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sorum propter verbum Dei, et propter testimonium Jesu, 8c.?: “I saw under the altar of God” in heaven “the souls of them that were slain for God's word, and for the testimony of Jesus.' What thing is there either more reverend or more honourable than to rest under that altar” in heaven, “ in which sacrifices are made and oblations are offered unto God, and wherein” no mortal man, but “the Lord himself is the priest ? For so it is written: "Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedech.' It is right” not that the bodies, but “that the souls of the just should remain under the altar; because that upon that altar” in heaven “ Christ's body is offered. And well it is that just men do there require revengeance of their blood, where as Christ's blood for sinners is poured out.”
Immediately after this he intermeddleth somewhat touching altars or communion-tables in the earth. For thus he addeth further: Convenienter igitur, et quasi pro quodam consortio, ibi martyribus sepultura decreta est, ubi mors Domini quotidie celebratur, &c.2: “ Therefore upon good discretion, and in some token of fellowship, martyrs' burials are appointed in that place” here in earth “ where the Lord's death is daily remembered ; as the Lord himself saith : 'As often as ye shall do these things, ye shall set forth my death until I come.' I mean, that they that died for the Lord's death may rest under the mystery of his sacrament."
After this he returneth again to the souls of the blessed martyrs under the altar in heaven: Legimus plerosque justorum Abrahæ sinibus refoveri, &c.3 : “ We read,” saith St Augustine, “ that many just men are refreshed in Abraham's bosom ; and that many are in the pleasures of paradise. Yet no man
; deserved better than the martyrs to rest there” in heaven “where as Christ is both the sacrifice and the priest. I mean, that they may enjoy God's favour by the offering of that sacrifice, and may receive the blessing and ministry of that priest."
Hereby it is plain that St Augustine speaketh of heaven, and not of earth, nor of purgatory; of the souls received above, and not of the bodies buried beneath: for all these things St John, by revelation, saw in heaven. And for proof hereof St Augustine addeth further : Inter ceteros igitur martyres, quos sub ara Dei consistere prædicamus, etiam beatas illas infantum lactentium pro Christo primitias martyrum laudemus4 : “Therefore amongst the rest of the martyrs whom we say to be under the altar of God” in heaven “let us commend those blessed first-fruits of sucking infants that were martyrs for Christ."
This is St Augustine's plain and undoubted meaning. But M. Harding, to serve his turn, is fain of souls to make bodies ; of joy to make pain; and of heaven to make purgatory: and yet in all this great ado findeth neither opus operatum, nor his mass. Thus is it lawful for these men to carry about and to use their readers.
Touching the substance of this doctrine, which M. Harding now at last upon better advice seemeth in some part to mislike, notwithstanding it were
not long sithence generally received both in schools and churches, and counted Orig. In Matt. catholic, Origen, that ancient learned father, writeth thus : Quod sanctificatur
per verbum Dei, et per obsecrationem, non suapte natura sanctificat utentem. Nam id si esset, sanctificaret etiam illum, qui comedit indigne Domino5 : “ The thing that is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer, of his own nature”
[ Vidi enim sub &c. Quid reverentius, quid honorabilius dici potest, quam sub illa ara requiescere, in qua Deo sacrificium celebratur, in qua offeruntur hostiæ, in qua Dominus est sacerdos, sicut scriptum est, Tu es sacerdos in æternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech? Recte sub altari justorum animæ requiescunt; quia super altare corpus Domini offertur. Nec immerito illic justi vindictam sanguinis postulant, ubi etiam pro peccatoribus Christi sanguis effunditur. - August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Serm. ccxxi. 1. in Natal. Ss. Innoc. Tom. V. Append. col. 365.)
[? Convenienter &c. Sicut ipse ait, Quotiens
cumque hæc feceritis, mortem Domini annuntiabitis, donec veniat: scilicet ut qui propter mortem ejus mortui fuerant, sub sacramenti ejus mysterio requiescant.— Id. ibid.]
