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Op. Imperf.



Of this undoubted truth M. Harding gathereth an impertinent conclusion. For

The Sathus he reasoneth: “ If Christ be verily under the form of bread in the sacra

crament ment, then is he there entire and whole, God and man.” Indeed, the first being inferior granted, the rest must needs follow. But how is M. Harding so well assured of to God's the first? What old doctor or ancient father ever taught him that Christ's Word. body is really and fleshly present under these forms or fantasies of bread and wine? If the learned fathers say so, it were good to shew it; if they say not so, it is great shame to plead it. Verily, all that M. Harding hath yet said is not able to prove it.

Now, good christian reader, for thy better satisfaction in this case, being so dangerous, wherein whoso erreth is an idolater, and knoweth not God, it may please thee briefly to consider both the ancient godly fathers' undoubted judgment touching this sacrament, and also the ancient order and usage of the same.

First, concerning the judgment of the fathers in this behalf, St Chrysostom saith: In vasis sanctificatis non ... verum corpus Christi, sed mysterium corporis Chrysost. in Christi continetur : “In the holy vessels not the very or true body of Christ, but Hom. The the mystery of Christ's body is contained.”

St Augustine saith: Interrogo vos, fratres, ... dicite mihi, quid plus videtur . Quæst. 1. robis, corpus Christi, an verbum Christi ? Si vultis vere respondere, hoc dicere

Interrogo debetis, quod non sit minus verbum Dei, quam corpus Christi?: “I demand of you this question, my brethren, answer me. Whether, think you, is greater, the body of Christ (meaning thereby the sacrament), or the word of Christ? If ye will answer truly, this must ye say, that the word of God is no less than the body of Christ.” St Hierome saith : Ego corpus Jesu evangelium puto ... Et quamvis, Hieron. in quod Christus dicit, Qui non manducat meam carnem, &c. possit intelligi de mysterio, tamen verius corpus Christi et sanguis ejus sermo scripturarum est8 : “I take the Verius. body of Jesus to be the gospel. And albeit these words of Christ, 'He that eateth not my flesh, &c.' may be taken of the sacrament, yet in truer sense the word of the scriptures is the body and blood of Christ.”

Likewise saith Origen: Quod si circa corpus Christi servandum tanta utimini Orig. in cautela,...quomodo putatis, minoris esse periculi verbum Dei neglexisse, quam corpus 13. ejus ?9 “ If ye take such heed in keeping (the sacrament, which is called) the body of Christ, how can you think there is less danger in despising the word of God, than there is in despising (the sacrament that is called) the body of God ?"

If the sacrament were indeed and really the body of Christ, and so our very Lord and God, thus to compare it with a creature, and to make it inferior unto the same, as St Augustine, St Hierome, Origen, and other godly fathers do, it were great blasphemy.

St Augustine saith : Plus est unus Deus, quam unus baptismus. Neque enim August. de est baptismus Deus. Sed ideo magnum aliquid est, quia sacramentum est Dei 10 : contr. Petii. “One God is more than one baptism. For baptism is no God. But yet is baptism a great thing, because it is a sacrament of God.

Origen, that great learned father, saith : Ille panis, qui sanctificatur per verbum Orig. in Dei et obsecrationem, juxta id quod habet materiale, in ventrem abit, et in secessum X. ejicituril: “ The bread that is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer, touching the material part of it (which is the sacrament) entereth into the belly, and passeth into the draught.” These words were horrible to be spoken, if the sacrament indeed were Christ and God.

St Ambrose, expounding these words of Christ, “Give us this day our daily

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Exod. Hom.


cap. V.

Matt. cap.

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[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. Hom. xi. Tom. VI. p. lxiii. See before, pages 538, 9.]

[? Interrogo vos, ... dicite mihi, quid vobis plus esse videtur, verbum Dei, an corpus Christi ? Si verum vultis respondere, hoc utique dicere &c.August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Sec. Pars, Caus. I. Quæst. i. can. 94. col. 540. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Serm. ccc. 2. Tom. V. Append. col. 504.]

[8 Ego &c. Et quando dicit, Qui non come

derit carnem meam &c. licet et in mysterio possit intelligi : tamen &c.—Hieron. Op. Breviar. in Psalt. Psal. cxlvii. Tom. II. Append. col. 504.]

[° Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Exod. Hom. xiii. 3. Tom. II. pp. 176, 7; where corpus ejus conservandum, and esse piaculi.)

[° August. Op. Lib. de Unic. Bapt. contr. Petil. cap. v. 8. Tom. IX. col. 531 ; where baptismus Deus est.)

[" Orig. Op. Comm. In Matt. Tom. xi. 14, Tom. III. p. 499.]

Ambros. de




Op. Imperf.
Hom. 49.

Sacram. Lib.


The Sa

bread,” saith thus : Hodie ... dat nobis hunc panem, quem ipse quotidie sacerdos crament a

consecrat suis verbis.... Possumus et ipsum Dominum accipere, qui... ait, Ego sum Creature, panis vitæl : "Even this day Christ giveth us this (daily) bread, (that is, the

sacrament), which he himself, being the priest, doth daily consecrate with his own words. We may take the same daily bread also for our Lord himself, that saith, 'I am the bread of life.'”. Hereby it is plain, that “ Christ himself” and “the sacrament” are sundry things; and that neither “ the sacrament” is “ Christ him

self,” neither “ Christ himself” is “the sacrament.” Chrysost. in St Chrysostom saith : Habent et hæretici2 in schismate similiter ecclesias, &c. 3 :

“ Heretics 4 in their schism have likewise churches, as well as have the catholics; likewise the holy scriptures, likewise bishops, likewise orders of clerks, likewise baptism, likewise the sacrament of the holy communion), likewise all other things; and, to be short, Christ himself.” Here likewise this holy father St Chrysostom, contrary to M. Harding's fantasy, presupposeth a great difference between

“ the sacrament” and “ Christ himself.” But what can be so plain as these words of St Ambrose touching the same ? Venisti ad altare: vidisti sacramenta iv. cap. iii. posita super altare; et ipsam quidem miratus es creaturam. Tamen creatura

solennis et notab: “Thou camest to the altar, and sawest the sacrament laid upon the altar; and thou marvelledst at the creature. And yet it is 6 a creature common and known.” Here St Ambrose by express words calleth the sacrament

not Lord or God, but a creature. Epiphan. in Therefore Epiphanius thereof writeth thus : Hoc est rotundo figurce, et insen

sibile, quantum ad potentiam, &c. ... Dominum vero nostrum novimus totum sensum, totum sensitivum, totum Deum, totum moventem? : “ This thing (that is, the sacrament) is of a round form (for it was a great thick round cake), and, touching any power that is in it, utterly void of sense. But we know that our Lord is whole sense, whole sensible, whole God, whole moving." In these words between Christ and the sacrament appeareth likewise a great difference.

Justinus Martyr saith : Alimento humido et sicco admonemur, quæ propter nos cum Tryph. Deus Dei Filius perpessus sit8 : “By dry and moist food (whereby he meaneth the

sacrament) we are taught what things God the Son of God hath suffered for us." Cyril. in Cyrillus calleth the sacrament fragmenta panis', “fragments or pieces of iv. cap. xiv. bread.” August, in St Augustine calleth it buccellam dominicam 10, “the Lord's morsel.”

Certainly it had been horrible wickedness to have called the sacrament by any of these names, either “a creature," or a thing insensible and void of life,

a food dry and moist,” or “a morsel,” or “a fragment,” or “a piece of bread,” if the holy fathers had been persuaded, as M. Harding beareth us in

hand, that the sacrament was their Lord and God. Lit. Chry.

Chrysostom, in the communion that commonly beareth his name, after the consecration prayeth thus: “We beseech thee, O God, to send down thy Holy Ghost upon these (sacraments or) presents laid before us 11.”

And M. Harding himself in his mass in like manner after consecration maketh his prayers unto God in this wise : “Look, O Lord, upon these sacraments with a gracious and a cheerful countenance, and vouchsafe to receive the same as thou didst sometime receive the oblations of Abel thy child, and the sacrifice of our


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Just. Mart.

Johan. Lib.

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Tractat. 26.



['Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Lib. de Bened. Patriarch. cap. ix. 38, 9. Tom. I. cols. 524, 5; where eum for hunc panem.]

