Or that the sacrament is a sign or token of the body of Christ, that lieth hidden underneath it.



The two

In Libro Sen

-fifth un

the outward form was never by any old father called the sacrament.


That the outward form of bread, (255) which is properly the sacrament, is Operta. the sign of the body of Christ, we confess, yea, of that body which is covertly

in or under the same, which St Augustine calleth carnem Domini hundred and forma panis opertam”, the flesh of the? Lord covered with the form tent. Prosperi. truth. For of bread.But what is meant by this term lieth, we know not.

As through faith grounded upon God's word we know that Christ's body is in the sacrament; so, that it lieth there or underneath it, (by which term it may seem a scoff to be uttered to bring the catholic teaching in contempt,) or that it sitteth or standeth, we deny it. For lying, sitting, and standing, noteth situation of a body in a place, according to distinction of members and circumscription of place, so as it have his parts in a certain order correspondent to the parts of the place. But after such manner the body of Christ is not in the sacrament, but without circumscription, order, and habitude of his parts to the parts of the body or place · environing. Which manner of being in is above all reach of human understanding, wondrous, strange, and singular, not defined and limited by the laws or bounds3 of nature, but by the almighty power of God. To conclude, the being of Christ's body in the sacrament is to us certain ; the manner of his being there to us uncertain, and to God only certain.


In thetwelfth article and fourteenth division.

The entry of this article is the conclusion of the last. So artificially M. Harding's untruths are woven together. “ The outward form of bread," saith he, “is the sacrament.” But withal he should have added, that this form and manner of speech is only his own, peculiar only to himself and certain his fellows of that side; never used by any of all the old doctors and fathers of the church, either Greek or Latin, or learned or unlearned, or catholic or heretic, or one or other.

These words of St Augustine are alleged and answered beforet. That holy learned father never said, neither that the forms and accidents be the sacrament, nor that Christ's body is really hidden under the same; nor in this place speaketh any one word at all of any accidents.

But the words wherein M. Harding is deceived are these, forma panis : which words signify not the outward forms and accidents, as he untruly expoundeth them, but the very kind and substance of the bread. So St Paul saith : Christus, cum in forma Dei esset, formam servi accepit : Christ, being

, in the form (or nature) of God, took upon him the form (or nature) of a servant.” By which words St Paul meant, that Christ was very God in substance, and that he took upon him the very substance of a man. So St Hierome

Phil. ii.

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[’ August. in Lib. Sent. Prosp. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, Dist. ii. can. 48. col. 1937. See before, page 617.]

s? Our, 1565, 1609, and H. A. 1564.]
[Bonds, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]
[* See before, pages 618,9.)

Osee, Lib. iii.

Dard. Epist.

» Spir. et Lit.

cap. xv. .

Lib. I. cap. XY.

expoundeth the same words, speaking in the person of Christ : Declinavi ad Hieron. in eos deserens regna cælorum, ut cum eis vescerer, assumpta forma servis : “I went cap. ii. down to them, leaving the kingdom of heaven, that I might eat with them, having taken the form of a servant.” I think M. Harding will not say, Christ took a body of forms and accidents, that he might be conversant and live with men. So St Augustine saith : Secundum hanc formam non est putandus ubique Augustad diffusus 6 : “ Christ (not according to the shews or accidents of his body, but) 57. according to this kind, this nature, and this substance of his body, may not be thought to be poured and spread into all places." Thus St Paul, St Augustine, St Hierome, and other learned fathers use this word forma for nature and substance, and not for accidents.

And as touching the other word, operta, covered,” St Augustine meaneth not thereby that Christ's body is really contained and covered under the said form or kind of bread, but only that it is there as in a sacrament or in a mystery. In this sense St Augustine saith: Gratia Dei in veteri testamento August. de velata latebat?: “ The grace of God lay hidden covered in the old testament. And again : In veteri testamento occultabatur novum, id est, occulte significabatur 8 : August. de “ The new testament was hidden in the old, that is to say, it was secretly contr. Donat. signified in the old.”

Here, lest M. Harding should take these words strictly and grossly, as he doth the rest, and say, the new testament indeed and really was covered in the old, St Augustine himself hath prevented him, and opened his own meaning in this wise, as it is said before : Occultabatur, ... id est, occulte significabatur8 : “ It was covered, that is to say, it was secretly signified.” By which exposition, being St Augustine's, M. Harding might have learned likewise to expound these words: Caro operta forma panis, id est, occulte significata : “ The flesh covered in the form or substance of bread; that is to say, privily signified in the form or substance of bread.”

