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dred's onslaught. At present, there is | are they without their use in keeping plenty of food for them in the fields, down the caterpillars. Still, on the and the ripening plums are succumbing whole, wasps, like mosquitoes and ratto their ravages ; but we are assured tlesnakes, are things we could very that later on they will certainly invade well dispense with. The least trucuthe towns,” though why, except to lent of zoophilists kills them without prey on the contents of grocers' and remorse, though, unless the nest is confectioners' shops, it is hard to say. taken, the annihilation of stray insects Meantime, prudent folk will be wise to does little to rid a district of a pest get a supply of carbolic acid laid in, which sends out thirty or forty thouand to keep a cut onion at hand, against sand from every hive. Though the the. stings which, unless a spell of seeking out and destruction of nests in cold weather settles the insects for summer are not without effect on the good and all, may at an early date be prevalence of the wasps, this form of their lot. In a warm season, when insecticide does not prove so effectual food is plentiful, a nest may contain as attacking them earlier in the season. many thousands of cells, full of insects For it may happen that the death of a in all stages of development. Each of few wasps in spring will prevent the these cells is occupied several times in formation of a nest later in the year, the course of a summer. Hence, a vast and the production of a family.whose swarm may proceed from a single hive, members

may before

October be to the “inconvenience” of an entire counted by tens of thousands. Cyaneighborhood and the loss of the mar- nide of potassium, we have said, is not ket gardener and fruit grower.

quite the best substance to employ for During summer, the wasps, of which disposing of wasps. A much safer, there are seven species in Great Brit- and quite as effectual, method of comain, live almost exclusively upon the passing their destruction is to blow up sweet juices of ripe fruit, occasionally the nest by a charge of mixed sulphur carrying off small particles of the flesh, and gunpowder, fired by a piece of the traces of one of these insect con- touch-paper, after a turf has been noisseurs having attacked a pear being dropped on the top of the nest. Or if an unfailing proof of its quality. Yet a bottle of spirits of turpentine, with even then the wasps are not without the cork out, is laid in the nest over carnivorous tastes, though the dam- night, the fumes will have suffocated age they do to the meat in butchers' the entire community before morning. shops - butchers' 6 inconvenience " At all events, some means ought at being left out of the reckoning - once to be taken to get rid of the presis amply compensated by the num- ent swarms. For, if

next summer ber of blow-flies which they kill and should be warm, the nuisance will be carry off to feed their grubs. Nor well-nigh unendurable.

FOSSIL FLOUR. A large deposit of fossil | to place the fingers upon its upper part flour of remarkable purity has been discov- without suffering inconvenience from the ered in the State of Maine. The properties heat. Fossil flour is almost as white as of this earth are its wonderful faculty for oxide of zinc. It is so light in weight that resisting the action of acids, alkalies, and a flour-barrel of it in its natural condition oils, and its remarkable quality as a non- does not weigh more than fifty pounds. It conductor of heat. As a test of the last- is absolutely unaffected by any kind of named quality an inch cube of the material mechanical manipulation. As mined, it is was placed on a bar of iron, which was then a pure white powder, so fine that it is input in a blacksmith's forge and heated until capable of further fining. A careful analyit melted away from the cube of earth. So sis of the substance shows about ninety-five slightly did the heat penetrate the cube per cent. of pure silica. that it is stated that it was found possible

Iron.

Fifth Series,

No. 2574. – November 4, 1893.

From Beginning
Vol. OXOIX

259

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CONTENTS.
I. GEORGE Fox,

Mucmillan's Magazine,
II. The Devil's Own. By Lillias Campbell
Davidson,

Temple Bar,
III. 1793-1893. By Albert D. Vandam,

Fortnightly Review, .
IV. BUSSACO IN 1810. Extracts from the

Diary of a Carmelite Friar. Translated
by W. Vivian,

Gentleman's Magazine,
V. A PALACE IN TUE STRAND. By Martin
A. S. Hume,

Fortnightly Review, .
VI. SUNSHINE AND RAIN. By Phil Robin-
son,

Contemporary Review, VII. IN THE AVENUE,

Spectator, .

292

.

300

311

319

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postuye.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, tbe money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & CO.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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AFTERGLOW.

The air is heavy and wet, THERE's a breath of western air

But the grey clouds give not a hint of Seems about your temples straying ;

sorrow. I can fancy such black hair

For a while it is good to forget ; With Atlantic breezes playing ;

And after the rest of a rainy day Freedom's self has pressed a kiss

The sun has a double debt to pay, On brows I must forever miss.

