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country road. At the more old-fash- where the household méntigè loontinues ioned places the most desperate efforts as in town. : The occupations, as I are made to keep out the entrance of bave said before, are numerous, and the sa-called “smart set.” At a sea- the complete rest, so needed by most! side resort which I visited lately I was of the nervous, overwrought American implored not to wear a dress, suit in the housekeepers, counterbalances the moevening. "We want to keep out of notony and the publicity of the hotel: the fashion” was the cry of all those life. I do not know for what reason, who, iu their own native cities, were whether from this publicity of life, or the acknowledged leaders of the fash- whether from other causes, but Amerionable world. This taste for sim- ican daily life and intercourse is more plicity is growing, I hope and believe, formal than English. I know this throughout America. In every city statement will be fiercely contradicted the foes to display are gaining in num- by Americans, but I make it deliberbers, and the vulgar ostentation which ately. . I am aware that I shall have some years back so many foreign writ- the English laws of precedence and ers attributed to almost every American the existence of titles of nobility cast is fast dying away. In such of the up against me, but I still assert that, resorts as escape the fate of being while the letter of life in England is selected by the votaries of fashion for more formal, the spirit of it is less só the scene of their performances, there than in America. It is true that preceis a perfectly friendly kindly. spirit dence and titles of nobility are not which resists the temptation to assume kuown in the States, and that the the style of city life, and strives to American hostess has the blessed joy keep the resort what it was at first of knowing that she can send the two intended to be — a place of rest and most congenial people in to dinner relaxation. There is something very together without violating the laws of queer to the Englislı mind in a first etiquette, but it is also true that in the experience of one of these watering- daily life of the family more formality places. The centre or centres of the is observed than would be thought concommunity are the gigantic hotels, usu- sonant with family affection in Enally of wood, which rise at frequent gland. intervals. Grouped all around them, While saying that American interand often with little plank walks bind- family intercourse is more formal than ing them together, and to the common at home, I do not wish to say that the centre like, cords, stand rows of tiny same is true of society. On the conwooden cottages containing sleeping trary, an American dinner-party, for and dining accommodation for the fam- instance, is by far less formal than one ily, but minus kitchen or servants' in England. Usually these parties are room. Meals are brought to their resi- much smaller than at home, twelve or dents from the hotel, and from. that fourteen being considered a large party, centre are sent servants to attend to and the dinner itself is shorter and the wants of the cottagers. Thus the more, simple. Conversation; too, is American housewife escapes for a few more general, and of a less solemn. months from the tyranny of the ser- nature than is too often the case in vant-girl, and can idly spend her day England. A few years ago, in many of reclining in a rocking-chair on

a: rocking-chair on the the more old-fashioned houses, wine hotel piazza, and discussing with her was not served at table, and the only fellows the woe from which she has liquid refreshment was water, which escaped and the wrath to which she was served, as a friend of mine once must return. Besides these grand remarked, on returning from one of hotels and their cottage appendages, these. banquets, in four ways, " Hot, there are usually plenty of boarding- cold, iced, and Apollinaris, and never houses and private cottages, the latter a drop of hard stuff? to wash it inhabited by the more well-to-do, and down.”

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Fortunately, with the growth of the An early hurried breakfast over; he more liberal spirit, this . custom a starts down town to his office, where he relic, I suppose, of Puritan days — is remains, with a brief interval for lunch,. rapidly vanishing. Many men, bow- until five or six o'clock; at which time ever, abstain in the middle of the day, he returns home, and by 10.30 usually and it is the exception to see, at clubs has retired, thus spending more than or restaurants, any wine or beer on the two-thirds of his waking hours away table at the midday meal. As a com- from home. Many men visit their pensation, quite a number of men stop offices on Sunday also. This too close at the various clubs and first-class bars attention to business produces the on their way home for a 66 cocktail” almost inevitable result of man after. a pleasant and sociable custom, though man breaking down in the prime of one to be indulged in with moderation. life. It is a cheering omen for the