[ Legimus &c. nonnullos paradisi amenitate lætari : nemo tamen melius &c. (see before, page 754.] et benedictionem functionemque sacerdotis accipiant.--Id. ibid.]
[* Inter &c. beati illi infantes lactentes, pro Christo primitiæ martyrum, ... coronas meruerunt.Id. ibid.)
[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. Comm. in Matt, Tom. xi. 14. Tom. III. p. 499.]
1 Cor. x.
or ex opere operato “sanctifieth not him that useth it. For otherwise it should sanctify him that eateth unworthily of the Lord.”
Again he saith: Assiduitas communicationis, et alia ... similia, ... non ipsæ Orig. in Matt. sunt justitiæ, sed condituræ habentur justitiarum. Res autem spirituales, quæ ex se ipsis justitiæ sunt, dicuntur judicium, ... misericordia, et fides 6 : “ The often using of the communion, and other like things, be not righteousness itself,” of itself or of the work that there is wrought, “but only the seasoning and setting forth of righteousness. But the spiritual things, which be righteousness itself, are called judgment, mercy, and faith.”
So St Hierome: Ne quis confidat in eo solo, quod baptizatus est ; aut in Hieron. esca spirituali vel potu putet Deum sibi parcere, si peccaverit?: “Let no man presume of this thing only, that he is baptized; nor let him think that God for receiving the spiritual meat or drinking the spiritual cup,” ex opere operato, “will pardon him if he offend."
So St Augustine: Non ait, mundi estis propter baptisma quo loti estis ; sed August. in .. propter verbum, quod locutus sum vobis 8 : “ Christ saith not, Ye are clean 80. for the baptism's sake wherewith ye are washed; but for the word's sake that I have spoken unto you." And again : Foelix venter qui te portavit, &c.8 : August, in “Blessed is that womb that bare thee. But Christ answered : ‘Nay, blessed 10. be they that hear the word of God and keep the same:' that is to say: My mother, whom ye call blessed, thereof is blessed, for that she keepeth the word of God."
Likewise again: Materna propinquitas nihil matri profuisset, nisi felicius Chris- August. de tum [in] corde, quam [in] carne gestasset 10 : “ The nearness of mother's blood Virgin. should have profited Christ's mother nothing at all, unless she had more blessedly carried Christ in her heart than in her body."
Verily, to ascribe felicity or remission of sin, which is the inward work of the Holy Ghost, unto any manner outward action whatsoever, it is a superstitious, a gross, and a Jewish error.
Origen of the sacrament of circumcision writeth thus : Circumcisionis nisi Orig. in Luc. reddatur ratio, nutus tantum est circumcisio, et opus mutumli: “Unless there be a reason yielded of the meaning of circumcision, it is but an outward shew and a dumb labour,” and availeth nothing.
And touching the use and order of the holy mysteries, Christ saith not, Do this for remission of your sins; but, “Do this in my remembrance.”
The only and everlasting sacrifice for sin is the Son of God crucified upon the cross.
He sitteth now in the nature and substance of our flesh at the right hand of his Father, “and evermore maketh intercession for us, and is the only sacrifice and propitiation for our sins.”
Whatsoever doctrine is contrary to this doctrine is wicked and blasphemous, and, as M. Harding hath confessed, injurious to the glory and cross of Christ.
[ Id. In Matt. Comm. Ser. 20. Tom. III. p. 843; where justitiæ sunt, justitiarum habentur, and spiritales que a semetipsis.]
[? Ne quis confidens in eo solum, quod &c. ... sibi Deum parcere &c.—Hieron, Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. 1. ad Cor. cap. x. Tom. V. col. 994.]
[8 August. Op. In Johan. Evang. cap. xv. Tractat. lxxx. 3. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 703.]
[° Felix venter qui te portavit. Et ille, Immo
felices qui audiunt verbum Dei, et custodiunt. Hoc est dicere, Et mater mea, quam appellastis felicem, inde felix, quia verbum Dei custodit.-Id. ibid. cap. Ü. Tractat. x. 3. col. 369.]