And shines the brighter — to-morrow. Eyes — their color who could name? This is the song of the rain I'ne'er asked, content discerning

That came to me once when the world Quenchless as the vestal's flame

was dryIn those depths unfathomed burning,

And I, and the trees, in our pain, Frankly, utterly sincere

Prayed to the heavy sky. The steadfast soul that knew no fear.

EDWARD F. STRANGE.

Longman's Magazine. And your speech we strive and toil,

We poor men, yet leave unuttered Half we'd say, and then recoil

With a wasted effort" muttered : Little wonder you spoke true,

The elms are clad in triumph-robes of gold, 'Twas Truth herself that spoke through And orchards glowing in autumnal blaze, you.

Lifted from earth to heaven througb

dark’ning days, But the sun has set, you know ;

Flushed with a flame which they alone All's dark now !” Nay, pause a minute; behold ; Mark you, friend, yon afterglow,

Gathered and stored, while seasons slowly How each tree, shrub, flower in it

rolled Stands clear-cut, distinct, defined !

Through that half-cycle, since the first Has noon aught fairer, to your mind ?

love lays

Of mating birds filled all the wooded My sun's set ! But yet there stays

ways Such a light! To me all's clearer ;

With promise, till the gorse lit up the wold. Courage nobler for her gaze,

Dear Earth ! when Spring's new garments Freedom for her brows the dearer,

greet the sky Truth, because she spoke, more bright

How fair is her awaking - green, beneatb Well, that will last me till the night.

The snow-fringed blue of April's canopy Temple Bar. H. C. MINCHIN.

Still lovely through all growth, till that

first wreath Is turned to gold by true life's alchemy ;

Most glorious in the vestments of her WEATHER-WISE.

death. Academy.

R. F. TowNDROW. This is a song of the rain, That cometh adown when the world is

dry, And the trees and flowers, in their pain, Pray to the heavy sky.

THE WIND'S GUEST. Then sparrows within their eaves

“O WHERE shall I find rest ?" Call to each other with endless chatter, Sighed the Wind from the West, As they hear upon the leaves,

“I've sought in vale, o'er dale and down, Beating a kind of marching tune,

Through tangled woodland, tarn and The rustle, and drip, and patter

town, Of the strong, warm rain of June; But found no rest." While, rugged and void of rhyme,

“Rest, thou ne'er shalt find," From his shelter under the holly

Answered Love to the Wind ; A blackbird sings, seven notes at a time,

“For thou and I, and the great grey sea, Hoarding his song as long as he may- May never rest till eternity As if in fear of the folly

Its end shall find." Of giving it all, too soon, away.

FENIL HAIG.

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From Macmillan's Magazine. their loins for the conversion of the GEORGE FOX.

world was provocative of nothing exENGLAND,” wrote Voltaire, in cept laughter; just as Pope Leo, sur

“ is properly the country of sec- rounded by all the art and culture of tarists. An Englishman, as to the Renascence, could dismiss the whom liberty is natural, may go to theses on the church door at Wittenbeaven his own way.” The epigram berg as the drunken frolic of a Germau is a curious commentary upon the friar, so no doubt to the sober Englislifutility of attempting to enforce uni- men of the Protectorate, the rant of formity in religion. Barely fifty years the Independent, the rhodomontade before the great Frenchman took up of the “prophet who damned,” and his residence at Wandsworth, Jeffreys rhapsodies of the “man in leather had sent Baxter to prison and set Mug- breeches," represented nothing but gleton in the pillory; and already if a folly varying in degree. Yet, after the man were willing to forego the material lapse of several centuries, while the advantages of State employment, he Ranters have vanished into space, was at liberty to riot in what the while Muggletonianism, after dragging Church termed schism. In no circum- out a sordid and obscure career, is stances is it likely that Nonconformity probably extinct, the Quakers, having could ever have been rendered nuga- enriched humanity by many capable tory ; but had the Church shown more and some eminent citizens, remain a wisdom it might have been reduced to respected if a diminishing body. a minimum. Men are so constructed The fact of Fox's success is: suffiintellectually that so long as they con- ciently plain ; the reason of it is by no tinue to think they will continue to means equally superficial. There was differ ; and the expression of their dif- nothing in his conception which seemed ferences will not assume its least color- to entail what the devout would have able aspect under the influence of a described as an especial blessing ; violent spiritual upheaval. It is then there was, on the contrary, a multitude that sincerity tends to bigotry and of tiresome and perplexing detail. Its formality stiffens itself by a nicer re- fundamental principles were as ancient gard for ceremony, that the sceptic as Christianity itself; its peculiar bulgrows bitterly contemptuous, while for warks an outrage on human intellithe hysterical nothing is too outrageous gence. If it contained nothing: so provided it is only sufficiently incom- comically extravagant as the Muggleprehensible. To separate at such a tonian revelation of a transparent deity, moment the permanent from the eva- it contained much that was sufficiently: nescent, in other words to be wise wild and incoherent to supply Macaulay before the event, is always a task of with an excuse for a famous and charsupreme difficulty ; and probably, in acteristic antithesis. England has now the whole range of religious contro- grown so familiar with the decorous versy in this country, there never was life and gentle courtesy of the modern a time when prescience was less easy member of the Society of Friends, as than during the period known as that to have forgotten that Quakerism in of the Puritan revival. Just as to the its militant epoch was by no means. satirist Lucian watching in pagan Rome always either gentle or decorous. The the growth of the manifold illusions fanaticism which sent George Fox fostered by Grecian scepticism and Ara- trudging over hill and moor in the be. bian philosophy, Christianity appeared lief that he was at once a prophet and remarkable merely on account of the a miracle-worker, which urged him 10 simplicity of its delusions ; just as to disturb public worship, and drove him the banqueters in Mahomet's house at barefooted through Lichfield crying Mecca the suggestion of an elderly mer- aloud, “Woe to this bloody city ! ” chant and a boy of sixteen girding up found its inevitable corollary in the

