Thus your challenge, M. Jewel, is answered. Thus your negatives be avouched. Thus the points you went about to improve, by good authority be proved, and many others by you over rashly affirmed clearly improved. Thus the catholic religion, with all your forces laid at und impugned, is sufficiently defended. The places of proofs which we have here used are such as yourself allow for good and lawful: the scriptures, examples of the primitive church, ancient councils, and the fathers of six hundred years after Christ. You might and ought likewise to have allowed reason, tradition, custom, and authority of the church without limitation of time. The manner of this dealing with you is gentle, sober, and charitable. Put away all mists of blind self-love, you shall perceive the same to be so. The purpose and intent towards you, right good and loving, in regard of the truth, no less than due, for behoof of christian people, no less than necessary; that you hereby might be induced to bethink yourself of that wherein you have done unadvisedly, and stayed from hasty running forth, pricked with vain favour and praise of the world to everlasting damnation, appointed to be the reward at the end of your game; that truth might thus be tried, set forth and defended; and that our brethren be led, as it were by the hand, from perilous errors and danger of their souls, to a right sense and to surety.

Now it remaineth that you perform your promise : which is, that, if any one clear sentence or clause be brought for proof of any one of all your negative articles, you would yield and subscribe. What hath been brought, every one that wilfully will not blindfold himself may plainly see. If some haply, who will seem to have both eyes and ears, and to be right learned, will say hereof, they see ne hear nothing, no marvel. The favour of the part whereto they cleave, having cut

, off themselves from the body, the despite of the catholic religion and hatred of the church, hath so blinded their hearts, as, places alleged to the disproof of their false doctrine being never so evident, they see not, ne hear not, or rather they Matt. xiii. seeing see not, ne hearing hear not. Verily, you must either refuse the balance which yourself have offered and required for trial of these articles, which be the scriptures, examples, councils, and doctors of antiquity; or, the better weight of authority swaying to our side, that is, the truth found in the ancient doctrine of the catholic church, and not in the mangled dissensions of the gospellers, advisedly return from whence unadvisedly you have departed; humbly yield to that you have stubbornly kicked against, and embrace wholesomely that which you have hated damnably.

Touching the daily sacrifice of the church, commanded by Christ to be done in 1. remembrance of his death, that it hath been (and may be well and godly) celebrated without a number of communicants with the priest together in one place, which you call private mass, within the compass of your six hundred years after Christ : That the communion was then sometimes (as now also it is and may be) 2. ministered under one kind: Of the public service of the church, or common prayers 3. in a tongue not known to all the people : That the bishop of Rome was sometime 4. called universal bishop, and both called and holden for head of the universal church: That by ancient doctors it hath been taught, Christ's body to be really, subtan- 5. tially, corporally, carnally or naturally in the blessed sacrament of the altar: Of 6. the wondrous, but true being of Christ's body in more places at one time ; and of 7. the adoration of the sacrament, or rather of the body of Christ in the sacrament, we have brought good and sufficient proofs, alleging for the more part of these

[° From H. A. 1564; being not given in the editions of Jewel.]

John L

articles the scriptures, and for all, right good evidence out of ancient examples, 8. 9. councils, or fathers. Concerning elevation, reservation, remaining of the accidents 10. 11. without substance, dividing the host in three parts, the terms of figure, sign, 12. 13. token, etc. applied to the sacrament, many masses in one church in one day, the 14. 15. reverent use of images, the scriptures to be had in vulgar tongues for the common

people to read, which are matters not specially treated of in the scriptures by express terms; all these have been sufficiently avouched and proved, either by

proofs by yourself allowed, or by the doctrine and common sense of the church. 12. As for your twelve last articles, which you put in by addition to the former, for

shew of your courage and confidence of the cause, and to seem to the ignorant to have much matter to charge us withal, as it appeareth ; they report matter (certain excepted) of less importance. Some of them contain doctrine true, I grant, but over curious, and not most nccessary for the simple people. Some others be through the manner of your utterance perverted, and in terms drawn from the sense they have been uttered in by the church : which, by you being denied, might of us also be denied in regard of the terms they be expressed in, were not a sleight of falsehead, which might redound to the prejudice of the truth, therein worthily suspected. Verily to them all we have said so much, as to sober, quiet, and godly wits may seem sufficient.

