the head and neck, are small. It about a mile off. There was no cover bounds along very fast, and the pace is for a tiger anywhere in the immediate always deceptive. I have made some neighborhood, and no tiger had been lucky shots and rolled over several seen there for years. I thought that it leopards by a bullet just behind the might be a roving leopard. At all shoulder. I have missed, or merely events we had the elephants out, and slightly wounded, others. Still it is went to see. We found a large and better to be on foot than on an ele- thriving native village, but there was phant. I have shot leopards from an no sign of any wild animal. There elephant, but my recollections of leop- was just one strip of rushes along the ards in connection with the howdah are edge of some water, and we took the not altogether pleasant. One day, after elephants into it. We put up some a long and weary beat for tigers for black partridges, and I had merely a several hours with old Pundit Grant in charge of shot in my gun.

When we Dinagepore, we at last disturbed a leop- had gone about one hundred yards after ard. It quickly bid itself, and with our the partridges I saw the head of a large twelve elephants we searched for it for animal looking at me just over the nearly an hour amongst bushes that rushes. I fired a charge of shot into would hardly have hidden a hare. In the beast's face and blinded it in either front of us was a large tank full of one or both eyes. It turned out to be water, which the leopard could not a young tiger. Then there was great have swum across without being seen. excitement. The tiger could not see My elephant was rather in front, and where to go, and was probably in a had reached the top of the bank of the country quite strange to it, so that we tank. The mahout, disgusted and had little difficulty in killing it. If its tired, was sitting loosely with his feet sight had not been destroyed, I fear out of the stirrups ; and I was standing that it would have escaped from us, as carelessly leaning forward in the how some of our party had never seen a dah, with my gun in my hand. Sud- wild tiger, and men become ludicrously denly, the leopard jumped up right nervous at the mere sight of their first under the elephant's trunk, and the tiger. elephant started back, nearly throwing There is another way of hunting the mahout off, whilst I was pitched leopards, which is not often practised, against the front panel of the howdah as the leopard does not take to it very with a blow that knocked the wind out kindly. When men are fond of hogof me, and hit me so hard on the chest hunting, and hogs are not always forththat I was black and blue for several coming, they sometimes try to beat days. Of course the leopard escaped. out a leopard and spear it as they would Another day, when out with the lieu- spear a wild boar. The leopard does. tenant-governor of Bengal, we found a not readily quit the jungle. It is not leopard, which ran and hid itself in a accustomed to take long and rapid galsmall patch of thatching grass not two lops across open fields. If it does feet high. More than a dozen ele- break cover it is easy to overtake it phants were brought up to trample on horseback ; but when overtaken it down the grass and turn out the leop- jinks, and turns so rapidly that it is ard, and for more than an hour we not very easy to spear it. Its body is pounded away, but never saw the leop- so small that it is difficult to spear it in ard. At last, when we all had our the right place. A Danish gentleman backs turned to it, the leopard crept named Holm, a very good and fearless out and got amongst the huts and rider, one day speared a leopard, but houses of the village, and we saw it the spear only passed along underneath

On another occasion I mis- the skin, so that he had, as it were, took a tiger for a leopard. News was skewered the animal on to himself. brought in to the lieutenant-governor's Holm always rode in his old top-boots. camp that there was a tiger in a village in fact he almost lived in his top


no more.