[10 Id. Lib. de Sanct. Virgin, cap. iii. 3. Tom. VI. col. 342; where Mariæ for matri.]
["1 Nisi enim circumcisionis ratio reddatur, natus est circumcisio et opus mutum.-Orig. Op. In Luc. Hom. v. Tom. III. p. 937.)
OF LORD AND GOD.
THE TWENTY-FIRST ARTICLE.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
Or that then any christian man called the sacrament and God.
(OF CALLING THE SACRAMENT LORD AND GOD.-ARTICLE XXI. H. A. 1564.)
forms were never called the sacra
Lib. iv. cap.
ing in untrue exposition. For this was not these fathers' meaning.
This word “sacrament” (as is declared before) is of the fathers taken two ways : The two hun- (239) either for the only outward forms of bread and wine, which are Sacrament twó thirty-ninth the holy sign of the very body and blood of Christ present, and under ways taken. Por the only them contained; or for the whole substance of the sacrament, as it consisteth of
the outward forms and also of the very body and blood of Christ (240) verily pre
sent, (240) which St Augustine calleth the invisible grace and the thing in Sentent. Christ's body, of the sacrament", (240) and Irencbus calleth it rem cælestem, “the consect. Dish the ancient heavenly thing," as that other rem terrenam, “ the earthly thing.'
Taken the first way (as among the learned fathers it was never taken),
no christian man ever honoured it with the name of Lord and God: for that truth, stand- were plain idolatry to attribute the name of the Creator to the creature. But
taken in the second signification (as no ancient father ever took it), it hath
under his roof, and exhorteth him that shall receive it to humble him- Locos, Hom. 5. The two hun- self, and to say (241) unto it: Domine, non sum dignus, ut intres sub tectum
meum 5 : “I, Lord”, am not worthy that thou enter under my roof.”
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Whosoever erreth in this article committeth idolatry, and giveth God's honour to a corruptible creature, that is no god. Therefore it behoved M. Harding herein to leave his guesses, and to allege none but good, substantial, and weighty reasons; and that so much the more, for that none of the old catholic fathers ever either erected temples or proclaimed holy-days in the name of the sacrament, or ever willed the people to adore it as the maker of heaven and earth, or to believe in it, or to call it God.
This notwithstanding, the reasons that M. Harding hath here found out are so slender and so simple, and so guilefully and untruly gathered, that his friends
[ August. in Lib. Sentent. Prosp. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 48. cols. 1936, 7. See before, pages 592, 617.]
[? Iren. Op. Par. 1710. Contr. Hær. Lib. iv. cap. xviii. 5. p. 251. See before, page 517, note 15.]
[8 Also for the, H. A. 1564. But H. A. 1565 omits for.]
[* An, H. A. 1564. But H. A. 1565 has a.]
[5 Orig. Op. Lat. Basil. 1545. In Divers. Hom.v. Tom. II. p. 308. See before, page 536, note 2.]
[ Lord, I, H. A. 1564.]
of that side may happily suspect he had? used some collusion to betray their
But to take away occasion of cavil, first, we stedfastly believe and plainly confess, that Christ is the Son of God, very God of very God; that “he is the 1 John v. true God, and life everlasting ;" that “he is God blessed for ever;" and that “ whosoever trusteth in him shall never be confounded.” And we utterly detest and accurse the Arians, the Nestorians, the Photinians, and all other like heretics, that either have taught or any way do teach the contrary. Neither is this question moved of Christ himself, unto whom we know all manner godly reverence and honour is due; but only of the mystical bread, which by the witness of the catholic learned fathers is not Christ himself, but only a sacrament of Christ. “Which sacrament,” Irenæus saith, “standeth of two things, the one earthly, the other heavenly:" not that the one is really lapped up or shut within the other, wherein resteth M. Harding's error; but that, as Chrysostom saith, "the one is Chrysost. in sensible, the other intelligible 8,” as it is also in the sacrament of baptism ; or 83. that, as St Augustine saith, " the one part is the sign, the other the thing signified";" or that, as Tertullian saith, “the one part is the figure, the other contr. Adithe thing figured 10.”
