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Gallery, Regent Street, one of the most Club) that he never missed attending interesting of the numerous relics of them from 1817 to 1831, when the fatal Mary Queen of Scots was a “gold or loss of healtli obliged him to seek for richly gilt key, with a gothic bow highly its restoration in foreign parts. Before decorated, damasked over with engraved he went abroad le presented me with flowers, having the date 1568 deeply cut a pledge of his regard, on which I set a along the edges of the wards, and the high value — a most curious and maginscription - Mary Reg.' round the rim nificent key of great size, which he of the bow."

said in the note accompanying it had This key, wbich was taken out of been given to him as the key of the Lochleven, was lent by Lady Elizabeth apartments in Lochleven Castle in Leslie-Melville Cartwright, and the fol- which Queen Mary was confined. He lowing history of its discovery was ap- added that it should be followed by a pended to this touching souvenir of the more particular account of how he Scottish queen :

came by it. In the mean time, he said, 66 This key was found by some fisher- the friend who had sent it to him was a men in their nets. Taken by them to sound antiquary, not likely to be imthe minister of Kinross, who gave it to posed on himself, and sure not wilfully Lord Leven. He seut it to Lady Har- to impose on others.

That that genriet St. Clair for the purpose of having tleman believed it to be the key. As it sketched. She had a sketch made to himself, Sir Walter added that he of it, which sketch is now at Dysart would only say that if it was not the House."

key, it deserved to be so from its A “curious and ancient iron key, elegauce, strength, and structure. I much corroded, measuring seven inches afterwards received the more detailed in length, and showing remains of in- and particular account.” laid brass and richly cut wards, with The hill, or height, where the queen rounded ornament on stem, and re- was believed to have landed on the mains of art-handle,” stated to have lake shore obtained, it is supposed, in been found at Lochleven, was pre- memory of that event, the name of the sented to the Museum of the Scottish “ Mary Knowe ;” but the place pointed Antiquaries by Professor Simpson in out by Honeyman when in his sixty1829.

eighth year to Robert Annan, Esq., Another antique key of elaborate surgeon, Kinross, and others, as being workmanship, having figures of angels that where he had found the keys and birds twisted into the scroll-work when a lad, is about three-quarters of a wbich forms the handle, was found by mile to the north of that hill — “from a young man while digging among the the eastern, or Fish Gate 1 of Kinross ruins of Lochleven Castle in the au- House, one hundred and seventy-two tumn of 1831.

yards, and from the eastern wall of the The large and very elegant key in old churchyard, eighty-four yards." the family of Adam, of Blair-Adam, An additional bunch of eight keys, 2 which was exhibited at Queen Mary's united by a brooch and flat hook — supTercentenary Exhibition at Peterbor-posed, from their "unique" form and ough, was given to the grandfather of fine workmanship, to have been those the late Sir John Adam by Sir Walter of Queen Mary's wardrobes Scott, who “ believed it to be the key also found in 1831, by a native of Kinof the apartments iu Lochleven Castle, ross, in a "little sandy bay” on the having received it from a most trust- north side of the islet known as the worthy source.”

“Paddock Bower,” less than three In the liber rarissimus of Blair-Adam hundred yards to the eastward of the the key is thus referred to by the

1 So called from the basket of fish sculptured on writer : "I must remark in passing

the top that Sir Walter Scott was so pleased

2 Now in the possession of the S. S. A., Edinwith our meetings (of the Blair-Adam I burgh.

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old churchyard of Kinross, nearly in a borhood of Sir William Kirkaldy, of line with the donjon of the castle, and Grange, unquestioned, and gained the with the spot one hundred yards dis- Fifeshire coast, when, speeding over tant - where the large keys now at the rough waters of the Firth, she and Dalmahoy were formerly picked up. her rapidly increasing company landed,

From the circumstance of the finding according to local tradition, at the anof the keys near to the north-west mar- cient wooden pier which formerly jutgin of the lake, and other corroborative ted into the sea just above the tower evidence, Mr. Anuan, from whose in- of South Queensferry, where she was teresting notes on the antiquities of met and welcomed by Lord Claud HamKinross-shire we have derived the ilton, son of the Duke of Châtelherault, greater part of our information, dis- at the head of fifty armed cavaliers of misses as improbable the Mary his name and lineage, and other loyalKnowe” tradition. He strengthens his ists of the neighborhood.” arguments by pointing out the fact that Afterwards she was conducted by the had Mary in the course of her adven- devoted Lord Seton to his castle of turous voyage made that her goal, she West Niddrie, in Linlithgowshire, must have passed a castellated edifice, where, alas ! amid joyful greetings and belonging to, and then occupied by, renewed homage, was enacted the the Douglases of Lochleven, which,“ last bright scene" of Mary Stuart's had the poor queen attempted to do sadly chequered existence. Here let with her slender retinue, consisting of us leave her, exulting in her newly three persons, namely, Jane Kennedy, found freedom, once more a queen, the youth Willie Douglas, and a little and surrounded by those of her nobles girl of ten years, and that in the twi- and gentlemen whom, as Miss' Agnes light of a May evening, she would have Strickland beautifully expresses it,