Now this being so, what you mind to do, I know not; what you ought to do, I know right well. I wish you to do that, which may be to your own and to the people's soul-health, that, being by you and your fellows deceived, depend of you to the setting forth of the truth, to the procuring of a godly concord in Christ's church, and finally to the glory of God. This may you do by forsaking that, ,

, which perhaps seemeth to you truth, and is not; that which seemeth to you learning, and is but a flourish or varnish of learning ; that which seemeth to you clear light, and is profound darkness ; and by returning to the church, where, concerning the faith of a christian man, is all truth, and no deceit, right learning, and the very light, even that which lighteneth every man coming into this world, which is there to be found only, and not elsewhere, forasmuch as the head is not separated from the body.

that you would once mind this seriously, M. Jewel! As for me, if either speaking, writing, or expending might further you thereto, I should not spare tongue nor pen, nor any portion of my necessary things, were it never so dear. I would gladly pour out all together to help you to attain that felicity. But, O Lord, what lets see I whereby you are kept from that good! Shame, wealth of your estate, your worldly acquaintance, beside many others. But, sir, touching shame, which always irketh those that be of any generosity of nature, if you call your better philosophy to counsel, you shall be taught not to account it shameful to forsake error for love of truth, but rather wilfully to dwell in error after that it is plainly detected. As for the wealth of your estate, which some assure you of, so long as you maintain that part, I cannot judge so evil of you, but that you think how fickle and frail these worldly things be, and how little to be esteemed in respect of the heavenly estate which remaineth to the obedient children of the church, as the contrary to the rebels, apostates, and renegades. Touching your acquaintance, what shall the familiarity of a few deceived persons stay you from that felicity which you shall achieve with the love and friendship of all good men, of whose good opinion only riseth fame and renown, and also with the rejoicing of the angels in heaven?

This your happy change the better and wiser sort of men will impute to grace mightily by God's power in you wrought, which sundereth light from darkness, and maketh light shine out of darkness. Neither shall they judge that inconstancy, where is no change in will, but only in understanding. Where the will remaining one, always bent to the glory of God, the deceived understanding is by better instruction corrected and righted; there is not inconstancy to be noted, but amendment to be praised. Neither shall you in this godly enterprise be alone. Many both of old time and of our days have gone this way, and have broken the ice before you : Eusebius of Cæsarea in Palæstina, Beryllus of Bostra in Arabia, and Theodoritus of Cyrus in Persie; who forsook heinous heresies against Christ,

Luke xv.

Gen, i.

2 Cor. iv.

Well may

and by grace returned to the catholic faith again. So have done in our time Georgius Wicelius, Fridericus Staphylus, Franciscus Balduinus', and many more.

Thus having called to my mind the considerations that are like to withhold you from yielding to the catholic faith, from returning to the church, and from performing your promise; I find no bands 80 strong, to keep you fast in the chair of pestilence, which this long time you have sitten in; that through God's grace working humility and denial of yourself in your heart, whereof I spake in my preface, you should not easily loose and be in liberty, where you might clearly see the light spread abroad over the whole church, and espy the darkness of the particular sects of your new gospel which you lived in before.

But, all this notwithstanding, peradventure your heart serveth you to stand stoutly according to the purport of your challenge, in the defence of the doctrine you have professed, and for which you have obtained a bishoprick, thinking great scorn to be removed from the same by any such means as these to you may seem.

And now perhaps you enter into meditation with yourself and conference with your brethren to frame an answer to this treatise, and by contrary writing to fortify your negatives. Well may you so do. But to what purpose, I

pray you? you make a smoke and a smother, to darken the light for a time ; as men of war are wont to do, to work a feat secretly against their enemies. But that cannot long continue. The smoke will soon vanish away, the light of the truth will eftsoons appear. Well may you shut the light out of a few houses by closing doors and windows ; but to keep away the bright sun from that great city which Matt. v. is set on high upon a hill, do what ye can, therein all your travail, your devices, and endeavours shall be vain and frustrate.