But M. Harding thought it best to leave the matter, and to make his quarrel to the words: “This word lieth," saith he, “importeth a scoff wherewith to bring his catholic teaching into contempt." Verily, this must needs be a marvellous tender and a miserable doctrine, that may no ways be touched without suspicion of a scoff, But why is he more angry with us for uttering these words, “ lieth hidden,” than he is with his own doctors uttering the same ?

In his gloss upon the decrees it is written thus : Species panis, sub qua De Consecr. latet corpus :... species vini, sub qua latet sanguis': “The form of bread, under Hoc est. In which is hidden the body; the form of wine, under which is hidden the blood.” These be his own fellows' words: they are not ours.

Willihelmus Haffliginensis, one of M. Harding's new doctors, saith thus : Will. Hafiflig. Quærite Dominum, dum inveniri potest. In templo invenitur materiali: ibi latet Advent. sub specie panis 10: “Seek the Lord while he may be found. He is found in 1300. the material church of stone: there he is hidden under the form of bread.”

Another like doctor saith thus: Ibi est corpus Christi in tanta quantitate, Ludulph: in sicut fuit in cruce..... Unde mirum est, quomodo sub tam modica specie tantus Par. ii. cap. homo lateat 11 : “ The body of Christ is there as great in quantity as he was upon the cross. Therefore it is marvellous how so great a man can be hid under so small a form."

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in Serm, de

Vixit Anno



[s Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. II. in Osee Proph. cap. xi. Tom. III. col. 1313. See before, page 618, note 2.)

(* August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. ad Dard. seu Epist. clxxxvii. cap. iii. 10. Tom. II. col. 681.)

[? Id. Lib. de Spir. et Lit. cap. xv. 27. Tom. X. col. 100. See before, page 618, note 12.]

[ Id. De Baptism. Contr. Donatist. Lib. I. cap. xy. 24. Tom. IX. col. 92. See before, page 595, note 15.]

[° Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. Gloss. in can. 48.col. 1937.)

[1o Of this author, under the name of Guilelmus Amigemensis, an account may be found J. A. Fabric. Biblioth. Lat. Med. et Inf. Ætat. Patav. 1754. Tom. III. p. 137. See also Oudin. De Script. Eccles. Lips. 1722. Tom. III. col. 50. It is said that he flourished about A.D. 1260; and that some of his works were preserved in manuscript at the monastery in which he lived. This appears to have been not far from Brussels. See Lud. Guicciardin. Belgic. Descr. Amst. 1652. pp. 125, 6.]

[" Ludolph. de Saxon. Vit. J. Christ. Lugd. 1510. Pars II. cap. lvi. fol. N. viii. 2.]

Johan. à S.
Andr, in
Epist. ante

If this word “hidden" so necessarily import a scoff, then must M. Harding

“ needs think that his own doctors scoff at him, and laugh him to scorn. Certainly it is no indifferent dealing, the words being all one, so favourably to allow them in his own books, and so bitterly to mislike them in all others.

Perhaps he will say, it is no catholic form of speech to say Christ lieth in the sacrament. And yet I see no great reason but it may stand as well with the catholic doctrine to say Christ lieth in the sacrament, as Christ sitteth in the sacrament. Yet Johannes à S. Andrea, a great doctor, and a special patron of that side, is well allowed to write thus, and that without any manner controlment or suspicion of scoff: Id... temporis contentio nulla erat, utrum corpus Christi insideret eucharistiæl: At that time there was no strife whether Christ's body were sitting in or upon the sacrament, or no.” Thus was it lawful for him to write; and his writings are taken for good and catholic.

But M. Harding saith : Christ's body is in the sacrament without circumscription or respect of place, strangely, wondrously, and singularly, and by the might of God's omnipotent power; and the manner of his being there is known only unto God. These be fair and orient and beautiful colours, but altogether without ground; and, to use the terms of M. Harding's religion, they are nothing else but accidents and shews without a subject.

It is a strange and a marvellous matter, that, this presence of Christ in the sacrament being so certain and so singular, as M. Harding seemeth to make it, yet all the old learned catholic fathers should so lightly pass it over in silence, without any manner mention, as if it were not worth the hearing ; or that M. Harding should so assuredly and so certainly know it, and yet God himself should not know it; or that God should know it, and yet, being a matter so singular and so necessary to be known, should never reveal the same to any either of the learned fathers or of the holy apostles, or make them privy to that knowledge.