, exposed herself to almost certain re- “ English gold had not corrupted, nor capture.

successful treason daunted.” 2 Happily, however, all went well with

ELLEN E. GUTHRIE. the royal lady on this memorable occasion. She accomplished her landing

2 Mr. A nan, in his notes, says that if the south

eastern or Glassen Tower, also named Queen in safety, and her dreary imprisonment

Mary's Tower, from a vague tradition that the unof ten months and a half was now at fortunate queen was imprisoned in it, was really an end.

the scene of her confinement, the most insecure A little later on, and Mary, full of place in all the fortress had been chosen for her

prison house, its windows being only some nine hope and animation, escorted by the feet from the ground ; and that no part of Kinross horsemen headed by John Beton, is visible from it. Whereas, if Sir Walter Scott's brother to the Archbishop of Glasgow, accepted as the true one, where he makes it appear

account of Mary's escape in “The Abbot” be who had received her on the lake that a light shone nightly from the cottage of shore, "swept past the hostile neigh- Blinkhoolie as a signal to the royal captive and her

watchful attendants, and which also corresponds 1 Its ruined remains, covered with ivy and moss, with the supposed route as indicated by the finding are still to be seen close to the old margin of the of the various keys, then the queen's apartments

must have been in the west side of the donjon.

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ACTION OF QUININE. - An explanation reaction, is a strong poison for the proto of the therapeutic effect of quinine in ma- plasms of decomposing plants, and greatly laria has been found. So long ago as 1867 hinders many fermenting and putrescent Dr. Karl Binz, professor of pharmacology processes. A. Laveran, the discoverer of at Bonn, gave an explanation which was the Plasmodium malarice, has demonstrated little noticed at the time, but has now been that this organism disappears from the signally confirmed by the discovery of the blood of malaria patients after the adminisgerm of malaria. He showed that quinine tering of quinine, and that quinine, if perhydrochlorate, with neutral or slightly basic mitted to act upon it directly, kills it.

English Mechanic:

Fifth Series,

No. 2573. – October 28, 1893.

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From Beginning

Vol. OXOLX.

195

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218

CONTENTS.
1. THE TUSCAN NATIONALITY. By Grant
Allen,

National Review,
II. A HARD LITTLE Cuss. By Mrs. H. H.
Penrose,

Temple Bar,
III. THE LETTERS OF HENRY THE FOURTH.
By Arthur Tilley,

Macmillan's Magazine,
IV. AMERICAN LIFE THROUGH ENGLISH

SPECTACLES. By A. S. Northcote, Nineteenth Century, .
V. UNDER BRITISH PROTECTION.

By J.
Theodore Bent,

Fortnightly Review, .
VI. Å VISIT TO THE MONASTERIES OF
CRETE. By Rennell Rodd,

New Review,
VII. HOPS AND Hop-PICKERS. By Charles
Edwardes,

National Review,
VIII. A. PLAGUE OF WASPS,

Standard, .

226

235

213

249 255

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For EIGHT DOLLARS remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittancos should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single copies of the LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

THE BRIDAL OF THE DAY.

A HYMN FOR HARVEST. THE sunbeams, the long beams of gold, Now to thee, gracious Lord of the Seasons, Come from the clear gold east ;

be honor and glory and praise, To meet the blushing day they run, That again in the joy of the harvest our The loitering bride that may not shun

jubilant anthem we raise. The bridal feast.

Though many the fears that beset us, They run, and from her chamber sweet

though faith waxes feeble and cold, They lead her, tearful-eyed ;

Thy bow, with its promise unbroken, glitThe daisies kiss her lily feet,

ters still as it glittered of old. The starry sunflowers bow to greet

Though weary we grow in our watching the Their lord's fair bride.

weeks of the drought as they pass,

When the earth is as iron beneath us, and Behold the jubilant glad Sun

the heaven above us as brass, As he quaffs the bridal wine! His laugh and song are benison,

Yet the showers come back in their season ; And light and life to the bride he has won

once more in the land there is seen His. kiss divine !

The brook brimming over with crystal, the

grass as the emerald green. Oh, glad and gay is the sad pale day, And her raining tears are dried ;

Though troubled the spirit within us, when And she walks with the golden Sun alway,

the mist upon valley and plain Till together they stray down the steep west Lies thick, and the clouds in their armies

return again after the rain ; way At eventide.

Yet the sun cometh forth as a giant, and And the evening beams in close array,

after the tempest the morn Purple and amethyst,

Is cloudless and fair, and the color grows Follow the Sun on his lustrous way

golden and rich on the corn. To his cloudy bed with the blushing day

For seed-time and harvest we thank thee ; In the red, gold west.

our fears as the shadows have fled; Speaker. R. K. LEATHER.