Another existing, though fast disap- future to see that a steady diminution pearing, American social custom is that of office hours is commencing, and that of paying visits in the evening. A few in many cities the Saturday half-holiday years ago, formal calls always were is beginuing to be regularly observed. paid at this time, the accepted hours This business life of American genbeing from 8 P.M. to about 9.45 P.m. tlemen is one of the hardest problems During these hours, the family, if de- for an Englishman to understand corsiring to receive, was always liable to rectly. Till comparatively lately in be dropped in upon by young men, England commercial business, except whose business engagements prevented banking, has not been thought highly their paying their devoirs at an earlier of for gentlemen. Politics, the Church, hour. I remember that one used to pay the army and navy, the bar, etc., have one's more formal calls in the earlier been the outlets for English younger part of the evening, and at about 9.30 sons. In America it is quite different. would seek the house of some intimate Among the nany reasons for this, I friend where one could prolong one's will mention but the one important visit beyond the usual hour. There one, that the pursuits above mentioned was a pleasant informality about these afford but few openings, comparatively late evening visits, which has been de- speaking. The Church is a poorly paid stroyed by the introduction of the after- profession for the sous of the wealthy noon' call. Every one was more or less merchants, the army and navy are so at ease and contented, with the toil of small in number that they do not afford the day behind them. Frequently a field for more than a few. The bar cigars were brought out — American is of course open, and is crowded in ladies regard smoking in the house America as in E ind. Politics, for with a far more lenient eye than their sone inscrutable reason, do not seem English cousins — and sometimes an to attract many of the higher grades of impromptu supper would wind up the youth. Consequently the young Amerevening. All this is passing away in ican seeks the commercial field, and in the large cities, although, in places of every American city, especially in the lesser magnitude, the custom is still West, one finds at the head of cultivakept up. Although the old system had tion and progress 'men whose rise has its pleasures, yet it is a sign of the ad- been due to successful commercial envance of America that it is being aban- terprise. It is well for the individual doned. It has existed till now only that success should be so rewarded, and because men are too busy to call earlier it is well for the community also that in the day, and it is this over-pressure the man of business, who has gained of business that is the greatest draw- bis success on legitimate lines, should back to life in the United States. In be its leader. In a new and partly unAmerica, even now, the average busi- settled country like America, so fortuness man sees more of his business col- nately situated as to need practically no leagues than of his wife and family. I foreign policy, and to fear no foreign

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enemies, the creator or the distributor go into the savinys bank, but into inof wealth is a far more valuable man creasing the comforts of his household than the politician or the soldier. life.

The sapguineness of the American iş One of the misfortunes arising from another feature especially striking to an the early and eager applicatiou to busioutsider. The whole temper of the ness by Americans is that among the people is one of hope. No young man young men education is too-frequently enter; life in any line without the full-deficient. At the age when English est belief that he is going to succeed, youths are entering college, the young and going to make a great deal of American is just beginning to study his money, and do it all very quickly. This father's business. In the mean time may be true of young men everywhere, his sisters are pursuing their studies at but it is especially so in the States. home and abroad, and unless the young And men are justified in their youthful man has the love of knowledge in him, hopes. Practically any young man of it usually happens that they surpass reasonable brains and industry is sure him in accomplishments. No women to succeed. Openings are numerous, in the world are more acconiplished or and the sharp-witted American is quick more charming than the American to take advantage of them. It is a women, or know better how to display curious fact, but one that I have often their charms. I have often heard forheard employers of unskilled labor eigners remark with surprise that at an comment on, that none of their work- American dinner the men sit silent, men were American born, unless pos- and are talked to and entertained by sibly some of the foremen. As an their fair neighbors. I have also been Englishman, I am glad to add that amused occasionally by American ladies rarely are Englishmen either found as telling me that they did like “ that unskilled laborers in American work- young Englishman, Mr. So-and-so," or shops.

