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the matter thereof is so fit for our time as nothing may be more, and there is not (as I can learn any interpreter upon these epistles in the English tongue, and his sermons upon them were the last fruits and travails he bestowed in the cathedral church of Sarum; I made choice of it among many other excellent monuments of his pains taken in the church of God, and gave my best diligence to peruse his notes thereupon, and to draw them to some such perfection as might carry to the reader the whole weight of his matter, without any diminution, even as fully as he declared it, so far forth as the notes which remain under his own hand might direct me. The which I most humbly commend to the favourable protection of your honour; whom I beseech so to accept my simple endeavour herein, as I have been careful to answer your honour's commandment, in giving forth some part of his labours to light.
In this discourse, as there are many good things fruitfully declared, the use and practice whereof is common to your honour with all Christians; so are there two matters, the one of usury, the other of antichrist, that is, of the bane and poison of the commonwealth, and of the infection and decay of the church, wherein he bestowed more pains to open them and make them manifest, that all men might know and abhor them, and beware of them. What hath been wrought by these two mischiefs to the undoing in conscience and substance, and to the utter destruction of the souls and bodies of many thousand subjects of this realm, within these late years, it is, to the grief of all good men, too well known.
If therefore, in the duty of a good bishop, he standing in his watch hath descried these enemies to all civil and christian estates; and if now, so many years after his entrance into rest, by these means he call upon your good honour to step forth in fresh courage into the battle of the Lord of hosts, and to use and employ the great gifts of wisdom and authority which God hath bestowed upon you, and to excite and stir up others, the worthy and notable captains set over the people, to be a fenced wall between them and these so perilous monsters and dangerous enemies; what remaineth, but that your honour put to your hand, and do that for the comfort of God's people, which, besides her excellent majesty and her honourable council, no other can do, in giving life to
all such laws which have been devised by men of great
Your honour's most humble to command,
JOHN GARBRAND 2.
['His, 1584: 1594 omits the word.]
[' Dr Garbrand, the friend of bishop Jewel, who left him his papers, was fellow of New College
Oxford, and afterwards prebendary of Sarum, and rector of North Crowley, Buckinghamshire, where he died in 1589.]
THE FIRST EPISTLE OF ST PAUL
is in God the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ; grace be with you, and
The apostle Paul preached the gospel of our Saviour Jesus Christ 3 unto the Thessalonians, as he did also in other places, from Jerusalem round about to Illyricum. But his travail had not like success in all places. For in Damascus the governor of the people under king Aretas laid watch in the city of the 2 Cor. xi. Damascenes, and would have caught him. At Lystra they stoned Paul, and drew Acts XİV. him out of the city, supposing he had been dead. At Philippi he and Silas were Acts xvi. drawn into the market-place unto the magistrates, and accused that they troubled their city; they were beaten with rods, and cast into prison. The Corinthians received the doctrine of the gospel, and made much of the professors thereof. But they fell soon from their good beginning. They walked like men in envying, in strife, and divisions. Some called themselves after Paul, some after Apollo, some after Cephas, and some after Christ. They stirred contention about meats: they abused the Lord's supper; and they were doubtful of the resurrection of the dead. In like manner the church of God which was gathered at Rome grew proud and high-minded, and boasted themselves over the Jews. The Galathians forsook the good way of the gospel whereunto they were called, and wherein they did walk. They gave ear to false prophets. Therefore the apostle telleth them : “I am in fear of you, lest I have bestowed on you labour 6 in vain.”
