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prehension. He was perfectly satisfied the man who, with his hat on his head, that he was the special care of the and his Ironsides at his heels, had Almighty, and that iu the appointed stalked up the nave at Ely and roughly season all would be well. Accordingly bidden the Rev. Mr. Hitch to " Leave he calmly announces that, towards the off that fooling and come down,” was a close of 1651, it pleased God to visit curious one and touched Fox to the the town with a pestilence, which so quick. Ever since he had had it alarmed his persecutors that they opened to him that the universities threw open the doors of his prison. were not the royal road to heaven, his He had been in gaol just on twelve contempt for their graduates had been months.

gathering force. He launched out into For the next few years he roamed a violent attack upon the whole brood, about the northern counties, adding to men he declared who “ ' preached for the numbers and stirring up the zeal of filthy lucre, and for hire, who divined his followers. It was a time of fearful for money, and were covetous and hardship endured with singular forti- greedy.” Then, noticing that the tude and gentleness. Hounded by room was filling with people, he ceased ministers of all denominations who suddenly, and stood back. As he did feared comparisou with his saintliness ; so Cromwell sprang up and seized his stoned and beaten by savage mobs ; hand : “Come again to my house,” he mocked even by the little children cried, “ for if thou and I were but an taught to jeer at the man in leather hour a day together, we should be breeches ; sometimes in prison, never nearer one to the other." Thus they knowing a home ; driven from door to parted, and as he descended the stairs door, and refused even food or shelter; he learned that it was Cromwell's wish sleeping in winter in the deep snow in that he should dine in the great hall the fields, and in summer fainting from with the household. Sternly and someheat and exhaustion, forced to lap the what surlily, he declined. 66 Let the green water in the ditches, but never Protector know,” said he, “ that I will faltering, never murmuring, never not eat of his meat, or drink of his doubting, he held on his way. Until at drink.” The reply raised him even last, one grey morning in 1654, torn higher in Cromwell's estimation. overnight by the Ironsides from “Now," cried he, in a sentence which Friends' meeting at Whetstone, he showed how much in accord he was knelt by the bedside of Hacker, the with Fox's strictures on the ministers, regicide, in Leicester, and learned that “now I see that there is a people risen he was to be sent to London, charged that I cannot win either

with gifts, with plotting against the Protector. honors, offices, or places ; but all other

Early one morning, a few weeks sects and people I can.” later, Fox presented himself under The two men met occasionally after escort at Whitehall. The Protector that. One day Fox, riding into town was not yet giving audience, but the from Kingston, caught sight of Cromprisoner was permitted to ascend to his well's coach near Hyde Park, and apartments. He found Cromwell par- pushed towards it. The guards would tially dressed, and, having saluted him have driven him back, but the Prowith the words, “ Peace be to this tector recognized him, and shouted to house," planted himself before him them to let him pass. The two men and plunged straightway into an exhor- talked together earnestly till they tation upon godly living. Cromwell reached St. James's, when they parted listened to him patiently, drew him on with a promise from Fox to attend next to speak of general religious topics, and day at Whitehall. “I can give you then, brushing aside all theological dif- good news,” laughed the Protector to ference, asked him point blank why he one of his wife's maids as he entered must be always quarrelling with the the palace ; " Mr. Fox is come to ministers. The question, coming from town." When they met next day the


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stern old warrior was in one of those serious a complexion as to threaten playful moods into which, as troubles the very existence of Quakerism, is thickened about him, he less and less perhaps more remarkable still. The frequently lapsed. Seated carelessly leaders of the Ranters had already upon the edge of a table he bantered capitulated unconditionally to Mugglethe Quaker unceasingly, and dismissed ton, when the defection of some weaker him with the laughing, but extremely Friends warned Fox that the struggle true reflection that his self-satisfaction could no longer be avoided.

A great was by no means the least part of him. debate was held at a hall in Eastcheap A year or so later Fox saw him for and, whoever had the best of the arguthe last time. He met him riding into ment, Fox had the worst of the vote. Hampton. “Before I came to him," Muggleton left the meeting in triumph, he writes, as le rode at the head of having publicly pronounced sentence his Life Guards, I saw and felt a waft of damnation on Fox. Thenceforth he of death go forth against him.” A few never showed for his opponents anynights later, while a terrific storm was thing except the cool contempt of asraging over London, the strong spirit sured mastery. Fox however was not passed away. Fox had lost a sincere to be disposed of by mere vaporing. and a powerful friend.

