Or that the priest had then authority to apply the virtue of Christ's death and passion to any man by mean of the mass.




The two

untruth. Por in the church of Rome the

in the mass

merits of Christ by mean of his


The virtue of Christ's death and passion is grace and remission of sins, the appeasing of God's wrath, the reconciliation of us to God, deliverance from the devil, hell, and everlasting damnation. Our adversaries, imputing to us as though we said and taught that the priest applieth this virtue, effect, and merit of Christ's death to

any man by the mean of the mass, either (232) belie us of ignorance, or slander us of hundred and malice. Verily we say not so. Neither doth the priest apply the virtue

What applicth of Christ's passion to any man by the mean of the mass. He doth but the priest unto us

apply his prayer and his intent of oblation, beseeching almighty God to priest pre- apply the merit and virtue of his Son's death (the memory whereof he celebrateth at sumeth to apply the

the mass) to them for whom he prayeth.

It is God, and none other, that applieth to us remission of sin: the priest doth mass, as shall but pray for it, and, by the commemoration of his Son's death, moveth him to apply:

so as all that the priest doth is but by way of petition and prayer, leaving all power and authority of applying to God; which prayer is to be believed to be of most force and efficacy when it is worthily and devoutly made in the mass, in the which the priest beareth the person of the whole church, and offereth his prayer in the sacrifice,

wherein the church offereth Christ, and itself through Christ to God. Which his The two hun- (233) prayer and devout service he beseecheth to be offered up by the hands of angels thirty-third unto the high altar of God, in the sight of the divine Majesty. Of what strength For the priest prayer made at the mass is, the holy bishop and martyr St Cyprian witnesseth (that prayeth that in all his books never once named the mass) where he saith :

In the Sermon. De Christ may presence of this sacrament tears crave not in vain, and the sacrifice of a by the hands contrite heart is never denied his request 2.” of angels.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. Neither have we of ignorance belied M. Harding's doctrine, nor have we of malice slandered it, but plainly and truly have reported the same; even as both he and his late doctors have taught it, and as the people in the church of Rome hath every where received it at their hands.

But like as in old times God commanded the Philistines to offer up golden mice and golden hæmoroids, to be kept for ever in record, and to witness against them in what sort they had been plagued for their wickedness, if at any time they should happen afterward to deny it; even so hath God specially provided that the monuments of our adversaries' old errors, whereof they seem now to be ashamed, should still remain in sure record, even in their own doctors' books, to



Cena Dom.

1 Sam. vi.

[' By the mean, H. A. 1564.]

p? In hujus præsentia non supervacuæ mendicant lacrymæ veniam, nec unquam patitur contriti cordis

holocaustum repulsam.-Cypr. Op. Oxon. 1682. De Cen. Dom. (Arnold.) p. 43.]


» Quæst. 20.


witness against them if they should happen, as now, upon mislike, utterly to disclaim and deny the same, and to force them to confess that they are the children of them that have deceived the people.

For, whereas M. Harding, amongst many other words wherewith he laboureth to shadow and to darken the case, saith, “It is God only, and none other, that applieth unto us the death of Christ and the remission of our sins ;" Johannes Scotus, one of his most famous and most catholic doctors, saith plainly the contrary: Non solus Deus distribuit virtutem sacrificii, sed sacerdos quoque3: “Not quodlib. only God distributeth or applieth the virtue of the sacrifice, but the priest also.' And Gabriel Biel, another of M. Harding's doctors, in like sort saith : “ The force Biel. Lect. 26. and effect of the sacrifice is distributed and applied, not only by God, but also by the priest 4.” “Only” and “not only" imply a contradiction: if the one be true, the other of necessity must be false. Again Biel saith : Sacerdotis est deter,- Biel. in ead. minare virtutem sacrificii, ut his vel illis indigentibus præmium reddendum per hujusmodi ecclesiæ sacrificia conferaturs: “It is the priest's office to determine and limit the virtue of the sacrifice, that the meed that is given by such sacrifices of the church may be applied to these or them that stand in need.” Which thing he proveth by sufficient example in this wise: “ As the pope, by right of his supremacy,

hath power to divide the treasure of the church (whereby he meaneth his pardons), giving unto some full remission of all their sins, and dispensing with some other for the third part of their pains, and granting unto some pardon for certain number of days or years, as he seeth it may be most expedient for the devotion of the people; even so," saith he, “may the priest dispense and divide

Ut illi vel the merits of the church, and apply the same this man or that man, as he shall illi possit

. think it may stand him in some stead?."