The sacrament is the earthly thing : Christ's body is the heavenly thing. The contr. Marc. sacrament is corruptible: Christ's body is glorious. The sacrament is laid upon the table: Christ's body is in heaven. The sacrament is received into our bodies : Christ's body is only received into our souls.
For manifest proof of this difference St Augustine writeth thus: Hujus rei August. in sacramentum ... alicubi quotidie, alicubi certis intervallis dierum in dominico præ- Frhet26. paratur, et de mensa dominica sumitur, quibusdam ad vitam, quibusdam ad exitium: res vero ipsa, cujus est sacramentum, omni homini ad vitam, nulli ad exitium, quicunque ejus particeps fuerit 11 : “ The sacrament of the body of Christ is prepared in the church in some places every day, in some places upon certain days; and is received from the Lord's table, of some unto life, of some unto condemnation. But the thing itself,” that is, the body of Christ, being in heaven, “whereof it is a sacrament, is received of every man unto life, and of no man to condemnation, whosoever be partaker of it." Again he saith : Qui non manet in Christo, &c. 12 : “ He that abideth not in Christ, nor hath Christ abiding in him, doubtless he De Consecr. eateth not his flesh, nor drinketh his blood, notwithstanding he eat and drink discordat." the sacrament of so great a thing unto his judgment."
By these few examples it is plain that the sacrament of Christ's body is one thing, and Christ's body itself is another thing; and that, in common and natural manner of speech, neither is Christ's body the sacrament, nor the sacrament Christ's body.
By these words of Irenæus M. Harding, as he hath no manner likelihood to prove that he seeketh for, so he utterly overthroweth his whole fantasy of transubstantiation. For Irenæus calleth the earthly part of the sacrament, not the forms and accidents, as M. Harding imagineth, but the very substance and nature of the bread, and that such bread as “increaseth and nourisheth the substance of our flesh.” For so he writeth: Ex quibus augetur et consistit carnis nostra Iren. Lib. V. substantia 13,
But Origen teacheth us, when we receive the sacrament, to say, Domine, non sum dignus; therefore, saith M. Harding, the sacrament was called Lord and God. Alas, what a miserable case is this, that cannot possibly stand without falsifying and maiming of the holy fathers! Of the falsifying afterward. But touching the maiming and mangling of these words of Origen, if 14 it might have pleased M.
Dist. 2. Qui
[? Hath, 1565.]
[ Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. Ixxxii. Tom. VII. p. 787. See before, page 464, note 2.]
[° August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. contr. Adimant. cap. xii. 3. Tom. VIII. col. 124. See before, page 592.)
["' Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Adv. Marcion. Lib. iv. 20. p. 571. See before, page 447.]
[" August. Op. In Johan. Evang. cap. vi. Tractat.
xxvi, 15. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 500; where in dominica mensa præparatur, and cujus sacramentum est.)
["? Id. in Lib. Sentent. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 65. col. 1946. See before, page 519, note 13.)
[13 Iren. Op. Contr. Hær. Lib. v. cap. ii. 3. p. 294.]
["* If, wanting in 1611.)
Harding to have reported them whole as he found them, there had been no manner cause of doubt.
For thus the words lie: Intrat etiam nunc Dominus sub tectum credentium duplici figura, vel more, &c.1: “Even now the Lord entereth under the roof of the faithful by two sundry ways. For even now, when the holy and godly bishops enter into your house, then through them the Lord entereth: and be thou persuaded, as if thou receivedst the Lord himself. And when thou receivest that holy meat and that uncorruptible banquet, the Lord entereth under thy roof.”