Indeed it behoveth us to humble our hearts unto the miracles and marvellous works of God. But every M. Harding's fantasy is not a miracle. The heretic Praxeas said, even as now M. Harding saith: Deo nihil est difficile : “Unto God nothing is hard.” But Tertullian, that learned father, answered him then, even as we now answer M. Harding : Si tam abrupte in præsumptionibus nostris utamur hac sententia, quidvis de Deo confingere poterimus: “If we so rashly use this sentence to serve our presumptions (or fantasies), we may imagine of God what we list.”

St Stephen saw Christ in heaven “standing :" St Paul saith, Christ is now at the right hand of God “sitting ;" which thing also we confess in the articles of our faith. But in the sacrament, saith M. Harding, Christ is present without any manner such circumscription or circumstance or order of place; that is to say, as great in quantity as he was upon the cross, and yet neither standing, nor sitting, nor lying, nor leaning, nor kneeling, nor walking, nor resting, nor moving, nor having any manner proportion or position of his body, either upward or downward, or backward or forward; a very body, and yet not as a body; in a place, and yet not as in a place.

This is M. Harding's catholic doctrine, without scripture, without council, without doctor, without any liking or sense of reason. Yet must every man receive the same at M. Harding's hand as the singular, strange, wonderful, omnipotent work of God.

To conclude, Christ's body is in the mystical bread of the holy communion, not really, or corporally, or in deed, as M. Harding fancieth, but as in a sacrament and in a mystery; even as the blood of Christ is in the water of baptism.

Tertull. contr. Prax.

Acts vii.

Col. iii.

[ Id autem temporis contentio nulla fuit, an verum corpus Christi sacræ eucharistiae insideret.Joan, a Sanct. Andr, in Epist. ante Liturg. Sanct.

Patr. Antv. 1560. fol. 2, 2.]

[? Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Adv. Prax. 10. p. 641. See before, page 490.]




Or that ignorance is the mother and cause of true devotion and obedience.


Fol. 77.

Master Jewel had great need of articles for some shew to be made against the catholic church, when he advised himself to put this in for an article. Verily, this is none of the highest mysteries, nor none of the greatest keys of our religion, as he saith it is, but untruly, and knoweth that for an untruth. For

himself imputeth it to D. Cole, in his replies to him, as a strange saying

by him uttered in the disputation at Westminster, to the wondering of the most part of the honourable and worshipful of this realm3. If it were one of the highest mysteries and greatest keys of the catholic religion, I trust the most part of the honourable and worshipful of the realm would not wonder at it. Con

cerning the matter itself I leave it to D. Cole. He is of age to an

swer for himself. Whether he said it or no, I know not. As he is learned, wise, and godly, so I doubt not but, if he said it, therein he had a good

meaning, and can shew good reason for the same, if he may be adκατά την διάνοιαν, και

mitted to declare his saying, as wise men would the laws to be deuri kata clared, so as the mind be taken, and the word spoken not always ρητόν.

rigorously exacted5.

John ix.


Here M. Harding allegeth no doctor but Doctor Cole. And touching the matter itself, he thinketh this error well excused, for that it is not the principal key of his religion. Howbeit, he that in most honourable assembly doubted not openly to pronounce these words, “I tell you, ignorance is the mother of devotion,” was thought then to esteem the same as no small key of his religion, Verily, it appeareth by the whole practice and policy of that side, they are fully persuaded that without deep ignorance of the people it is not possible for their church to stand.

Therefore they chase the simple from the scriptures, and drown them in ignorance, and suffer them utterly to know nothing, neither the profession they made in baptism, nor the meaning of the holy mysteries, nor the price of Christ's blood, nor wherein or by whom they may be saved, nor what they desire of God, either when they pray together in the church or when they privately pray alone.

“ They shut up the kingdom of heaven before men; and neither will they Matt. xxiii. enter themselves, nor suffer others that would enter.” And, as it is written by the prophet Esay: Dicunt videntibus, Nolite videre: “ They say unto them that see, Isai. XXX. Stop your eyes, and see no more.” “As the people is, such is the priest ; and as Isai. xxiv. the priest is, such is the people.” “ The blind is set to guide the blind.”