I re

boots - and it was his custom to stuff | came the hunted. The other sportsmen a newspaper or two inside the tops, so closed in and soon shot the leopard, as to enable him to read the news when but any man less active than Levien there was no game near at hand. This might have been caught and mauled. newspaper arrangement was lucky for I might perhaps add much about him, for the wounded leopard seized tame leopards, or leopards in captivity. the top of the boot and found its teeth But I never liked pet tame leopards, embedded in a newspaper instead of in and I will only warn young officers in my friend's leg. At last Holm let go India against keeping them as pets. his spear, as he could not otherwise They may be very well behaved to get rid of the leopard, which was soon their own master, but when a visitor despatched by some other members of comes to call, not knowing anything the party. There is a good picture of about the existence of a leopard in the leopard-spearing in the frontispiece to house, it is very unpleasant to him to Mr. Simson's book on sport in Bengal. find a huge beast coming sniffing up The spear of the successful rider is to him, and raising its head as if to being thrust down the leopard's mouth, lick his face. The visitor is probably which is almost sure to inflict a fatal seated in the darkened drawing-room, wound. In the background there is a and the servant who introduced him sketch of a gentleman pursuing his has gone off to call his master, who is runaway horse. That is the portrait said to be dressing or bathing. of the writer of this paper, who had member an exceedingly bad quarter of parted company with his steed, from an hour that I spent in a certain subwant of sufficient adhesive power in altern’s bungalow with a strange leopbattling with the thorny bushes of the ard as my only companion, for the jungle.

native servant did not come back to I must tell one other tale of leopard- the drawing-room, as he had a holy shooting. Not far from the station horror of the leopard on his own accalled Sylhet, the little hills covered count. When at last my young friend with trees and shrubs afforded shelter appeared he could hardly believe that to many leopards. We used to set live- any one could be afraid of such a traps to catch the leopards. Towards harnıless, playful animal as his leopard. nightfall a live goat was put into the I thought otherwise, and did not repeat trap, and when a leopard crept into my call. Before the end of a inonth the trap to seize the goat, the doors at this leopard bit his own master each end of the trap dropped, so that, course in play ; but the warning was when the leopard had done his crueltaker, and the master had the skull business with the goat, he found that and skin very handsomely set up as a he could not get out. In the morning souvenir of his old pet. the sportsmen of the station used to

C. T. BUCKLAND. go out to the trap with their guns, and when the leopard was let out they shot it as it tried to escape to the hills. One day a leopard thus imprisoned in

From The National Review. the trap declined to come out. My

FIN DE SIÈCLE MEDICINE. friend Mr. Levien, an exceedingly ac

IF there is one feature more than tive and nimble little man, went to the another which may be fairly regarded trap and got on the top of it, and tried as characteristic of the world we live in to drive the leopard out. The leopard to-day, it is the development of combi«lid at last come out, but it quickly nations among individuals interested in turned round and tried to jump on to the same objects, engaged in like purthe top of the trap to catch Levien. suits, or eager for the attainment of a With marvellous quickness Levien common desire. This tendency to popped off the trap and got inside and unite their forces on the part of those shut the door, so that the hunter be-' who already possess community of

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thought or action has very naturally, leagues a remedy which should prove begotten the desire to endow the bodies potent against one of the most terrible so formed with functions which shall and widespread diseases afflicting the demonstrate their vitality; and one of human race. Hopes were raised in the the most remarkable evidences of the breasts of those who hitherto had been birth, growth, and developinent of great condemned to death. Berlin was beassociations, is afforded by the multi- sieged by sufferers from consumption, plication of congresses engaged in the and the reservations of the scientist, discussion of subjects as varied as the who claimed neither omnipotence nor hues of the rainbow, ranging from biol- infallibility, were rendered null and ogy to bi-metallism, and fraught with void by the almost hysterical advermore or less interest to the community tisement of the lay press. Doctors and in general, as well as to the particular patients alike strove to be possessed of society which meets to promulgate the the miraculous liquid which, when inviews entertained by its members. jected in doses of a few milligrammes,

Of the meeting of congresses there was to drive out the demon bacillus of is no end, and perhaps there are some phthisis. persons

who are beginning to doubt I will cleanse the foul body of th' infected the utility of such meetings, and world to regard their increased frequency If they will patiently receive my medicine 1 merely as a means to the somewhat was the fiat which had gone forth from dubious end of affording a pious excuse the savant of imperial Germany accordfor indulging in a holiday under the ing to the exaggerated telegrams encloak of pseudo-laborious discussions cumbering the wires of the whole which gather an assumption of gravity world for a short space. In vain the from the portentous titles affixed to the modest investigator, who was hailed as contributions offered by those who take the saviour of consumptives, sought to part in the proceedings. But, in spite stem the tide of turbulent credulity of the fair criticism to which somə which overwhelmed him and his discicongresses have been exposed, there ples; and it was not until practice and are certain meetings whose utility can experience had tried and found wantnot be gainsaid, and whose influence ing the promised prophylactic that the on the welfare of mankind is not alto- injection of tuberculin was undeservgether unfelt.