[? Hæreses, 1565, 1609.]

[2 ...omnia... habent et hæreses illæ in schismate: similiter ecclesias, similiter et ipsas scripturas divinas, similiter episcopos, ceterosque ordines clericorum, similiter baptismum, aliter eucharistiam, et cetera omnia, denique ipsum Christum.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in Matt. ex cap. xxiv. Hom. xlix. Tom. VI. p. cciv.]

[* Heresies, 1565, 1609.]

[Ambros. Op. De Sacram. Lib. iv. cap. iii. 8. Tom. II, cols. 366, 7; where creaturam solemnem et notam.]

[ Is it, 1565, 1609.]

[? Epiph. Op. Par. 1622. Ancorat. 57. Tom. II. p. 60.)

[® Just. Mart. Op. Par. 1742. Dial. cum Tryph. Jud. 117. p. 210.)

[° Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. In Joan. Evang. Lib. iv. cap. ii. p. 360. See before, page 149, note 14.]

(10 Non enim buccella Dominica venenum fuit Judæ.-August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat. xxvi. 11. Tom. III, Pars u, col. 498.]

[" και δεόμεθα, και ικετεύομεν, κατάπεμψον το Πνεύμα σου το άγιον εφ' ημάς και επί τα at pokeíueva òwpa tauta.-Lit. Chrysost. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. p. 97.]

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patriarch Abraham, and the thing that was offered unto thee by the high priest Melchisedech 12.”

It were very much for M. Harding to say that he prayeth God that the Holy Ghost may come upon Christ, that 13 God at his request and for his sake will favourably and cheerfully behold his own Son; or so receive him, being our Lord and God, as he sometime received a goat, or a wether, or any other like corruptible kind of sacrifice.

Howbeit, if he speak plainly, and dissemble not, as some of his friends are afraid he doth, then is this undoubtedly the very tenor and meaning of his prayer. But if he dissemble, and speak otherwise than he thinketh, and that at the secretest and holiest part of all his mass, then by his own confession, and by the authority of his own mass-book, the sacrament is not Lord and God.

In the council holden at Carthage under St Cyprian, Cæcilius a Bilta saith thus: Antistes diaboli audet eucharistiam facere 14 : “A priest of the devil dareth Cypr. in Con

cil. Carthag. to make the sacrament;" which words, by M. Harding's exposition, must needs ad Quirin. sound thus : A priest of the devil dareth to make our Lord and God. Which saying notwithstanding among the priests of M. Harding's side is not so strange. For thus they dare to say without fear or shame: Sacerdos est creator Creatoris Stella Cleric.

. sui : qui creavit vos, dedit vobis creare se : qui creavit vos absque vobis, creatur a Serm. 111. vobis mediantibus vobis 15: “ The priest is the creator of his own Creator: he that created you of nought hath given you power to create himself of nought: he that made you without you is made of you by mean of you." These words sometime had been counted blasphemy: but now they must be taken as good and catholic, as uttered by the patriarchs of that profession.

Thus much of the judgment of the old fathers touching this question.

Now, for the ancient order and usage of the sacrament, it may please thee, good christian reader, to understand, that for the space of six hundred years after Christ it cannot appear that ever any man adored or worshipped the sacrament with godly honour: which is a great token it was not then accounted our Lord and God.

The manner was then in many churches, that all such remanents and portions Hesych. in of the sacrament, as were not received of the people, should be burnt and consumed into ashes 16: which thing undoubtedly had not been sufferable among christian people, if the holy learned fathers had thought the sacrament had been the very Lord and God.

Yet pope Hildebrand, that forbade priests' marriage, took the sacrament Beno Card. and demanded of it certain secret questions of things to come; and, because it would not or could not speak and make him answer, in his fury he threw it into the fire 17.

They have honoured the pope by the name of God, as it appeareth by sundry their decrees and canons; and in their books they have not doubted to write thus: Dominus Deus noster papa 18 : “Our Lord God the pope.” But Extrav. Jo

han. XXII. Cum nter. In Gloss.

Dist. 56. ["? Supra quæ propitio ac sereno vultu respicere 1527. Lib. 11. cap. viii. fol. 49. 2.]

