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disagree from idolaters not in life and manners, but in words and profession (only). And, because they had departed from the most ancient ordinances and laws of their forefathers, and that they, being but a few, had stirred all kind of men against them, he warneth them that they yet would in all kind of duties practise charity among themselves, one toward another, lest they should be divided at any time by any dissension of minds or studies : that this is only the token of Jesus Christ, whereby the bond-slaves of the devil may be known from the children of God: that so it shall come to pass shortly, that all the whole world shall embrace the gospel and the heavenly doctrine, and that the enemies and the haters of the cross of Christ, whom godliness could not move, may through shame be overcome, and return to themselves. And the bishops he warneth that, in those most hard times, they see to their office with all diligence and care, and that they look about them diligently that the congregation take no harm: and that it is not a sporting matter, but a very great burden, that they have taken upon them: and therefore, if they preach at any time to the people, that they speak as the words of God, and that they so behave themselves, that others which hear them may think that they hear not men, but the messengers and interpreters of the word of God.
This is the portion of scripture that I judged most fit for this time and place. For, because therefore that partly we are entered into the holy ministry, and partly, as I hope, we have already directed the course of our studies to that point, we shall be taught in this place, how this heavenly office is to be garnished, that our labour may in time to come be very profitable to the church of God, and the holy gospel be most largely spread abroad.
But that this may be done the more orderly, and lest I should wander or go out of course in my speaking, I think it good to touch these three points in few words: first, that a preacher should speak; secondly, what he should speak; thirdly, how he should speak, that it may be understanded. First, that he is
, scantly a good preacher which never speaketh any thing to the congregation; secondly, that a preacher must set forth unto the people not old wives' fables, but the word of God; and, last of all, that that same word of God must be handled reverently, and worthily, according to the dignity of the matter. But that God almighty would lighten all your hearts and my voice with his Holy Spirit, and that some fruit may come hereof unto us all, I desire of you that you will help my weakness with your devout prayers.
First of all, I commend unto your devotion the universal church of Christ
mentem autem atque animum diabolo addicere, et ab idololatris non vita et moribus, sed verbis et professione discrepare. Quoniam autem à majorum suorum antiquissimis institutis et legibus decesserant, et pauci hominum omne genus in se commoverant, monet ut ipsi saltem omnibus officiis mutuam inter se caritatem colant, ne ulla unquam animorum aut studiorum dissensione distrahantur: hanc enim solam tesseram esse Jesu Christi, qua diaboli mancipia internosci possint a filiis Dei. Ita futurum brevi ut orbis universus evangelium et cælestem doctrinam amplectatur, et hostes atque inimici crucis Christi, quos movere pietas non potuit, pudore ac verecundia vincantur et resipiscant. Episcopos autem monet, ut difficillimis temporibus munus suum omni industria studioque tueantur, et diligenter prospiciant ne quid ecclesia detrimenti capiat : non enim ludicram esse rem, sed onus gravissimum, quod susceperint. Proinde si quando ad populum verba faciant, loquantur ut sermones Dei, itaque se gerant, ut alii non homines sibi audire videantur, sed nuncios et interpretes divinæ vocis. Hanc ego sententiam huic tempori locoque accommodatissimam esse judicavi. Quoniam enim partim in sacrum ministerium ingressi jam sumus, partim, uti spero, studiorum nostrorum cursum jampridem eo direximus, docebimur hoc loco, quemadmodum cæleste munus ornandum sit, ut opera nostra ecclesiæ Dei aliquando utilissima esse possit, et sacrosanctum evangelium quam longissime promovere.
Verum ut agatur distributius, nec vagetur aut erret oratio, hæc mihi tria visum est paucis Partes conattingere: primum, concionatori dicendum esse : dein quid: tum quo pacto dicendum sit: ut intelligi possit primum, vix satis probum concionatorem esse, qui pro concione nihil unquam dicat ; dein non fabulas aniles, sed verbum Domini populo esse proponendum ; postremoque illud ipsum verbum reverenter et magnifice pro rei dignitate tractandum. Verum ut Deus opt. max. et vobis omnibus animos sacro afflatu, et mihi vocem accendat, fructusque aliquis ex hac re ad omnes redeat, peto a vobis ut imbecillitati meæ vestra pietate suffragemini.
In primis autem commendo pietati vestræ universam Christi ecclesiam per omnem terra
dispersed throughout the whole world, and, as now it falleth out, in many places
pray that it would please him to raise up others hereafter like unto these, and to gather us all to their society into the bosom of Abraham.