“ Our Lord,” saith Origen, “entereth under our roof, both when we receive a holy man, and also when we receive the holy sacrament.” And as Christ entereth into us by the one, so doth he also enter into us by the other. So saith the same learned father writing upon the gospel of St Matthew: Qui ... discipulos Christi tradit, ipsum Christum tradit2: “ Whoso betrayeth the disciples of Christ betrayeth Christ himself.” Now, if M. Harding will say by force of these words, that Christ entereth really and substantially into our mouths, then must he also say that Christ likewise entereth really and substantially into our material houses.
But for full resolution hereof St Ambrose saith that the body of Christ itself De Consecr. entereth not into our bodies. Thus he writeth: Non iste panis, ... qui vadit in
ventrem ; sed ... panis vitoe æternce, qui animae nostræ substantiam fulcit3: “Christ's body is not the bread that entereth into our body; but the bread of everlasting
life, that feedeth the substance of our soul.” And therefore St Cyprian saith: Cypr. de
“ The body of Christ is the meat of our soul, not the meat of our body4." For this cause Origen himself, in the self-same homily, saith thus: Domine,
dignus, ut intres sub tectum meum. Sed tantum dic verbo;... tantum veni verbo. Evang. Locos,
Verbum est aspectus tuus 5: “Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter
under my roof. But only speak the word: only come by thy word : thy word is Orig. in thy sight.” Again he saith : Per evangelistarum ... prædicationem; per sui... Evang. Locos, corporis ... sacramentum; per gloriosæ crucis signaculum ... nobiscum Deus, et ad
nos, et in nobis 6: “God is with us, and cometh to us, and is within us, by the
preaching of the evangelists, by the sacrament of his body, and by the sign of Orig. in the glorious cross.” Likewise again: Fideles credunt adventum verbi, et libenter Evang.Locos, recipiunt Dominum suum?: “ The faithful believe the coming of the word, and August. in gladly receive their Lord.” So saith St Augustine: Sancti,... qui sunt in ecclesia,
accipiunt Christum in manu, et in fronte 8 : “ The holy men that be in the church receive Christ in their hand and in their forehead.” So likewise Tertullian: Cum te ad fratrum genua protendis, Christum contrectas? : “ When thou fallest down to touch thy brethren's knees, thou touchest Christ."
Thus is Christ touched : thus is Christ received: thus is Christ present: thus Christ entereth under our roof. As Christ entereth into us by a godly minister, by his word, by the sacrament of baptism, by the cross, and by the poor; even so he entereth into us by the sacrament of his body and blood; even so, I say, and none otherwise. And at every such entering of Christ we ought to say:“O Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof.”
Now, if these words be sufficient to prove that the sacrament was called Lord and God, then are they likewise sufficient to prove that the water of baptism,
['Intrat et nunc Dominus sub tectum credentium duplici figura vel more. Nunc enim quando sancti et Deo acceptabiles ecclesiarum antistites sub tectum tuum intrant, tunc ibidem per eos Dominus ingreditur. Et tu sic existimes tanquam Dominum suscipiens. Et aliud: quando sanctum cibum illudque incorruptum accipis epulum ... tunc Dominus sub tectum tuum ingreditur.- Orig. Op. Lat. Basil. 1545. In Divers. Hom. v. Tom. II. p. 308.]
[? Id. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Matt. Comm. Ser. 83. Tom. III. p. 898; where quicumque.]
[ Ambros. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. can. 56. col. 1942. See before, page 571, note 18, and page 572, note 5.]
[" Et sicut panis communis vita est corporis :
ita panis iste supersubstantialis, vita est animæ et sanitas mentis.-Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Cæn. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 40. See also before, page 141, note 11.)
[ Orig. Op. Lat. Basil. 1545. In Divers. Hom. v. Tom. II. p. 308; where aspectus tuus est.]
[ Id. ibid. Hom. i. Tom. II. p. 291; where atque in nobis.]
[? Id. ibid. Hom. ii. p. 297.]
[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In B. Johan, Apoc. Expos. Hom. xi. Tom. III. Append. col. 172; where Christum accipiunt. This exposition seems to be a body of annotations collected from several authors.]
[° Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. De Pænit. 10. p. 147.]