He was fashioned in a very different It was during this residence of Fox clay from the lunatics and tipplers in London that he became involved in whom Muggleton had so often frightthat extraordinary controversy with ened into their graves.

He continued regard to which he is so eloquently the contest through the medium of sileut in his journal. While he had pamphlets with a bitterness suspibeen tramping the moors and climbing ciously akin to weakness, and only the hills of Yorkshire and of Cumber- retired from it when he found, in land, a half-mad tailor, by name Ludo- Penn and Farnsworth, men even betwick Muggleton, had been haunting ter equal to cope with the multitudithe taverns and alley's about Old St. nous vituperation of his rival, men who Paul's, proclaiming revelation certainly did not apply the doctrine of evolved partly from a study of the non-resistance to their polemical writmystical effusions of those quaint ings, but who gave back curse for curse dreamers Jacob Böhme and Hans Eck- with astonishing fecundity, hart, and partly from his own crazy The incident is one on which, for brain. The universe, he roundly de- obvious reasons, Fox's extreme admirclared, was governed by a deity trans- ers have preferred to keep silence. parent as crystal and in height just six And indeed it is pleasant to turn from feet, whose viceregent upon earth he, the sordid squabble, and to follow him Ludowick, was. Like all the popular out from the hum and roar of London theologians of the day, to whom Fox streets upon his crusade against the was so markedly opposed, he relied for fesh and the devil; to watch his exerproselytism upon the reality of the tions for getting the children of the flames of hell. Indeed, he naïvely ad- street taught trades ; to listen to his mitted that his own conversiou was voice, two full centuries before its time, wrought, not so much by a desire to be denouncing the ferocity of the penal saved, as because he was not minded to code ; and to hear him pleading with be damned. The apostleship of such Parliament and with king for complete as chose to seek him out he accepted religious to ion. In London he without emotion ; the strictures of such had been under the protection of Cromas dared to differ from him he met with well; in the west country he had to - lavish sentences of damnation. That deal with Desborough, a person with such colossal folly should have survived no poetry in his composition. Brought

in a concrete form down to our own up before the lord chief justice, he · times is remarkable enough ; that it declined to remove his hat, on the • at one time should have assumeil so grounds that to make obeisance to man


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was against the law of God and the trine of perfection. At Stirling the constitution of the country. " Come,” townsfolk attended a horse - race in cried the judge, " where had they hats preference to his sermon. In the from Moses to Daniel ? Come, answer whole great city of Glasgow he could me; I have you fast now." 6. The not muster an audience of one. Even three children," returned Fox, were in Edinburgh, where the Lord blinded cast into the fiery furnace with their the sentries to enable him to pass the hats on.” He was promptly committed gates, he was only indifferently sucto Launceston gaol for contempt. His cessful. At Johnstone he was seized goaler was a thief branded in the hand ; gently but firmly, and put across the his cell a hole in the old keep, two river. It was in vain that on marketinches deep in oozing slime, so noisome days he took his stand beneath the vilthat he was forced to burn the straw lage cross; the populace took no notice thrown to him as bedding, to avoid of him, not so much as to throw a carbeing poisoned. At the end of nine rot at him. Still there were times weeks he was released, still contuma- when his earnestness thawed the frost cious. Little wonder that Hugh Peters of his unwilling listeners, and the deep told Cromwell that if the government northern nature answered back in unwished to convert England to Quaker- expected sympathy. These, however, ism, they were going the way to do it. were the exceptions. The Scotch, he