In Summa Angelica it is written thus: “The mass is available unto them unto Sum. Angel.
whomsoever it pleaseth the priest to apply it by his intention 8.” And again :
Missa respectu operis operati, gc.: “ The mass, in respect of the work that is
wrought, is nothing else but the applying of the merits 10 of Christ's passion.”

So Vincentius de Valentia, a notable catholic schoolman of M. Harding's side:
Virgo Maria solum semel aperuit cælum, 8c.11: “The virgin Mary never but once Vinc. de
opened heaven; but the priest openeth it every day and at every mass.” Doctor
Holcot saith : Quid est celebrare missam principaliter pro aliquo ? R. Est applicare Homeot

. in iv.

Corp. Christ. missam Johanni, quod sit quædam satisfactio apud Deum pro anima Johannis, si sent. Quæst. indigeat 12 : “What is it to say mass principally for any man ?" He answereth: “ It is the applying of the mass unto John, to be a certain satisfaction for him before God, if John stand in need of it.” And withal he moveth a great doubt, In ead. whether the priest may apply one mass to two several men, and nevertheless Quæst. satisfy for them both 13.

And Biel saith that certain, the better to help the priest's memory, taught him to apply his mass throughout all the cases of declension; as for example, nomi- Biel. Lect. 26. nativo, a mass for himself;” genitivo," a mass for his father and mother;" dativo,

in Miss.

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Serm. de




[... quod bonum ibi virtute sacrificii communicandum, non solum Deus distribuat, sed aliquis minister in ecclesia.-Joan. Duns Scot. Op. Lugd. 1639. Quodlib. Quæst. XX. Art. ii. Tom. XII. p. 524.)

[* ...bonum in virtute sacrificii communicandum non solus Deus distribuat: sed aliquis minister in ecclesia. — Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. xxvi. fol. 49.]

[s...etiam ipsius est virtutem sacrificii et oblationis determinare: ut illis vel illis indigentibus præmium reddendum pro hujusmodi ecclesiæ sacrificio conferatur.-Id. ibid.)

[* For a certain, 1565.]

[? Unde sicut papa ratione supremitatis potestatem habet dispensandi thesaurum ecclesiæ, conferendo nunc plenissimam remissionem peccatorum, nunc partem tertiam pænarum auferendo, nunc certi numeri dierum vel annorum indulgentiam conferendo secundum quod viderit ecclesiæ unitati et populorum devotioni expedire... ita et in proposito recipit quili

bet sacerdos potestatem ex ritu et institutione eccle

ut merita totius ecclesiæ illi vel illi possit applicare, ut pro ipsis illis aliquod bonum conferatur.-Id. ibid. fol. 49. 2.)

[8 ... valet specialiter si sunt in statu gratiæ illis, qui faciunt eam dicere pro-se; vel quibus prædicti vel sacerdos per intentionem applicant. — Clavas. Summ. Angel. Argent. 1513. Missa 52. fol. 208. 2.]

[° missa respectu operis operati nihil aliud est quam applicatio meriti passionis Christi.-Id. ibid.]

[10 Merit, 1565, 1609.)

[" Vincent. Sermon. Æstiv. Antv. 1572. In Fest. Corp. Christ. Serm. i. p. 322. This author proceeds: sed sacerdos quolibet die, et in qualibet missa.]

{"s ... expono quid voco missam celebrare principaliter pro aliquo. et videtur mihi quod celebrare principaliter est applicare, &c.-R. Holkot sup. Quat. Libr. Sentent. Lugd. 1497. Lib. iv. Quæst. iii. fol. n.]

[13 Id. ibid. foll. m. viii, n.]

a mass for his founders or benefactors;" accusativo, "a mass for his enemies or accusers;" vocatiro, “a mass for sinners and infidels ;” ablativo, a mass for his backbiters and slanderers.”

Of these things M. Harding seemeth now to be ashamed, notwithstanding it were of late the catholic and general doctrine of his church, universally taught by Holcot in England, by Vincentius in Spain, by Biel in France, by Angelus in Italy, or rather by all these and all others through the whole church of Rome. Hereof grew such merchandise and sale of masses, that the house of God was become a den of thieves.