“Let him that speaketh speak as the words of God.” To the end that the pith of these words may be the better understanded, because I must entreat both of pastors, and before pastors, I have used this division, to shew first that a pastor should speak often; next of all, that he should speak out of the holy scriptures; last of all, that he should speak gravely and modestly according to the worthiness of the matter. And surely concerning the office of pastors, as yet I see not sufficiently what I should speak, or not speak. For to speak that which hath been before so often spoken, were not only hateful, but out of season; and to speak nothing of so great sloth and dastardy of our times, I am much afraid might seem to shew a sluggard and a dastard. Truly, in this case if the voice of the immortal God might be heard, there were no need at this time of my voice. For, that I may say nothing beside, all the scriptures do sufficiently warn us of our duty, God himself hath commanded nothing at any time, either more often, or else with more weighty words, than that his people should be instructed to know him, themselves, and godliness. “Thou son of man," saith God, in Esay,
cry and cease not, cry out aloud, lift up thy voice as a trumpet, and shew unto my people their wickedness.” How oft doth Christ cry, Go ye, teach ye, “preach
Preces usitatæ et solennes.
rum orbem dissipatam, et ut nunc quidem est, multis in locis misere habitam. Seorsim vero hanc nostram Anglicam et Hibernicam, in eaque clariss. Regis nostri Edouardi majestatem, Regis illustriss. sorores Mariam et Elizabetham, sacrosanctum senatum, magistratus ecclesiasticos et politicos, omnemque populum Britannicum, utramque Academiam, et hanc in primis Oxoniens., Cancellarium, Vice-cancellarium, Procuratores, Robertum Morventum, præsidem collegii Corporis Christi, Doct. Rainaldum, præfectum collegii Mertonensis, et omnem in utroque collegio studiosam juventutem. Agetis Deo opt. max. gratias de Henrico septimo octavoque, Regibus clariss. memoriæ, Humfredo duce Gloucestrensi, &c., quod ad alendas bonas literas et propagandam religionem, ea lumina pro sua infinita bonitate voluerit accendere : orabitisque ut et alios deinceps horum similes velit excitare, et nos omnes ad illorum societatem in Abrahami sinum aggregare.
Qui loquitur, loquatur ut sermones Dei. Ut horum verborum sententia melius intelligeretur, quoniam et de pastoribus et apud pastores agendum erat, hac usus sum distributione, ut dicerem, pastori primum sæpe, dein e sacris literis, postremo graviter et modeste pro
rei dignitate dicendum esse. Et de officio quidem pastorum, equidem adhuc nec quid dicam toris docere. satis video, nec quid taceam. Nam dicere quod jam ante toties dictum sit, et odiosum et
importunum est: tacere autem tantam socordiam et ignaviam nostrorum temporum, non nihil vereor ne hominis et socordis videri possit et ignavi. Certe si in hac causa Dei vox immortalis audiri posset, hoc tempore voce opus non esset mea. Nam, ne quid dicam præterea, omnes nos scripturæ satis officii nostri commonent, Deus ipse nihil unquam vel sæpius vel gravioribus verbis imperavit, quam ut populus ad sui cognitionem et pietatem institueretur. “ Fili hominis," inquit Dominus apud Esaiam, “clama, ne cesses, vociferare, excita tanquam tubam vocem tuam, et denuntia populo meo scelera sua.” Quoties clamat Christus, Ite, docete, “prædicate evangelium omni creaturæ !” Væ mihi, ait Propheta, quia tacui! Væ
["The chancellor of Oxford at this time was Richard Cox, afterwards bishop of Ely. The vicechancellor and proctors were probably W. Tresham, D.D., canon of King's College (Christ Church), who succeeded Walter Wright on his resignation as vicechancellor; and Roger Elyott, All Souls', Thomas Frynd, New, proctors. Robert Morwent, s.T.B.
was sworn president of Corpus, Nov. 26, 1537, and died Aug. 26, 1558. Thomas Raynolds, S.T.P. was admitted master of Merton, Dec. 30, 1545. He was afterwards appointed bishop of Hereford, but was set aside by queen Elizabeth, and died in prison soon after her accession. See Le Neve, Fast. Eccles, Angl. Lond. 1716. pp. 484, 495.]
ye the gospel to every creature.” “Wo unto me,” saith the prophet, “because I have kept silence.” “Wo unto me,” saith Paul, “if I preach not the gospel."