your Scotch friend, Mr. —, because Among the results of this general they are so bright and agreeable to talk hopefulness, one may note the reckless to." They did not think for one mochances taken in the battle of life. ment that the real reason lay in that Young men will marry and older men the foreigner conceived it to be his will speculate with a cheerful confin social duty to bear at least half the condence that, even if the sky is darkened versational burden, whilst the Amerfor a time, all will come right in the ican deposited the whole on the ladies' end. Frequently, nay generally, they shoulders. I do not mean by what I may be right; but alas ! too often they have just said that the art of conversaare wrong, as one may see from the tiou does not exist among American human wrecks in every street of the men. Far from it, but I do say that great cities.

American men do not believe it incumOf one thing, however, tlie American bent upon them to amuse their dinner as a whole (I except the New En- companion, but on the contrary allow glander) is incapable. He cannot save. her to take the initiative and lead the The creed of thrift of the German conversation. farmer or the French peasant is with- There is one curious difference beout a follower among city-inhabiting tween Englishwomen and their AmerAmericans. “Light come, light go ; ican cousins, which is particularly one will never get rich by saving a dol- marked in the states south of the Ohio lar,” is his motto, and, though through- River. In England, marriage by no

. out New England thrift is general, and means cuts off the woman from her old though many commercial kings have friends' social enjoyments. In the gotten rich by wise investments of Southern States, however, once a girl their first savings, yet as a whole the is married, gay though she may have clerk's increased salary, or the small been, she at once lapses into social manufacturer's growing profits do not insignificance. I believe that, until

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recently, the thought of a young mar- this lack of chaperonage is the absence, ried woman's waltzing would have sent almost entirely, of older people from a thrill of horror through every South-social entertainments in the South; it ern heart. Marriage was to a lively tends to the dividing into two sets, the young girl almost like taking the veil ; older and the younger, of all members it separated her from her former com- of society. But this separation into panions by a great gulf. This idea, sets is not confined to the South. which I presume originated in the no- Throughout America, there is still a tion that a married woman should stay strong tendency towards this division at home and look after her house, is by ages, and parties for young people, now passing away, and the sooner its and for old separately are very comfinal death occurs the better for South- mon. So long as the separation is ern society.

confined to the larger entertainments, Another feature, peculiar not only to it may not be an unwise thing, but the the South, but also to the less impor- system of dinner-parties where none taut Northern cities, is the absence of save the host and hostess are married, that European · social necessity, the or if married are only just so, is to chaperon. In towns as large as Louis- many tedious in the extreme, and to ville, for instance, with a population of none usually more so than to the untwo hundred thousand, it is customary lucky entertainers. How often have I for a young man to invite any girl he seen the unhappy host yawning dismay like, to attend a ball, or a recep-mally, though privately, as he strives tion, or to accompany him to the the- to converse with the youthful daughter atre, absolutely unattended. It is his of his college friend, while his wife at duty to provide a carriage for his com- the other end of the table is 'racking pauion, and he is supposed to present her brains to find some subject of inher with flowers to wear during the terest to her young escort. evening. At the ball he is expected to One last point would I mention befind her partners, and occasionally, at fore I close this rambling dissertation any rate, to dance with her himself. on American ways. It is not so much I have heard ludicrous stories from a social custom as a national trait. I Southern women of the agony of their allude to the extreme courtesy and escort, who, himself engaged to dance kindliness of the American people as with some other girl, sees his own con- a whole. Nowhere is there a greater voy disengaged, and of the struggle desire to make the stranger at his ease between the necessity of providing for than in America, and no foreigner who her comfort before attending to his has made even the shortest sojourn in own pleasures. I believe it is a not un- this country but will' affirm what I say. common custom among young South- Instances of this courtesy are needless ; ern men to arrange beforehand among it is universal. The struggle between themselves so that the partners of any this natural courtesy and the fear of of them may not be neglected. One of being thought servile leads, among the the most objectionable features of this lower grades of Americans, to most whole system is the expense it entails amusing episodes. The tram-car conon the luckless young men, who often ductor, the cabman, the railway guard, have to spend from 21. to 31. an evening assert their American independence by apiece in complying with the dictates treating their male passengers with of this foolish custom. In time, doubt- perfect equality, amounting often to less, the chaperon will be universally rudeness; but place a lady, travelling introduced, but the fight against her, alone, under their charge, and politein the South especially, will be stub- ness is never lacking. In fact, I have bornly maintained, as neither the rest- heard ladies declare that, except for loving mothers nor the pleasure-seeking sociability, they would infinitely predaugliters are particularly eager for fer, for comfort's sake, to travel alone. her appearance.