But the Thessalonians, after they had heard the glad tidings of the gospel, they received it greedily, and laid it up close and safe in their hearts. Albeit the Jews withstood them and vexed them sore, albeit false brethren used divers secret means to draw them from the love of the truth; yet they kept still their stedfastness, and could not be driven from their faith, neither by cruelty of persecution nor by subtilty of crafty persuasion. Paul being at Athens, a place far distant from thence, sendeth Timothy to know in what case they stood. So careful was he for that house which he had built, for the fire which he had kindled, for the grafts? which he had planted, and for the children which he begot among them. When Timothy made report of their constancy, that they continued stedfast in those things which they had learned, he writeth this epistle to commend them, and to exhort them to abide stedfast in their faith; that they become not like the foolish Israelites, which longed after the flesh-pots of Egypt, and were unmindful of their deliverance from bondage under Pharao; that they return not like filthy dogs to their vomit, and like unclean swine tot their puddles of mire; that they look not back again after they have put 8 their hands to* the Lord's plough, and so make themselves unworthy the kingdom of God.
He giveth many lessons and instructions to godliness; that they would walk worthy of God, and bring forth the fruits of the gospel. There were among them that lived idly, and did trouble the church without a cause; whom he reproveth, willing them to be quiet, and to meddle with their own matters, and work with their hands. Others mourned over the dead without measure, even as if they had no hope; whom he instructeth in the resurrection, and comforteth with the
[* Unto, 1594.)
("Saviour Christ, 1594.)
[Graffes, 1583, 1584, 1594.]
speech of the blessed coming of our Lord, when we which live shall be caught up to meet him, and so we shall ever be with the Lord. Others reasoned fondly of the latterl day, when it should be, when the Son of God should appear, and when the world should have an end; as if man might reach to the knowledge hereof. But them also he reproveth, and warneth that they take care rather to watch and look for the Lord's coming, that they may be found ready, having their loins girded and their lamps burning.
Many are desirous to see the countenance of St Paul, to see his sword, or the reliques of his blood, which was shed at his death, or of his upper garment, or of his coat, or of the hair of his head; and for purpose to see such things many take painful pilgrimage too far places, where they are deceived. How much better may they be satisfied by reading the story of his life set down in the scrip tures ! In these his epistles, written to the churches of God, he is to be seen in more excellent shew than when he was yet in body. For here is to be seen his heart, filled with the Holy Ghost, and the care which he had for all saints; how he did travail in birth of them again, that Christ might be formed in them, and how he did wish himself separate from Christ for their sake. The matter of this epistle is plain, and treateth not of deep and profound mysteries. The manner of utterance which the apostle useth is open and evident. So that the whole epistle is full of sweet and wholesome doctrine; wherein the simplest may find great comfort.
“Paul, and Sylvanus, and Timotheus.” These two were companions unto Paul in his journeys, and in the work of his ministry: whom here he joineth in his letter to the congregation at Thessalonica, to witness their consent and agreement with him, that they all with one mouth, and with one hand and heart, set forth the glorious gospel of our Saviour Christ: and that therefore they also which are called to the fellowship of the gospel should be like-minded, being one body and one spirit in Christ Jesus, and the children of one Father, in whom there is no dissension, but all peace and consent and unity.
“Unto the church of the Thessalonians, which is in God the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ.” There are sundry sorts of churches. There is a church of the wicked, whereof the prophet saith: “I have hated the assembly of the evil, and have not companied with the wicked.” Two hundred and fifty captains, men of renown and famous in the congregation, joined themselves to Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. But Moses said unto Korah: “ Thou and all thy company are gathered together against the Lord.” The builders of the great tower of Babel were many in number, and consented to that they had imagined to do, thereby to get them a name; but the Lord did confound their language, and scattered them upon the face of the earth. The scribes and Pharisees and high priests held a council, and conferred among themselves; but against the Lord, and against his Christ. John is commanded to write unto the angel of the church of the Smyrnians : “These things saith he which is first and last, which was dead, and is alive. I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.” They revile you, and speak all manner of evil against you for my name's sake. They charge you with teaching false4 doctrine, and say you have departed from the church; that they are the seed of Abraham, the children of promise, the true worshippers of God, and which walk in the steps of their forefathers. But their boast hereof is vain. It profiteth them nothing that Abraham was their father, that the covenant was made with them, that they were .circumcised, that a law was given unto them. Let them not trust in their fathers: let them not trust in lying words, and say, “The temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord', this is the temple of the Lord.”. If they were Abraham's children, they would do the works of Abraham. If God were their Father, then would they love Christ his Son, and seek to set forth his glory. If they were of the sheep-fold of God, they would hear his voice. They are of their father the devil, and the lusts of their father they will do.