As iron by scouring is not only not consumed, but kept from rust and canker and is made brighter, so the church by the armours and hostility of heretics is not wounded, but through occasion strengthened, stirred to defence, and made invincible. When it is oppressed, then it riseth ; when it is invaded, then it overcometh. When by the adversaries' objections it is checked and controlled, then it is acquitted and prevaileth. Wherefore talk, preach, and write against the doctrine of the church whiles ye will, ye shall but spurn against the stone, whereat ye may break your shins, and be crushed to pieces, the same not moved. Matt. xxi. Ye shall but kick against the prick. Ye shall but torment your own conscience Acts ix. condemned in your own judgment, as witting that ye resist the church, and, for the Tit. iii. life to come, increase the heap of everlasting damnation. All the reward ye shall win hereby is the vain favour of a few light and unstable persons by you deceived ; whom the blasts of your mutable doctrine shall move and blow away from God's floor the church, like chaff, the good and constant people remaining still, like weighty Matt. iii. and sound wheat,

The arguments and reasons you shall make against the doctrine of the church may haply persuade some of the worldly-wise, who be fools in God's judgment, as the reasons of them that have commended infamous matters have persuaded Of whom one praised the fever quartan; anothér drunkenness; another Pharoitinus.

Synesius. baldness; another unrighteousness; and in our time, one ignorance, and another Claucus apud foolishness. Which by the authors hath been done only for an exercise of wits, Cornelius

Agrippa. and rather to the wondering than corrupting of the readers. Would God of all Erasmus. the writings of your sect against the catholic faith, which be no less beside reason and truth, the intent were no worse, the danger ensuing no greater! And as, for commendation of those unseemly and unworthy things, those rhetoricians have not brought good and true reasons, but only a probability of talk; right so for confirmation of your negative divinity, and of many new strange and false doctrines, you have no sure proofs, but shadows, colours, and shews only, that perhaps may dazzle blear eyes, and deceive the unlearned; but the learned-wise, and by any ways godly-wise, will soon contemn the same. For they be assured, how probably soever you teach or write, that the church, always assisted and prompted by the Holy Ghost the Spirit of truth, in points of faith erreth not, and that against truth, already by the same Spirit in the universal church taught and received, no truth can be alleged.


[' H. A. 1565 adds Nocolaus Villagagno after Balduinus.]

As he is very simple, who, being borne in hand by a sophister, and driven by force of sophistical arguments to grant that he hath horns, thinketh so in deed, and therefore putteth his hand to his forehead ; 80 whosoever through your teaching fall from the catholic church into the errors of our time, from the straitness of christian life into the carnal liberty of this new gospel, from devotion into the insensibility which we see the people to live in, from the fear of God to the desperate contempt of all virtue and goodness; hereby they shew themselves to be such as have unstable hearts, which be given over to the lusts of their flesh, which have no delight ne feeling of God, which, like Turks and epicures seeking only for the commodities and pleasures of this world, have no regard of the life to come. But the godly sort, whose hearts be established with grace, who pant and labour to live after the Spirit, continually mortifying their flesh, whose delight is to serve God, who be kept and holden within the fear of God, though they give you their hearing, and that of constraint, not of will, yet will not they give you their liking nor consenting.

Wherefore, M. Jewel, seeing we have performed that which you have over boldly said we were not able to do; seeing for proof of these articles we have brought more than you bare your hearers in hand we had to bring; seeing you perceive yourself herein to have done more than standeth with learning, modesty, or good advice; seeing, in case of any one clause or sentence for our part brought, you have with so many protestations promised to yield and to subscribe unto us ; seeing, by performing your promise, you may do so much good to the people and to yourself ; seeing, nothing can be justly alleged for keeping of you from satisfying your promise, and returning to the church again ; seeing so great respects both of temporal and of heavenly preferments invite you and call you from parts and sects, where you remain with most certain danger of your soul, to the safe port of Christ's church; seeing by so doing you should not do that which were singular, but common to you with many others, men of right good fame and estimation; finally, seeing, if you shall (as always for the most part heretics have done) continue in the profession of your untrue doctrine, and travail in setting forth erroneous treatises for defence of the same, you shall gain thanks of no other but of the lightest and worst sort of the people, and persuade none but such as be of that mark; we trust you will upon mature deliberation in your sadder years change the counsel which you liked in your youth; we trust you will examine better by learning the new doctrine which you with many others were drawn unto by sway of the time, when by course of age you wanted judgment; we trust you will call back yourself from errors and heresies advisedly, which you have maintained rashly, and set forth by word and writel busily, and therein assured yourself of the truth confidently. Thus shall your error seem to proceed of ignorance, not of malice. Thus shall you make some recompence for hurt done. Thus shall you in some degree discharge yourself before God and men: thus shall you be received into the lap of the church again, out of which is no salvation, whither being restored you may from henceforth, in certain expectation of the blessed hope, lead a life more acceptable to God, to whom be all praise, honour, and glory. Amen.