edly relegated to the realms of failure, Among these may be included two when the few who had carefully noted which will shortly take place in the its effects and gauged its limitations, field of medicine. The British Medical following the indications of the inAssociation meets in Newcastle on Au- ventor, employed it with success,

and gust 1, and at the end of September the continue to do so, for the arrest of International Medical Congress will be superficial manifestations of tubercusitting in Rome. A glance at the pro- losis. gramme of the former suffices to indi

The alleged mode of action of the cate the direction in which medical much-vaunted remedy for consumption practice is running ; and it may not was exceedingly fascinating to those be altogether uninteresting to the non- who looked for the brilliant results professional reader if the progress of prophesied. The organism recognized medical thought and action since the as the cause of consumption (and of meeting of the Interuational Congress other forms of tuberculosis affecting of Medicine three years ago in Berlin is tissues apart from the lungs, which briefly cousidered. It will be remem- from the prevalence of phthisis are bered that the curiosity of the medical commonly associated with the popular world was stimulated on that occasion term consumption), having invaded the by the announcement of a great Ger- organ affording a congenial resting

bacteriologist that he would shortly place at the disposal of his col


1 As You Like It. Act ii., sc. 1.



place, colonizes the affected tissue, and tain affectious of the skin has been multiplies, rapidly surrounding itself proved and recorded. the while with its own off-scourings. Meanwhile the researches of an emiThe active ingredient of tuberculin is nent French physiologist, undertaken the waste product or off-scouring of the some years ago, proved that the dictubercle bacillus, and the ingenious tum of St. Paul in his exhortations to idea of its adaption to the cure of con- the Corinthians was very remarkably sumption resembled very closely the fraught with truth in regard to certain historical episode of the horrible Black glands whose function even now is not Hole of Calcutta. The wretched pris- fully understood : “ Nay, much more oners were destroyed by the accumula- those members of the body, which tion of their own exhalations in the seem to be more feeble, are confined space into which they were sary.”. And in pursuing his investihuddled by the vindicative ferocity of gations he was able to show that the Surajah Dowlah ; but the German pro- healthy condition of organs whose prefessor was more merciless to the bacil-cise use may not be demonstrable was lary invaders of human lungs than the necessary to the well-being of the indiEastern miscreant proved to be to the vidual and the proper elaboration of victims of the Black Hole, though the the blood circulating through the body results of his behavior to human pris- for the nutrition of the tissues. The oners were more effectively fatal than fact that all the various organs which the treatment meted out to intrusive together make up the whole body are microbes in the cases of pulmonary necessary to each other has long been tuberculosis injected by the Koch recognized ; but the due exercise of all method.

the various functions of the different The prisoners of Calcutta were left tissues has not been sufficiently into die by the poisons generated by their sisted on, with the result that many own respirations; the organisms in- maladies of the present day are probfesting consumptive lungs were poi-ably attributable, not so much in the soned by the deliberate addition made first instance to disease in the sense of to their own off-scourings of the waste an alteration in structure, as to disuse products from the cultivated members of certain organs which have been sufof their own race, bred in captivity on fered to remain idle, or whose easily purpose to supply sufficient material to recognizable use has been minimized render the situation of any vigorous because the conditions of civilization bacillus untenable within the precincts tend to foster disuse rather than activof the home made in the organs of the ity. Probably the most potent factor host so invaded. But here the compar- of present-day ailments is the abeyance ison ceases to be parallel ; for whereas into which the muscular system is perthe Indian provided against the escape mitted to fall by dwellers in cities, who of his prisoners, the German could not are daily becoming more and more detake similar precautions, so that the pendent on artificial means of locomotubercle bacillus, being compelled to tion and on labor-saving apparatus, quit its nest by the obnoxious addition until disorders of digestion and nervous to its midden-heap, sought for more maladies are now as common among pleasant surroundings, and, frustrating the comparatively poor members of the the hopes of the bacteriologist that it community as they are among those would be expectorated, roamed to other who are wealthy ; indeed, while the parts of the lung previously uninvaded. rich man endeavors to overcome the Thus the effect of the hoped-for cure mischief wrought by his sedentary life in some cases resulted in an extension by riding in the Park or playing golf, of the disease, and the injection of the poorer man, who is unable to afford tuberculin as a remedy for consumption these pleasurable exercises, neglects has been abandoned, though its value and unquestionable usefulness in cer