, I But such is either our security or daintiness, beside that we have stopped our ear against wholesome counsel, that we account it as a reproach if a man warn us of our duty. Nevertheless, whatsoever it seemeth to us, this hath seemed to God a help both very firm and very great to the making up of his church. For so hath God brought us out of darkness into light, so hath he restored us being dead unto life, so hath he brought us being prisoners and captives out of hell into heaven, so hath he broken the powers of the devil, so hath he brought us back again into his own power and dominion, so hath he spread abroad the fame of his name into all lands. For if Christ, if the apostles, if the prophets, had held their peace, in what case had we now been in ? what religion had there been any where? what worship of God had there been? That we behold the light, that we have escaped out of bondage, that we are accounted, and be, the sons of God, all that (I say) we owe unto the preaching of the word of God. Let us not deceive ourselves, brethren, let us not deceive ourselves. Our matters are not so firmly established, that they cannot fall. Except we take heed, except we look about, except we put to study and diligence, all things will easily slide and fall into their former estate. A lamp, except you put oil often? in it, will soon be out. The victory is kept even by such means as it is gotten.
For what engines doth not the devil now use, what crafts doth he not practise, what way doth he not take, to overthrow the church of God? He keepeth scout-watch always, he is 3 never wearied; he hath brought in so many vices, so much ignorance, so great blindness, that there is no place in which a preacher ought to be idle. And as, if the sun were taken away from the world, all things should be left dark, disparkled, and confounded; so, if the voice of the pastor be taken out of the church, religion is left at six and seven; it is left blind, troubled; all things are mingled with error, superstition, and idolatry: of so great weight is it to be a steward of the house of God. The gospel, religion, godliness, the health of the church dependeth of us alone. This is our office, this we take upon us, and this we profess; and, except we do this, we do nothing, we serve to no use. It is not enough to know I wot not what learning. The devils perhaps know more than any of us all. It belongeth unto a pastor, not so much to have learned many things, as to
mihi,” ait Paulus, "si non docuero evangelium!" Verum tanta nostra est vel securitas vel mollities, et aures ad omne sanum consilium occlusimus, ut contumeliæ loco nunc ducamus, si quis nos officii nostri commonefaciat. Verum quicquid nobis videtur, hoc certe Deo semper visum est præsidium ad constituendam ecclesiam et firmissimum et maximum. Sic enim nos Deus e tenebris eduxit in lucem, sic mortuos vitæ reddidit, sic vinctos et captivos ex inferis in cælum intulit, sic vires diaboli comminuit, sic mundum universum in potestatem et diti. onem suam redegit, sic nominis sui famam in omnes terras propagavit. Nam si Christus, si apostoli, si prophetæ tacuissent, quæ nunc esset nostra conditio ? quæ usquam esset religio ? quis cultus Numinis ? Quod lucem aspicimus, quod fugimus e vinculis, quod filii Dei numeramur et sumus, id omne debemus prædicationi verbi Dei. Ne ludamus, fratres, ne ludamus ipsi nos. Non sunt ita constabilitæ res nostræ, ut non possint ruere. Nisi cavemus, nisi circumspicimus, nisi studium et diligentiam adhibemus, facile omnia in pristinum locum labentur et ruent. Lucerna, nisi addatur oleum, facile extinguitur. Victoria eadem via retinetur qua paratur.
Nam quos nunc arietes non admovet diabolus, quas artes non experitur, qua via non grassatur ad evertendam ecclesiam Dei? Semper agit excubias, nunquam defatigatur; tantum vitiorum, ignorationis, cæcitatis importavit ut nihil usquam loci sit, ubi concionator otiosus esse debeat.
Quemadmodum autem, si sol de mundo sublatus esset, omnia obscura, dissipata, confusa relinquerentur; ita, sublata ex ecclesia pastoris voce, religio temeraria, cæca, turbata relinquitur, omnia errore, superstitione, idololatria permiscentur : tanti est procuratorem esse domus Dei. Evangelium, religio, pietas, salus ecclesiæ a nobis pendet solis. Hoc nostrum est officium, hoc suscipimus et profitemur. Hoc nisi facimus, nihil facimus, nullus est nostri usus. Non enim satis est nescio quas novisse literas. Dæmones norunt plura
[ His, 1611.)
