danger, yet none asked to be con- these gradually retired, until the last fessed, nor did they speak of Jesus, as had disappeared. A squadron of Enis so natural and right for an afflicted glish cavalry had remained to watch Christian to do.

their movements, and the commander Beresford, whose headquarters were now despatched a small force along the at Santa Eufemia, slept at night in our Mortagua road for the same purpose. library, and the general, who had been Shortly after passing Moura this party taken prisoner, was sent to Coimbra came upon seventy wounded Frenchwith his wife and secretary. The artil- men, who had been abandoned by their lery fire was continued on our side, but comrades, and felt such pity for them the enemy scarcely replied, and there that they mounted them on their was little bloodshed. Colonel Trant horses and brought them back to the came to confer with Lord Wellington, chapel of All Souls, which lies just and it was rumored that he was to take outside our wall. This pious work back reinforcements; but this did not occupied them the whole day. prove true, and in the evening he The English set fire to an immense wipe out his fault and recover the time which be quantity of powder, and the explosion had lost to bis promotion, dashed forward bravely caused great damage to our property ; at the head of his brigade, cleared all the obstacles, it knocked down a wall immediately in climbed the rocks under a hail of bullets, broke the English line, and was the first to enter the front, uprooted trees, and broke a large enemy's entrenchments. There, however, a shot window in the church. fired point blank smashed bis jaw, just at the mo

The vedettes retired early next ment when the English second line repulsed our troops, who were hurled back into the alley with morning, after charging us to give

The unfortunate general was water to the Frenchmen who were in found lying in the redoubt among the dead and the chapel, to avoid the peasants who dying, with scarcely a human feature left. Wellington treated him with much kindness, and, as did nothing but rob and murder, and soon as he was it to be moved, sent bim as a pris- to bring in more wounded who were oner of war to England. Later on he was allowed still lying in the wood. to return to France, but his horrible wound did pot permit him to serve again.” (Memoirs of the

I started at once to see about these Baron de Marbot, 1892.)

latter, and at my request two Portu.


considerable loss.

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