1 1. Corinthians, xii., 22.

his muscular development, and invari- The interchange between the blood ably mounts his omnibus or tumbles and the various tissues of the body is into his train rather than waste the necessary to the healthy vitality of the time necessary for a brisk walk or a human being ; but, in order to facilitate half-hour in the gymnasium. The Vol- such mutual exchange, there must be unteer movement and the popularity activity on the part of every organ, and of the bicycle have tended to counter- in view of the fact that the muscles act the disuse of muscles engendered are greatly in excess in bulk and weight in a large proportion of town residents


of any other organs, it follows that but there are still numbers of persons their activity is essential to the wellof both sexes who require vigorous being of the whole body. Muscular muscular exercise in order to maintain exercises induce acceleration of the health. The centralization of many blood stream and serve to pump effete domestic industries may have improved material out of their interstices so as to the character of the products thus man- make room for fresh supplies brought ufactured or of the work performed ; by the blood-vessels ramifying through but when bread was made, and wash- and around them. Fin de siècle mediing was done, at home, the female cine, recognizing the deficiency of musmembers of many families fairly well cular activity as a fruitful source of off, but not too richly endowed with maladies resulting from the want of this world's goods, were profitably em- combustion and elimination of mateployed in kneading the dough and iron- rial used up or vitiated by the disproing the linen. Healthy exercise of the portionate action of other organs and muscles being in many cases no longer tissues, has been compelled to revive regarded as a necessity for the mainte- the ancient practices pursued by the nance of well-being, the latter end of Egyptians, and later by Hippocrates this century has produced the revival and his successors in the earlier ages of a practice which is recorded in the of the world's history, which thus reearliest medical papyrus iv the British peats itself in these latter days. Museum, verifying the old adage that Reverting to the imitation of methods there is nothing new under the sun. which are gravely proposed by the pioBut just as the multiplication of cou- neers of these therapeutic means, even gresses may be in a measure due to the to the extent of supplying defective increased facilities now afforded by organs by the injection of materials rapid means of locomotion, so the in- derived from the same sources in anitroduction of massage may be regarded mals, - e.g., extracts of bone marrow, as evidence of the tendency in these spinal marrow, sweetbread, etc., -it latter days to the neglect of muscular is interesting to note that, according exercise ; and if it be true that the to French authorities, and in some inabeyance of function in certain glands stances with the verification of obis productive of diseases which can servers in this country also, distinct be cured by the injection of organic benefit has been derived from these liquids derived from a similar source, new methods of treating disease : notamuch more is it evidently true that the bly in the employment of the juice of failure to employ the great bulk of mus- the thyroid gland in cases of a disease cular tissue, which is so large a portion in which this organ is found to be of the human frame, will and invari- atrophied, and again in the employably does give rise to disordered func- ment of other organic liquids for the tion and altered structure in the other cure of neurasthenia, a term, which organs and tissues of the body which being translated into the vulgar tongue are interdependent on the activity of simply means nervous weakness or the muscles and each other. Mental exhaustion. Sleeplessness is a very and nervous overstrain are rarely dis- common and distressing symptom of sociated from muscular disuse and flac- neurasthenia. But here again we are cidity.

confronted by what appears to be the

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