Tit. ii.

[" Write: used apparently for writing.)



As the rest of your book, M. Harding, may in many respects seem very weak, so is there no part thereof more weak than your triumph at the end, before the conquest. Ye say, ye have fully answered the offer, which


call challenge, and have avouched the negatives, and have fully proved all that lay in question by scriptures, by examples of the primitive church, by old councils, and by ancient fathers. Whereby it appeareth ye have some good liking in that ye have done. It had been more modesty to have left the commendation and judgment thereof unto your reader; who, comparing your proofs with the answers, and laying the one with? the other, might be able to judge indifferently between both. For it may well be thought that while ye ran alone ye were ever the foremost, and that, making your own award, ye would hardly pronounce against yourself.

The proofs that ye have shewed us are common and known, often alleged and often answered, and now brought in as a company of maimed soldiers, to make a shew. But from you, and from such conference and help of fellows, your learned friends looked for some fresher matters.

That ye charge me with ambition, and self-love, and seeking of praise, although it be the weakest of all other your shifts, yet it is an affection incident unto the children of Adam; and some men suspect that M. Harding is not fully empty of the same. But he that made the heart is only meet to search and to judge the heart. As for me, as I am nothing, so I know nothing. “God forbid that I should glory in any thing, saving only in the Gal. vi. cross of Jesus Christ."

But, where it pleaseth you so horribly to pronounce your definitive sentence, that everlasting damnation shall be the end of our game, I might well answer you with St Paul: Nolite ante tempus judicare: “Judge not before the 1 Cor. iv. time." It seemeth overmuch for you so unadvisedly to take upon you the office and person of Christ without commission. For St John saith : hath given all judgment (not unto M. Harding, but) unto Christ his Son;" who, no doubt, will inquire further of your judgment. Your own Gelasius saith: Neminem gravare debet iniqua sententia 3: “A wrongful sentence may hurt no man.” It behoveth us patiently to wait for the judgment-seat of God. “ In that day all the secrets of darkness shall be revealed.” The wicked and 1 Cor. iv. ungodly cried out against the prophet David: Non est salus ipsi in Deo ejus : “ He hath no 'health, he hath no comfort in his God.” But David turned Psal. iii. himself unto God, and said: “O Lord, thou receivest me; thou art my glory; thou liftest up my head.” If damnation be the end of all their travails, that seek only the glory of God and the truth of his gospel, where then shall they be that so wilfully have dishonoured the name of God, and have burnt his gospel without cause, and have condemned it as open heresy ? Certainly, Rev. xxi. “ renegades, infidels, liars, blasphemers, and idolaters shall have their portion in the lake that flameth with fire and brimstone.” The Lord's mouth hath spoken it. This doubtless shall be the end of their game.

Now, say you, it remaineth that I perform my promise. Yea, verily; but, notwithstanding all that ye have hitherto said, much more it remaineth that you begin again and assay better to prove your purpose; that is, that ye leave your surmises and guesses, and allege one or other sufficient clause or sentence for any of these matters that ye say ye have proved. For that ye have hitherto shewed us, as unto any indifferent reader it may soon appear, is over weak, and will not serve.

I grant, ye have alleged authorities, sundry and many, such as I knew long before; with what faith, I doubt not but by conference it may soon appear.

God John v.

(? To, 1565, 1609. ]

(3 ... neminem potest iniqua gravare sententia. Gelas. Papa in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624.

Decret. Gratian. Decr. Sec. Pars, Caus. XI. Quæst.
iii. can. 46. col. 938.]

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