[? Oft, 0. E. 1609.7 (JEWEL, 11.]
have taught much. Let it shame us, that the basest kind of men, even cobblers and porters, do that which belongeth unto them; and we, which ought to give light to all other, are idle and do nothing. For God would not have us idle bellies, but he would have us both be interpreters of his mind, ministers of Jesus Christ, attornies of the people before the Lord of Sabaoth, the light of the world, salt, angels, and the sons of God, and so to be called; and we are appointed to govern, not dumb cattle, not wild beasts; but the flock of the Lord, but the sons of God, but the brethren of Christ. If any of these shall perish through our default, his blood shall be required at our hands. If these things alone were still set before us, in our eyes and minds, we would not so cast from us carelessly and anadvisedly the safeguard of our brethren and of ourselves; we would not so cast from us the blood of Christ.
There is no cause why any should say, We speak to them that are deaf : the people give no ear: we labour for them which are unthankful, we prevail not, we cast that which is holy unto dogs, we give pearls to swine. We know that otherwhile these things are truly spoken; and it grieveth me exceedingly that they may be so truly spoken against those that be christian men. Yet for all this, we may not therefore hold our peace, but speak so much the oftener, so much the sharper, so much the hotter. For look, how much the disease is more perilous, so much the more needeth there a physician.
Neither can we justly complain of the people's stubbornness, while we ourselves do all the while nothing. Let us do our endeavour, and leave the success unto the Lord. Then shall they, if they be of so froward a mind that they will not hear, die in their own sin. But there is no cause why we should be in despair of the people's salvation. God himself husbanded the vine which for grapes brought out wild grapes. God himself hath all the day long stretched out his hands to a rebellious and overthwart people. How oft hath Christ himself said, “Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how oft would I have gathered together thy children, as the hen gathereth together her chickens ;" whereas they turned away their ears and would not hear! This malady will easily be taken away, if the medicine therefore be used. Let us bring forth the light; and God will open their eyes : let us beat at their ears; and God will give them a heart of flesh: let us give the word; and God will give the Spirit : let us plant and water; and God in due time will give the increase. For, as it is our duty to instruct the people with words, so it belongeth to God to join unto his words
fortasse quam quisquam nostrum. Pastoris est non tam multa didicisse, quam multum docuisse. Pudeat autem vilissimum genus hominum, cerdones et bajulos, officium suum facere ; nos autem, quos aliis omnibus prælucere oportuit, otiosos esse et nihil agere. Non enim nos Deus ventres otiosos, sed suæ mentis interpretes, ministros Jesu Christi, populi sequestros apud Dominum Sabaoth, lucem mundi, salem, angelos et filios Dei, et appellari et esse voluit : præficimur autem, non mutis pecudibus, non feris animantibus, sed gregi Domini, sed filiis Dei, sed fratribus Christi. Si quis horum nostro vitio perierit, sanguis ejus e nostris manibus repetetur. Hæc si nobis sola in oculis atque animis versarentur, non ita fratrum nostrorum, non ita nostram salutem, non ita sanguinem Christi secure et temere projiceremus.
Nihil enim est quod quisquam dicat: Surdis canimus, populus non audit, laboramus ingratis, nihil promovemus, rem sanctam objicimus canibus, margaritas damus porcis. Scimus ista interdum vere dici, et vehementer dolet tam vere in homines Christianos dici posse. Neque tamen nos idcirco reticere oportuit, sed tanto frequentius tantoque acrius et incensius dicere. Quanto enim periculosior est morbus, tanto magis opus est medico.
Nec satis juste de populi contumacia queri possumus, si nos interim ipsi nihil agimus. Præstemus nos operam nostram, successum Domino relinquamus. Tum illi, si animo its erunt obfirmato ut audire nolint, in peccato suo morientur. Sed nihil est causæ quamobrem populi salutem desperemus. Deus ipse coluit vitem, quæ pro uvis peperit labruscas. Deus ipse totos dies protendit manus ad populum rebellem et contradicentem. Christus ipse quoties dixit, “Hierusalem, Hierusalem, quoties volui congregare filios tuos, quemadmodum gallina congregat pullos suos,” cum illi aures avertissent et audire noluissent! Hic morbus facile tolletur, si adhibebitur medicina. Proferamus nos lucem, Dominus aperiet oculos ; pulsemus aures, Dominus dabit cor carneum : demus nos verbum, Dominus dabit Spiritum : plantemus, rigemus, Dominus suo tempore dabit incrementum. Nam ut nostrum est populum verbis instituere, ita Dei est fidem dictis suis et robur adjungere. Ea autem est vis faith and force. Such is the strength of the word of God, that to work nothing, or to profit none, it is not possible. Much will fall into the bushes, into the beaten way, and among stones; yet some will fall into good ground and bring forth fruit. “For look, as the rain cometh down from heaven, and returneth not thither again, but moisteneth and watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth, and giveth seed to the sower, and bread to him that eateth?; so my word, saith the Lord, which goeth forth out of my mouth, shall not return empty unto me, but shall do whatsoever I will.”