Therefore M. Harding, having no other defence for all these follies, but only to cast off all that can be said of our side as malicious and ignorant surmises, sheweth himself little to have considered the state of his own church, and in the impatience of his heats to speak against us what him liketh, and so to spice his error both with ignorance and with malice.

But for resolution hereof, and some short satisfaction of the reader, it behoveth us to understand that it is not the priest, but God only it is, that applieth unto each man the remission of his sins in the blood of Christ; not by mean of the

mass, but only by the mean of faith. St John saith: “He that believeth in the August. in Son of God hath a witness in himself.” St Augustine saith: Holocaustum dominico

passionis ... eo tempore offert (unus]quisque pro peccatis suis, quo ejusdem passionis fide dedicatur? : “ Then doth every man offer the sacrifice of Christ's passion for himself, when he is dedicated in the faith of Christ's passion.” So saith the old learned father Origen: Siclo sancto comparandus est nobis Christus, &c. 3: “With the holy sicle we must buy Christ, that may put away our sins.

The holy sicle beareth the form of our faith. For, if thou bring faith as the price, thou Epist. shalt receive the remission of thy sins.” Likewise again he saith : Christus factus iii. cap. iii.

est hostia et propitiatio pro peccatis. Quæ propitiatio ad unumquemque venit per viam fideit : “ Christ is made the sacrifice and propitiation for sin. Which propitiation cometh (or is applied) to each man (not by the mass, but) by the way of faith."

This is the most certain and undoubted application of the merits and death of Christ. St Paul saith: “God hath set Christ to be our reconciler through faith by the mediation of his blood.”

1 John v.

Expos. Inch. ad Rom.

Orig. in

Levit. Hom. 3.

ad Rom. Lib.

['Unde quidam ex ordine sex casuum grammaticalis declinationis nominum, quasi magis celebranti noto, ordinem memorandorum tradiderunt: ut a nominativo sive a recto qui primus est casuum. i. a seipso sacerdos a quo ordinata caritas incipit vivorum memoriam exordiatur. Secundo genitivi. i. pro genitorum parentum ac propinquorum carnalium et spiritualium subdat memoriam. Tertio dativi. i. fundatorum patronorum offerentium ac benefactorum a quibus temporalia receperunt. Quarto accusativi. i. inimicorum: nam accusativus ex vocabuli interpretatione casus est adversariorum ... Quinto vocativi, i. errantium infidelium et peccatorum ... Sexto ablativi. i. eorum quibus bona animæ, corporis, aut famæ abstulimus, occasionem damni spiritualis aut temporalis dedimus.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515.

Lect. xxvi. fol. 51.)

[’ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Epist. ad Rom, Expos. Inch. 19. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 937. See before, page 737, note 18.]

[Siclo igitur sancto comparandus nobis est Christus, qui peccata nostra dissolvat. Siclus sanctus fidei nostræ formam tenet. Si enim fidem obtuleris tanquam pretium...remissionem accipies peccatorum.

Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. iii. 8. Tom. II. p. 198.]

[* Secundum hoc ergo quod hostia est, profusione sanguinis sui propitiatio efficitur in eo quod dat remissionem præcedentium delictorum: quæ tamen propitiatio ad unumquemque credentium; per viam fidei venit.-Id. Comm. in Epist. ad Rom. Lib. iii. cap. iii. 8. Tom. IV. p. 515.]

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Or that it was then thought a sound doctrine to teach the people that the mass, ex opere operato, that is, even for that it is said and done, is able to remove any part of our sins“.


ARTICLE XX. H.A. 1564.]

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Indeed the doctrine uttered in this article is false, and derogatory to the glory of our Saviour Christ. For thereby the honour of Christ's sacrifice, whereby he hath once satisfied for the sins of all, should be transferred to the work of the priest, which were great wickedness and detestable blasphemy. And therefore we will not require M. Jewel to yield and subscribe unto this article. For we grant this was never thought a sound doctrine within six hundred years of Christ's ascension, nor shall be 80 thought within six thousand years after the same, of any man of sound belief. (234) Neither hath it been at any time taught in the catholic church, howsoever it The two hun. liketh our adversaries to charge the scholastical doctors with the slanderous report thirty-fourth of the contrary. For it is Christ only, and none other thing, that is able to remove For it hath our sins; and that hath he done by the sacrifice of his body once done upon the cross. taught and Of which sacrifice, once performed upon the cross with shedding of his blood, this Shaused, pasait unbloody sacrifice of the altar, which is the daily sacrifice of the church, commonly called the mass, is a sampler and a commemoration, (235) in the which we have the The two hunsame body that hanged on the cross. [Neither is it a sampler or commemoration thirty-fifth only, but the self-same sacrifice which was offered on the cross: a sampler or com- Por Chryso memoration in respect of the manner, for that it is done without blood-shedding ; stem saasis the self-same, for that the thing which is offered is the same that was offered on the sacris)...non cross.] And whereas we have nothing of ourselves that we may offer up acceptable pus Christi, to God, we offer this his Son's body as a most acceptable sacrifice, beseeching him rium corpo