Satis evi.

dcuter. digneris, et accepta habere sicuti accepta habere ["? Johannes Portuensis episcopus ... ait, Tale dignatus es munera pueri tui justi Abel, et sacri- quid fecit Hildebrandus et nos, unde deberemus vivi ficium patriarchæ nostri Abrahæ, et quod tibi obtulit incendi: significans de sacramento corporis Domini, summus sacerdos tuus Melchisedech.--Missal. ad Us.

quod Hildebrandus, responsa divina quærens contra ac Consuet. Sar. Par. 1527. Can. Miss. fol. 159.] imperatorem, fertur injecisse igni contradicentibus [13 Or that, 1565.)

cardinalibus qui assistebant ei.- Benon. Card. Vit. [" Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. Concil. Carthag. 1. Hildebr. in Fascic. Rer. Expet. et Fug. Lond. 1690. p. 230; where antistites, and audeant.]

Tom. I. p. 79.] [15 Iste qui creavit me dedit mihi creare se : [18 Extrav. Joan. XXII. ad calc. Sext. Decretal. qui creavit me sine me creatur mediante me.-Stell. Par. 1585. Tit. xiv. Gloss. in cap. 4. col. 153. See Cleric. Davent. 1498. fol. B. ii. 2.

before, page 96, note 4. Sacerdos est altior regibus, felicior angelis, creator Nicol. Papa in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. sui Creatoris.—Serm. Discip. Venet. 1598. Serm.cxi. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Prima Pars, Dist. xcvi. can. p. 420. This sentence is a quotation from one termed 7. col. 467. See before, page 96, note 5. “ quidam doctor.")

Sext, Decretal. Lib. 1. Tit. vi. Gloss. in cap. 17. [16 Quod nunc videmus etiam sensibiliter in col. 132. ecclesia fieri, ignique tradi quæcunque remanere Clement, Gloss, in Proæm. col. 4.] contigerit inconsumpta, &c.—Isych, in Levit. Basil.

Levit. Lib. ii. cap.


De Elect.
et Electi
In proæm.
Anno 1226
Anno 126.3.

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Clement. Lib. iii. Tit. 16. Si Dominum. Anno Domini 1308.

Hieron. in
Psalm. xli.

the sacrament, which now they say is Lord and God, they never neither entitled by the name of God, nor worshipped it with godly honour, before the time of Honorius III., nor allowed it any holy-day before the time of Urbanus

If the world had been well assured that the sacrament had been the Lord and God, it is not likely it should have continued so long without either godly title or godly honour.

In the end pope Clement the fifth granted out large and liberal indulgences to all that would frequent this new holy-day, to countenance this new religion: “For the first even-song, matins, mass, and latter? even-song, prime, and hours, for every of these times a hundred days of pardon, toties quoties, a poena et culpa 3." Thus the people was well allured, and thus this new holyday and new religion gat great credit.

St Hierome saith: Pagani deos suos digito ostendunt; et ob hoc ingerunt mihi opprobria. Unde sciant, quod ego mente Deum meum reconditum teneo, et per interiorem hominem in ipso habito 4: “The heathens point their gods with their finger, and that they says to my reproach. But let them know that I have my God hidden in my heart, and that by my inward man I dwell in him.”

Certainly, if the sacrament could speak unto M. Harding, thus it would speak: “I am a creature," as St Ambrose teacheth you: “I am a fragment or piece of bread," as St Cyril teacheth you: “I am a thing insensible and void of life," as Epiphanius teacheth you: “I am a corporal food, and pass into your bodies, and increase the substance of your flesh, as other meats do,” as Origenes and Irenæus have taught you: “I mould and putrify, and am subject to corruption," as your eyes and senses may easily teach you: “I am a sacrament of Christ, I am not Christ: I am a creature of God, I am not God: ye do wrong unto me, ye do wrong unto God: the worms of the earth and the birds of the air will condemn your folly: give not this honour unto me: give godly honour unto God.” If the sacrament could speak unto M. Harding, thus would it speak; and, being a dumb and a lifeless thing and not able to speak, yet thus it speaketh.

God open the eyes and hearts of all men, that they may see and discern the almighty and everliving God from a corruptible creature that is no God! Amen.