['Later, 1584.] [* Unto, 1594.)
[* Teaching of false, 1594.]
83. ad Palest.
They are in name the servants of Christ, but serve antichrist. They call themselves Jews, but are the synagogue of Satan. “For,” saith the apostle, “he is not Rom. ü. a Jew, which is one outward ; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh: but he is a Jew, which is one within; and the circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.” Of those which are such Leo saith: Ecclesiæ nomine armamini, et contra ecclesiam dimi- Leo, Epist. catis? “Ye arm yourselves with the name of the church, and yet ye fight against the church.” And Chrysostom saith: “The name only of Christ doth not make Hom. 19. in a Christian, but he must also have the truth of Christ; for there are many
Matt. in Op
which walk in the name of Christ, but few which walk in his truth 8.” “It is therefore manifest,” as Lyra saith, “that the church is not among men by reason of any Lyra in xvi. ecclesiastical or secular authority or dignity; because many princes and high priests and others of the inferior sort have forsaken the faith." Though they pretend shew of holiness, though they draw to themselves credit by long continuance, though 10 their numbers be great, and they consent together; yet, if they have forsaken the faith, if they hold not the truth of Christ, if they fight against and persecute the church, if their circumcision be not the circumcision of the heart, and in the spirit, if they hear not the voice of the Shepherd, if they love not Christ Jesus the Son of God, and set not forth his glory, if they seek to stop the course of the gospel, if they seek to get a name among men, if they resist Moses and Aaron; they have only a painted visard, and carry only an empty name of the church: they call themselves so, and are not.
But the church of God is in God the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ : it is the company of the faithful, whom God hath gathered together in Christ by his word and by the Holy Ghost, to honour him, as he himself hath appointed: this church heareth the voice of the Shepherd. It will not follow a stranger, but flieth from him; for it knoweth not the voice of strangers. Of this church St Hierome saith: Ecclesia ... Christi,... in toto orbe ecclesias possidens 12, Spiritus Hieron, in unitate conjuncta est, et habet urbes legis, prophetarum, evangelii, et apostolorum. cap. I. Non est egressa de finibus suis, id est, de scripturis13 : “ The church of Christ, which containeth the churches through all the world, is joined together in the unity of the Spirit, and hath the cities of the law, of the prophets, of the gospel, and of the apostles. This church goeth not forth, or beyond her bounds 14, that is, the holy scriptures. It is the pillar of the truth; the body, the fulness, and the spouse of Christ : it is the vine, the house, the city, and the kingdom of God. They which dwell in it "are no more strangers and foreigners, but citizens with Eph. li. the saints, and of the household of God; and are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head corner-stone; in whom all the building coupled together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord.” This church “ Christ loved, and gave himself for it; that he might Eph. V. sanctify it and cleanse it by the washing of water through the word, that he might make it unto himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blame.” Such a church was the church of God at Thessalonica : such a church are they, whosoever in any place of the world fear the Lord, and call upon his name.
Their names are written in the book of life: they have received the Spirit of adoption, by which they cry,
Abba, Father:" they grow from grace to grace, and abound more and more in knowledge and in judgment: they cast away the works of darkness, and put on the armour of light: they are made absolute and perfect 15 unto all good
Mich, Lib. I.
[They are, 1594.]
[? Leon. Magni Op. Lat. 1623. Ad Palæst. Episc. Epist. lxxiii. 8. col. 444. See before, page 98, note 1.]