Thou hast given his seed to the sower, thou hast given the eater his bread.

ALFRED CHURCH. Ashley Rectory, Tetbury,

Spectator.

ܪ

DAWN.
At every tick of time — when eve is grey,
When skies are scorched with noon or

SCATTERED. blurred with night, Somewhere, on opening wings of early SCATTERED to east and west and north,

Some with the faint heart, some the light,

stout, The young dawn breaketh ; without haste

Each to the battle of life went forth, or stay

And all alone we must fight it out. Moves the bright wizard on his lustral way To wind-blown seas, or cities glimmering We had been gathered from cot and grange, white.

From the moorland farm and the terraced Hamlet and homestead, or bleak mountain

street, height,

Brought together by chances strange, Or misty vale, each moment bringing day.

And knit together by friendship sweet. O midnight watcher, woe-distraught and sick

Not in the sunshine, not in the rain, Of the blind heaven, whose very hopes do Not in the night of the stars untold, lour

Shall we ever. all meet again, Like clouds upon thee palpable and thick, Or be as we were in the days of old. Thyself thy sole horizon !- in that hour Be such sweet thought thy pillow ; 'twill But as ships cross, and more cheerily go, have power

Having changed tidings upon the sea, To cleanse and calm and make thee cath- So I am richer by them, I know, olic.

And they are not poorer, I trust, by me.

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From The National Review.

etry ; when we talk of Italian literaTHE TUSCAN NATIONALITY.

ture, we

Tuscan literature ; By the tombs of the Volumuii here, when we talk of Italian art, we niean half-way along the white and dusty Tuscan art; when we talk of Italiani road from Perugia to Assisi, one truth, greatness in any way (save only politlong balf-perceived, is borne in upou ically), we mean Tuscat greatness. me even more fully than ever, — how Of course, in 'a néral way, people much and in how many connections have long since grasped this truthi, in when we speak of Italy we really mean part at least ; that is to say, they have Etruria; how completely all good recognized that in our modern world, things that have come out of the Ital- from the tenth century onward, Tusian soil or character are at bottom cany has always taken the lead in Etruscan.

Italy, intellectually and asthetically. I write, of course, with the damning But that is not enough. I desire here shadow of that famous chapter of to prove (or at least to suggest) a great Mommsen's hanging ominously over deal !nore than that - namely, that the

I know my peril. I am aware entire position of the Italian people as that the greatest of Romau historians to art and literature, in times anctent bas demolished the Etruscan. So con- or modern, is due to the Tuscad' élescious am I of that fact, indeed, that I ment only ; and that from beginning hardly even dare to have an opinion of to end the Tuscan people have been my own against the ipse dixit of so one and the same, the sole race in the mighty an authority. Respect for au- peninsula capable of adopting and stin thority (in moderation) is so ingrained further developing the gifts of Hellenic in my nature that only the mute appeal and Eastern culture. of those great dead Volumnii gazing The best way to look at a big subject: up at me with dumb lips from their like this is perhaps to begin with tlie' travertine urn-lids could induce me to known and work back to the unknown. vindicate the honor of their descend-And since modern Tuscany is better ants against the cutting aspersions of known to us than ancient, and Tuscan the great living Teuton.

art is better known to us, for the most For when I say Etruscans, I mean part, than Tuscan literature (for all can of course to include the entire Tus- read the language of Fra Angelico, can nationality in every stage of its though not all can read the language chequered history. You have only to Dante), I shall set out by examining live a little time in Tuscany (by choice the influence of the Tuscan in modern aniong the hills) in order to feel that art, and shall then work back to his inthe Etruscan is not somebody who fluence in literature and science, as' once existed ; he is the Florentine or well as to the considerable' part be Perugian or Sienese or Orvietan whom played in the earlier development of you ineet every day in the square of antique Italy. the Signoria or on the Corso Vanucci. In modern times at least there can From beginning to end, whatever has be no doubt at all as to the artistic subeen most vital and most admirable in premacy of the Tuscan in the peninsula. Italy has proceeded, I believe, from And since this is a question of race and this ancient people whom Mommsen natural endowments, not a question of maligns, but who have nevertheless geography and political divisions of given us (amongst a noble army of country, I shall count here as Tuscans' others) Dante, Petrarch, Macchiavelli, all persons belonging by birth 'or deBoccaccio ; Fra Angelico, Botticelli, scent to the ancient Etruria, even Lionardo, Raphael ; Donatello, Della though they may have happened to be Robbia, Verrochio, Michael Angelo. accidentally included by later distinca: In one word, I maintain that for all tions of place or rule in Unibria,'the practical purposes, when we talk of Romagna, or any later administrativo Italian poetry, we mean Tuscan po-unity. Now, it is only necessary to

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