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[' Steuchus, 1565, 1609.— The works of Aug. Steuchus are collected in three volumes fol. Venet. 1591; but the editor has not found in them any thing to the purpose of this reference.]

[? Later, 1565.]

[ Nos enim Christi fideles ad colendum tantum festum et celebrandum donis volentes spiritualibus animare, omnibus vere pænitentibus et confessis, qui matutinali officio festi ejusdem in ecclesia, in qua idem celebrabitur, interfuerint, centum: Qui vero missæ, totidem : Qui autem in primis ipsius festi vesperis interfuerint, similiter centum: Qui vero in secundis, totidem : Illis vero, qui Primæ, Tertiæ, et Sextæ, Nonæ, ac Completorii officiis interfuerint, pro

qualibet horarum ipsarum quadraginta: Illis autem qui per octavas illius festi matutinalibus, vespertinis, missæ, ac prædictarum horarum officiis interfuerint, centum dies singulis octavarum ipsarum diebus de omnipotentis Dei misericordia, ac beatorum apostolorum ejus Petri et Pauli auctoritate confisi de injunctis sibi pænitentiis relaxamus.—Clemens V. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Clement. Lib. 11. Tit. xvi. cols. 248, 9. See also ibid. col. 241.)

[' Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Breviar. in Psalt. Psal. xli. Tom. II. Append. col. 232; where mihi improperia, quia ego, and cum ipso.]

[* Lay, 1565.]
[ Are, 1611.)





Or that the people was then taught to believe that the body of Christ remaineth in the sacrament as long as the accidents of the bread remain there without corruption.



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These five articles here following are school points, the discussion whereof is more curious than necessary. Whether the faithful people were then, that is to say, for the space of six hundred years after Christ, taught to believe concerning this blessed sacrament precisely according to the purport of all these articles, or no, I know not. Verily, I think they were taught the truth of this matter simply and plainly, yet so as nothing was hidden from them that in those quiet times (quiet, I mean, touching this point of faith) was thought necessary for them to know. If sithence there hath been more taught, or rather if the truth hath in some other form of words been declared for a more evidence and clearness in this behalf to be had, truth itself always remaining one; this hath proceeded of the diligence and earnest care of the church to repress the pertinacy of heretics, who have within these last six hundred years impugned the truth herein, and to meet with their perverse and froward objections; as hath been thought necessary to find out such wedges as might best serve to rive such knotty blocks.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. M. Harding passeth lightly over these articles following, as being only (as he saith) certain unnecessary school points, to be debated privately among the learned, and nothing pertaining to the simple capacity of the people. Which thing may the better appear by that he is not able to avouch any of the same by the authority of any ancient learned father.

It is true that the doctrine of the church touching the sacrament in the old time was delivered simply and plainly unto the people. But M. Harding himself well knoweth that doctrine was nothing like unto this doctrine.

St Augustine taught the people thus: Christus in coena figuram corporis sui August. in commendavit?: “Christ at his supper gave a figure of his body.”

St Ambrose saith unto the people: Post consecrationem corpus (Christi] signi- Ambros, de ficatur 8: “After consecration the body of Christ is signified.”

St Chrysostom saith unto the people: Si mortuus Christus non est, cujus sym- Chrysost. in bolum ac signum hoc sacrificium est'? “ If Christ died not, whose sign and whose 83. token is this sacrifice ?” And, to leave infinite other like authorities to like purpose, St Augustine thus taught the people: Non hoc corpus, quod videtis, manducaturi August, in estis ; nec bibituri illum sanguinem, quem fusuri sunt, qui me crucifigent 10: “Ye shall not eat (with your bodily mouths) this body that you see, nor shall you drink that blood which they shall shed that shall crucify me.”

Psalm. iii.

illis qui init. Myst. cap. ix.


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[? August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. iii. Enarr. 1. Tom. IV. col. 7. See before, page 447.]

[8 Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. Lib. de Myst. cap. ix. 54. Tom. II. col. 339.]

[° Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. Ixxxii. Tom. VII. p. 783.]

[o August. Op. In Psalm. xcviii. Enarr. 9. Tom. IV. col, 1066. See before, page 451.]

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