Thus they welter in darkness and in the shadow of death. And yet, as it is written in the book of Wisdom: Non satis est illis errasse circa scientiam Dei ; Wisd. xiv. sed in magno viventes inscitice bello, tot et tanta mala pacem appellant: “ They

Matt. xv.

[ See before, pages 57, 78.]

[' H. A. 1564 omits this reference, It appears in H. A. 1565.]

[ H. A. 1564 and H. A. 1565 add August. de

Trin, Lib. 1. cap. iv.

Hæc mea fides est, quoniam hæc est catholica fides.

This is my faith, forasmuch as this is the catholic faith.]

cap. xix.

John xii.

Concil. Tolet.
IV. can. 24.

August. in
Psal. xxxiii.
Conc. I.

Dist. 38. Si

Gregor. in
Pastor. Lib.

thought it not sufficient to be deceived and blinded in the knowledge of God; but, living in such a war of ignorance, all these evils they call peace," and make

the people believe it is obedience, catholic faith, and devotion; or rather, as Iren. Lib. ii. Irenæus writeth against the Valentinian heretics : Veritatis ignorantiam cogni

tionem vocant? : “Ignorance of the truth and blindness they call knowledge.”

By these policies they over-rule the church of God, and keep the people in Judg. xvi.

obedience; even as the Philistines, after they had once shorn off Samson's hair and bored out his eyes, notwithstanding the strength and sturdiness of his body, were able to lead him whither they listed at their pleasure. “ For he that walketh in the dark knoweth not whither to go.”

In the council of Toledo in Spain it is written thus : Mater omnium errorum ignorantia?: "Ignorance is the mother (not of devotion, but) of all errors." Like as St Augustine also saith: illis regnum ignorantia,... id est, regnum erroris 3 : “ There was in them the kingdom of ignorance ; that is to say, the kingdom (not of devotion, but) of error.”

St Hierome saith : Scripturarum ignorantia Christi ignorantia est4: “The juxta.

ignorance of the scriptures is the ignorance of Christ.”

And St Gregory saith : Qui ea, quæ sunt Domini, nesciunt, a Domino nesciuni. cap. i.

turs: “Whoso know not the things that pertain unto the Lord, be not known of the Lord.”

But above all others these words of the ancient learned father Origen are Num. specially worthy to be noted: Dæmonibus est super omnia genera tormentorum,

et super omnes pænas, si quem videant verbo Dei operam dare, scientiam divinæ legis et mysteria scripturarum intentis studiis perquirentem. In hoc eorum omnis flamma est: in hoc uruntur incendio. Possident enim omnes, qui versantur in ignorantia : “ Unto the devils it is a torment above all kinds of torments, and a pain above all pains, if they see any man reading the word of God, and with fervent study searching the knowledge of God's law and the mysteries and secrets of the scriptures. Herein standeth all the flame of the devils : in this fire they are tormented.” For they are seized and possessed of all them that remain in ignorance.

To be short, Moses wished that all the whole people might have understand1 Thess. iv. ing, and be able to prophesy. St Paul wished that the whole people might

daily more and more increase in the knowledge of God, and saith: “ Whoso continueth in ignorance, and knoweth not, shall not be known.”

God, the God of light and truth, remove all ignorance and darkness from our

hearts; that we may fly? the spirit of error, and know the voice of the great Eph. iv.

Shepherd; that we grow into a full perfect 8 man in Christ Jesu, and be
not blown away with every blast of vain doctrine; that we may be able
to know the only, the true, and the living God, and his only-
begotten Son Jesus Christ: to whom, with the Father
and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory,
for ever and ever. Amen,



Num. xi.

1 Cor. xiv.

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John X.

[ Iren. Op. Par. 1710. Contr. Hær. Lib. II. cap. xiv. 7, p. 135; where agnitionem.]

[’ Ignorantia mater cunctorum errorum.-Concil. Tolet. iv. cap. 24. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. II. p. 201.]

[3 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. xxxiii. Enarr, i. 8. Tom. IV. col. 213.)

[* ...ignoratio scripturarum ignoratio Christi est. -Hieron. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret.

Gratian. Decr. Prim. Pars, Dist. xxxviii. can. 9. col. 190.)

[ Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Reg. Pastor. Prim. Pars, cap. i. Tom. II. col. 3.)

[® Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Num. Hom. xxvii. 8. Tom. II. p. 378; where in isto uruntur. See before, page 57, note 14.]

[? Flee, 1565.]
[8 Perfite, 1565.]

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