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madman who rode into Bristol sur-| expurgatorius, are but proof of how an rounded by disciples shouting, “Holy, overwrought brain may reduce even holy, holy, Lord God of Israel," and consistency to an absurdity. the still madder lady who thrust herself But the real work of Fox, the work stark naked into church before the Pro- for which numberless generations bave tector, being moved, she declared, to had reason to honor him, was his effort appear as a sign to the people. In all to remove the bonds which men, not this there was not much calculated to content with wrapping them about secure the support of any but the most their own souls, persisted in endeavorexcitable of religious buffoons. It is ing to twist about those of their neighpecessary to look for the secret of the bors. The sad-visaged men, with yokes man's influence, and it is to be discov- of names, who prowled from village to ered probably iu two simple causes : hamlet denouncing everything that the magnetism of his personality and tended to brighten the struggle for exhis almost superhuman truthfulness. istence, who loathed the ChristmasFox was undoubtedly one of those per- tree equally with the Maypole, and sons exercising a strange fascination raged against bear-baiting, not, in Maover all who come in contact with them. caulay's famous phrase, because it gave That, with his neck in the pillory, he pain to the bear, but because it gave should have succeeded in taming the pleasure to the spectators, were as viomobs which came to hurl brickbats at lent as Laud himself in subordinating bim, is not particularly surprising. the cause of truth to their own particuMobs are the most uncertain of all un- lar shibboleths. For the moment the known quantities, capable one moment Puritan had mastered the Episcopalian, of the most brutal ferocity, and the and was intent upon proving that it next of mere maudlin sentimentality. was possible to be as intolerant in a That he should have gained and held steeple hat as in a shovel one. Like the respect of such men as Penn and all religious fanatics Fox was imBarclay among his own following, and pressed with the fact that he had should have wrung an unwilling com- secured a monopoly of truth ; but he pliment from the great Protector him- held it no part of his revelation to inself, is sufficient proof, if any were dulge in the punishment of error. needed, that he was no mere mounte- was a proselytizer of course, but it was bank. His more questionable antics of the stamp of St. Paul rather than of were probably nothing but the valve Saul of Tarsus. No doubt in accordthrough which a strangely impression- ance with the theological bias of the able nature found relief in a highly age, he was convinced that those who charged atmosphere ; and were really rejected his gospel were imperilling insignificant in comparison with the their prospects of salvation; but he strenuous fight which, in the face of owned that truth could not be instilled ruffianism and bigotry, he made for into the weaker brethren either by the liberty of conscience. Out of the mul- physical torture of the boot or by the sotitude of preachers, some supremely cial coaxing of the Test Act. Whether, honest, some simply charlatans, whom if they had ever become the dominant the religious cyclone had cast up to the factor in the State, Fox's successors surface, he alone, despite all his vapor- would have lived up to his theories it ings and grimaces, seems to have fash- ( is impossible to say. Majorities have ioned his pulpit out of the adamantine an ugly habit of ignoring the profesrook of eternal truthfulness. The very sions of their minority. The whole extravagance of his attack upon the history of the world is one long panopleasant courtesies of life, and the rama of persecuted turned persecutors. pedantry of his objection to such every- In Rome the primitive Christians were day words and phrases as the shallow-thrown by the pagans to the lions

; ness of his learning enabled him to when the throne of the Cæsars gave select for incorporation in his index place to the chair of St. Peter, the

He

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