One of the results of This general courtesy has one outcome,

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which it is well for Englishmen who bungalows, they talk of “tiffin,” and propose to present letters of introduc- cat curry at every meal. tion in the United States to understand. By just crossing a range of.. moun. An introductory letter in America tains in Persia you cross the metaphormeans nothing ; it is given by the most ical watershed between our Indian and casual' acquaintance to the most casual Foreign Offices. At Shiraz you hesiacquaintance, and is only intended to tate between India and England. You make the presenter and presentee ask the question, “ Shall I send my letknown to each other. It carries no ters viâ Bombay or via Russia ?” You claim to the hospitality or friendship hasten to get rid of your rupees, for of the person to whom it is presented, this is the last place where their merit uor does it vouch for the good qualities is recognized. North of Shiraz you are of him who presents it, unless in both in a distinctly foreign country. Our cases it. distinctly is so written. I re- officials hail from the Foreign Office, member how disappointed I was on my and belong to the legation at Teheran. first arrival in this country at the result You are no longer under British proof a letter left by me on a wealthy and tection ; you are in the dominions of influential man, to whom I had been the shah. highly recommended by my English From the purely Indian point of friend. An invitation to an evening view, I propose now to treat the Perreception, three weeks later, was the sian Gulf, describing our visits to its only notice ever taken of it.

shores, and what we saw of the populaAnd now I find that I am overstep- tions and petty sovereigns who are in ping the limit of my space, and must that vague limbo of uncertainty enbriefly conclude this hasty sketch of titled “Under British protection.” We American life. I have written it in the keep our ships of war in the Gulf ; we friendliest spirit to my adopted country. feel that it is a matter of the first imIf I have laughed, I have also loved ; portance that those countries under the United States is my abiding-place; our protection should remain so, and among my warmest friends are Amer- that the Turks should not build forts ican.

at Fao, and otherwise interfere with On one trait of American life I have our trade in the Karoun, and that no not dwelt at all ; nor is it, indeed, easy other power should bave a footbold for me to do so. No foreigner who has thereon. The last generation talked not himself experienced it can be made much about a Euphrates Valley railto understand the kindness and hos- way, with its terminus at Koweit. We pitality with which Americans of all now hear a great deal about the openclasses treat the stranger within their ing up of the Karoun, but it is the gates.

A. S. NORTHCOTE. lordship of the Gulf which is the chief CHICAGO, August, 1893.

matter of importance just at present both for India and for ourselves.

Our first visit was, to the imam of

Oman, in his capital at Muscat. His From The Fortnightly Review. nominal kingdom commands the southUNDER BRITISH PROTECTION.

ern entrance to the Persian Gulf, and It is a significant fact that our offi- hence is important to us. Unfortucials in the Persian Gulf are directly nately, there are sometimes revolutions under the Indian and not the Foreign in this State, which cause our officials a Office, for this sheet of water may now little anxiety, and not seldom the aube said to be under Indian, and there- thority of the present imam extends fore under British protection.' The no further than his capital and the English in the Gulf receive their pay neighboring town of El Muttra, indein degenerate rupees instead of pounds pendent Bedouin sheikhs, intent on sterling; an atmosphere of India reigns revolution, carrying their raids up to supreme amongst them; they live in 'the city walls.

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