Fox's first act on his release was to declares, “being a dark and carnal preach defiantly in the streets of Laun- people, gave little heed ; but the husceston. Then he set out to visit the bandman is to wait in patience.” ComFriends throughout the country. He forted with that he crossed the Tweed rode by Exeter to Bristol, and crossing at Berwick, and rode south again. the Severn

to Cardiff. For Fox arrived in London during the weeks, attended by one faithful fol- last days of the Protectorate. He was lower, John ap John, he wandered there when Thomas Aldam, despairing among the Welsh hills, enduring in- at Cromwell's indifference to the persecredible privation and often barely es-cution of the Friends, took off his caj» caping with his life. Pressing steadily at Whitehall and, having rent it in north he reached Liverpool, whose pieces in the approved biblical manner, miles of docks and forests of chimneys cast the pieces at the Protector's feet, were then represented by a little sea- with the words, “So shall thy govport of four thousand souls. Passing ernment be rent from thee and thy through Manchester, whose warehouses house." No doubt Fox honestly bewere already filling with the cotton lieved that the prophecy was fulfilled bales of Smyrna, he entered Cumber- in the Restoration, just as Muggleton, land, the scene of his earlier struggle after having admonished one of his with that potent sheriff Wilfred Law- disciples for taking upon himself to

From whence, taking with him damn a dozen old scoffers, remarked one Robert Widders, “a thundering parenthetically, “ Not but that I do man against hypocrisy and deceit,” he believe they will all be damned.” A climbed through the Cheviots into Scot- habit of noting only the results which land. Upon Scotland Fox seems to fit is an indiscretion common to all have made no impression whatever. fanatics. Fox himself never omits to He was not persecuted ; he was simply add to the tale of those who, like “old ignored. The Council, it is true, at Preston's wife,” came to an untimely last ordered him to cross the border end after making light of him. At the within seven days, but they appear to same time, if the sum of those who have permitted him to construe the jeered and were cut off could be deseven pretty elastically. The people, ducted from the sum of those who still under the spell of the hideous jeered with impunity, the death-rate eschatology of Knox and Calvin, were would probably be found to have re. little in the humor to listen to the cloc-' mained stationary. The Quakers, bow.

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ever, gained little by Monk's action. | difficulty that he was able to hold the If the oath of abjuration, in the hands meetings which he declares were abunof the Commonwealth judges, had dantly blessed. After a short stay he proved a whip, the oath of supremacy, returned to Dublin, whence he sailed in the hands of those of the king, amidst the enthusiasm of the Friends, quickly developed into a scorpion. If who followed him to sea in their little he taunted them with their subser- boats, “at least a league, though not viency to the Protector, they tendered without danger." hin the oath ; if he claimed the pro- . The year of Fox's return to England tection of the Declaration of Breda, is memorable as the date of the solitary they tendered him the oath ; even action of his career in which he seems when he had walked straight through to have considered his personal feelthe flaws of the indictment, they fell ings. Seventeen years previously he back on the oath. You shall have had made the acquaintance, in the the law,” cried one of them furiously, Lake country, of Judge Fell and his when he had been beaten hopelessly wife Margaret. They had been among in open court at his owu trade. “You his earliest converts and had stood are acquitted on, the charge. Now nobly by him in the storm of obloquy tender him the oath.” It was in vain and persecution which had then threathe protested unceasingly against being ened to overwhelm him. Upon the ordered to swear on a book that for- death of her husband, which occurred bade swearing. The judges remained shortly after, Margaret had thrown obdurate ; and he continued to make herself actively into the work of propathe tour of the country gaols with in- gation, and had bravely borne her load creasing velocity.