[ ... quia non nomen solum Christi Christianum facit, sed etiam veritas Christi; quia in nomine Christi multi ambulant, in veritate autem ejus pauci. -Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. Hom. xix. ex cap. vii. Tom. VI. p. xciv.]
[® Ex quo patet quod ecclesia non consistit in hominibus ratione pietatis vel dignitatis ecclesiasticæ vel secularis : quia multi principes et summi pon
tifices et alii inferiores inventi sunt apostasse a fide.
(18 Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. 1. In Mich. Proph. cap. i. Tom. III. col. 1503; wherg possidet.)
[14 Bonds, 1611.)
works: they are evermore comforted in the mercies of God, both by the holy scriptures, wherein God declareth his gracious goodness towards them, and by the sacraments, which are left unto the church to be witnesses and assured pledges for performance of the promise of God's good-will and favour towards them.
“Grace be with you, and peace,” &c. God give you the forgiveness of your sins, and the peace and comfort of your conscience. God let all his blessings fall upon you, that you may see the riches and the treasures of his mercy; that you may be filled with all fulness in the Spirit; that you may behold the glory of the kingdom of God; and those things may be revealed unto you by his Spirit, which he hath prepared for them that love him. Without this grace you can do nothing: you can neither feel the burden of your sins, nor seek to be eased of them, nor perceive when they are forgiven : you cannot rent your heart, and set apart from you the vanities and lusts of the flesh, which doth evermore fight against the soul : you cannot discern the word of God, and by it enter the way to everlasting life: you cannot abhor that which is evil, and cleave unto that which is good: without the grace of God you cannot continue stedfast and constant in faith, and in hope of the mercies of God through our Saviour Jesus Christ.
Ver. 2. We give thanks to God always for you all, making mention of you in
our prayers ; 3. Without ceasing remembering your effectual faith and diligent love, and the
patience of your hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, in the sight of God, even our
Father; 4. Knowing, beloved brethren, that ye are elect of God. 5. For our gospel was not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the
Holy Ghost, and in much assurance; as yel know after what manner we were among you for your sakes.
“We give thanks,” &c. Paul teacheth what is the office of a good minister. He must ever carry in remembrance the state” of the congregation over which the Lord hath placed him. He must give thanks to God in their behalf, and pray for them, that God will bless that which he hath begun, and confirm them unto the end, that they may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ; that he will behold them from above, and bless his inheritance, and guide the sheep of his pasture. “ Your effectual faith.” Faith is not idle; it worketh and is forcible, it breaketh out like fire: it is always fruitful through love. Faith without works is no faith: it is dead, and bringeth death. “ And diligent love." Love is painful, and full of travail : it thinketh not evil : it seeketh not her own things: it is bountiful. This love had the Thessalonians to the saints of God, which suffered affliction in all places for the gospel's sake. Many were spoiled of their goods, cast out of their houses, and banished from their country: even as at this day for the like cause many of our brethren, the good servants of God, are driven into banishment, cast into prisons, put to the sword, or consumed in fire, in those places where the god of this world hath so blinded their eyes, that the light of the glorious gospel of Christ should not shine unto them. It is high time in such cases for charity to shew herself. She cannot dissemble, nor despise the tears of her brother. It sheweth forth as the morning-light: it taketh from herself to relieve them which are in need. It dealeth bread to the hungry, and bringeth the poor that wander unto her house, and covereth the naked, and hideth not her face from her own flesh. Unto them that have this love the Lord giveth his blessing : “ Blessed is he that considereth the poor and needy: the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble." And Christ saith:
« Blessed are the merciful; for they shall find mercy.”
“And the patience of your hope.” How many are the troubles which the children of God suffer in this life! Let us behold the times which were before
Abel wás innocent and just; yet was he slain by the hands of his brother, and without a cause. The prophet David saith of the prophets and holy men of God, (and the same words saith the apostle of the church of Christ under the
[' You, 1594.]
[? Estate, 1584, 1594.]