But, because it is not enough to speak, let us now consider that which in the second place I have promised, namely, what is to be spoken. For some otherwhile speak, who had been better have held their peace: other some, while they make a noise and cry out with great contention, speak to no purpose. Wherefore regard must be had that we neither speak unfruitfully ne yet hurtfully. For all things are not to be huddled out in a sermon before the multitude. We must take care what the religious silence of the people, what the reverence of the place, what the greatness of our office, do require. The truth must be spoken, not lies; the scriptures, not fables; the precepts of the highest God, and not the dreams of men. For religion is to be ordered, not by our judgment, but by the word of God. Wherein if we shall hearken to Moses, or to the prophets, or the apostles, or Christ, or the Father himself, we shall not much go out of the way. For Moses, whatsoever was to be said or done in so great a wilderness, when he led the people, being banished and wandering, by a savage and desert region, always asked counsel at the Lord: he never brought them any thing of his own head. The prophets always say, The word of the Lord, the vision of the Lord, the voice of the Lord: this saith the Lord: hear the Lord. “I," saith Paul, “ have received my gospel not of man, neither by man;" and again : “I know nothing but Jesus Christ, and the same crucified.” And again : “If an angel from heaven shall teach another gospel than that which you have learned, let him be cursed.” Christ saith: “All things which I have heard of my Father, I have delivered 'unto you;" and: “Preach you," saith he, not whatsoever shall come in your head, but “the gospel to all creatures ;” and, when as the Pharisees and Sadducees had moved the questions of divorcement, and the resurrection of the dead unto life, he never had recourse unto the rabbins, but always to the word of the
verbi Dei, ut nihil efficere et nulli prodesse non possit. Multa in vepres, in viam, in saxa cadent, et aliquid cadet in terram bonam et feret fructum, “Quemadmodum enim imber Esai. Iv. descendit de cælo, et illuc non revertitur, sed irrigat et perfundit terram, et eam facit germinare, et dat semen serenti et panem comedenti ; sic verbum meum, dicit Dominus, quod egreditur ex ore meo, non revertetur ad me vacuum, sed conficiet quæcunque volui.”
Sed quoniam non satis est dicere, videamus nunc id, quod secundo loco polliciti sumus, II. quid sit dicendum. Alii enim interdum dicunt quos præstiterat tacuisse, alii cum magna Docendum contentione vociferantur et clamant, nihil dicunt. Quapropter videndum est, neve otiose neve perniciose dicatur. Non enim omnia promiscue pro concione ad populum dicenda sunt. Habenda est ratio, quid populi religiosum silentium, quid loci reverentia, quid muneris nostri magnitudo postulet. Vera dicenda sunt, non mendacia, scripturæ, non fabulæ, Dei opt. max. præcepta, non hominum somnia : non enim nostro judicio instituenda est religio, sed e verbo Dei. Qua quidem in re si vel Mosen, vel prophetas, vel apostolos, vel Christum, vel Patrem ipsum audiemus, haud sane multum aberrabimus. Moses enim cum per incultam et desertam regionem populum exulem et vagum traduceret, in tanta solitudine, quicquid vel dicendum vel agendum esset, semper consuluit Dominum, nihil unquam attulit de suo. Prophetæ semper aiunt, Verbum Domini, visio Domini, vox Domini, hæc dicit Dominus, audite Dominum. ' Ego,” inquit Paulus, “ evangelium meum non accepi ab homino neque per hominem :" et, “nihil novi nisi Jesum Christum, et illum quidem crucifixum.” Et, “si angelus e cælo docuerit aliud evangelium quam quod didicistis, anathema sit.” Christus, “Omnia," inquit, "quæ audivi a Patre meo, tradidi vobis :" et, “prædicate,” inquit, non quicquid inciderit, sed“ evangelium omni creature:" et cum quæstiones Pharisæi et Sadducæi de divortio et mortuorum reditu ad vitam commovissent, nunquam ad Rabinos recurrit, semper ad