of imprisonment and revilement. She When the king had been some nine had stood upon more than one occasion years upon the throne Fox determined between Fox and his tormentors, and to visit the Friends in Ireland. At the it was to her personal intercession with first blush there is something almost the king that the Quakers owed such comical at the idea of an Irishman in little freedom as they had. If someQuaker habiliments. These, however, thing warmer than friendship had not to whom Fox turned were not so much grown up between the two. it would the Celtic Catholics as the Presbyte- have been strange. Their marriage, rian Planters of the Pale. Sailing from which took place now in Bristol, was Liverpool he landed at Dublin, where the product of many years of comrade- the earth and air smelt,” he thought, ship in trial. It was one on both sides so with the corruption of the nation.” of purest affection ; and Fox's letters His first act was characteristic. He to his dear heart,” though they are issued a challenge to all the priests to neither numerous nor lengthy, strike a public disputation. The years follow- new note of tenderness. But their ing the storm of Drogheda were, how- happiness was not long undisturbed ; ever, not the time at which one would within a few weeks they were both naturally have expected to find Rome prisoners in distant gaols for conactive. No answers, save a few sav- science sake. age mutterings, came to his proposal ; By this time the Quakers were beand he was able to take a bloodless ginning to push their peculiar tenets triumph in a document in which he beyond their native shores. They had compared them disadvantageously with overrun Holland, that ancient home of the priests of Baal, who indeed“ tried religious freedom ; they were settlers their wooden god,” while the Catholics in the great trading cities of the north dare venture nothing with theirs of German seaboard ; they lay in the dunbread and wine. The Presbyterians, geons of the Inquisition at Malta, and however, proved of tougher fibre. The were seen in the bazaars of Alexanmayor of Cork put the soldiers on his dria ; they were to be found on the track; and it was with considerable plantations of the West Indian Isl


ands, and upon the clearances of the For thirteen years after his return North American colonies ; and they from America Fox lived to labor in the even talked of carrying the truth to the vineyard. To tell the story of that mandarius of Canton. Fox was no time would be but to traverse the old longer young; the terrible hardships ground again. To the last he never he had endured had made him prema- had a home ; he spent his days wanturely old ; but with indomitable cour-dering from city to hamlet and from age he determined to cross the seas to shore to shore upon his Master's busitake his part in the crusade.

ness ; twice he visited Holland and On the 13th of June, 1671, he sailed the North German seaboard ; at times from Gravesend aboard the Industry. he still found himself in the dock and The same evening they hove to off in the gaol, though the persecution in Deal to land the friends of the passen- its more spiteful phase had died with gers, among them Fox's wife. The Charles, for James, in his desperate voyage proved anything but a pleasure- effort to win England for the pope, party. The vessel took eight inches of made a useless bid for the support of water an hour, and from the start the the Quakers. In his sixty-sixth year, passengers were forced to join the crew though very feeble, he threw himself at the pumps ; three weeks out from heart and soul into the great battle for London they were chased by a Sallee toleration ; and crawled down day after pirate, and only avoided capture owing day from his lodgings to Westminster to a dark night and a fresh gale. At Hall, to argue with the members in last, after a voyage, of just under two favor of making the act comprehenmonths, they made Barbadoes, and sive and effectual." dropped anchor in Carlisle Bay. Three The end was now in sight. The long months later they again took ship, and days in the saddle, the nights spent after touching at Jamaica, landed in under the open sky in rain and snow, Maryland. Fox remained in America the months of weary lingering in fetid a little over two years. During that prisons, had broken his once magniftime, though in the weakest health, he icent constitution. On the 11th of managed to make his way through the November, 1690, he preached for the miles of forest and prairie that hedged last time with more than wonted fire round the English colonies from Caro- and directness in the old meeting-house lina to Rhode Island. The spasm of in Gracechurch Street. As he came persecution which had driven Williams out he complained that he felt the cold out of the Bay State, and built the gal-strike at his heart. He went home and lows of the Salem witches, bad spent lay down never to rise again. 66 All is itself. Fox was received everywhere well, though I am weak in body," he with kindness and with affection; even said to the Friends who gathered about the negroes and the Indians listened to his bedside ; “yet the power of the him with attention and respect. One Lord is over all, and over death itself.” could wish that he had spoken out with Two days later he passed away in perall the might that was in him against fect peace and contentment. He was the growing curse of slavery ; had he laid to rest in the Friends' burialdone so he might have saved his cause ground near Bunhill Fields. in America from the stain of an indel- The exact position of his grave has ible disgrace. As it was, he contented long since been forgotten, though a himself with pleading for a more hu- modern stone marks ils conjectured mane and generous regime, with the site. As a memorial that plain slab is. result that when King Cotton raised amply sufficient; anything more costly bis ugly head the Quakers marched one feels would be incongruous. His hand in hand with their neighbors into true monument is the labors, for two the abyss. In March, 1673, he sailed centuries, of Quaker men and women; from Pattuxen and landed after a rough in the figure of Penn carrying through but favorable voyage at Bristol.

the American continent the fiery cross

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