to look not upon our worthiness, our act or work, but upon the face tinetur." in of Christ his dear! Son, and for his sake to have mercy upon us.

And in this respect we doubt not this blessed sacrifice of the mass to upelable ex opere be vailable and effectual ex opere operato, that is, not as M. Jewel interpreteth, for that the mass is said and done, referring opus operatum to the act of the priest, not so; but for the work wrought itself, which God himself worketh by the ministry of the priest, without respect had to his merit or act, which is the body and blood of Christ, [whose breaking and shedding is in this mystical sacrifice, so far as the Holy Ghost hath thought expedient for man's behoof, represented, shewed, and recommended to memory.] Which [body and blood, when it is (236) according to The two hun

] his commandment offered up to God, is, not in regard of our work, but of itself and thirty-sixth of the holy institution of his only-begotten Son, a most acceptable sacrifice unto 10 korrahi him, both for quick and dead, * where there is no stop nor let to the contrary on the serveresave behalf of the receiver. The dead, I mean such only as through faith have recom- mandong

joined with a contradic

tion in itself, 15 Sin, H. A. 1564.)

[* Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. Op. Imperf. in For the dead

can make no [The passages between brackets do not appear Matt. ex cap. v. Hom. xi. Tom. VI. p. lxiii.] stop. in H. A. 1564. They are in H. A. 1565.]

[° His most dear, H. A. 1564.] [? This reference first appears in H. A. 1565.] [10 To, H. A. 1564.]

ejus con

Psal. xxiv.7

Op. Imperf.
Hom. 11.8

Hore the mass is



dred and


such com


mended themselves to the redemption wrought by Christ, and by this De Octo quæst. faith have deserved of God, that after their departure hence," as St Qulcitii, quæst. Augustine saith, this sacrifice might profit them.

Biel. Lect. 27.


. 2

iii. cap. v. Biel. Lect. 27.

lib. . 2.
Gers. contr.
Floret. Lib.
Grop. Art. 4.
cap. xix.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. These words, opus operatum, opus operans, opus operantis, as they are strange and barbarous, so are they not found neither in the scriptures, nor in the old doctors, nor in any ancient council, but have been lately devised by certain new scholastical doctors of M. Harding's own side, who, notwithstanding, cannot yet well agree upon their own device, nor can certainly tell us what they have found.

Opus operantis some of them call the “work and worthiness of the priest 3 ;" Floret.Lib: but Innocentius III. rather calleth opus operantis “the priest himself 4.” LikeSeot. Quod- wise about these words, opus operatum, they have made much ado, and yet are Innoc. Lib. not well resolved of it what it should be. Scotus and Biel say:

“ It is the consecration, the oblation, and the receiving of the sacrament 5." Gerson saith : “It forte quod" is the word of the Creator, and the power of the Holy Ghost 6.” Pighius saith :

“ It is the will of God that appointed the sacrament to this purpose?" Gropper of Colaine saith : “It is the body of Christ 8.” Howbeit, it were hard to say, either that Christ's body is a work, or that any work is Christ's body.

It were a point of mastery to make all these contrary resolutions agree in one. Thus it fareth evermore where as men shoot without a mark.. Howbeit, if neither M. Harding nor any other of his fellows for him be able to find these words, opus operatum, in any ancient doctor or council, then, notwithstanding the great multitude of his words, my assertion standeth still true. But, if he and others of his side have maintained this doctrine even in such sort as have uttered it, then by his own confession they have deceived the world by wicked and blasphemous doctrine, to the great derogation of the glory and cross of Christ.

And, forasmuch as M. Harding seemeth now to blush at his own terms, and therefore beginneth to shun and to shift the same by vain and frivolous expositions, it shall not be amiss to open the true meaning thereof, both by the old records of the ancient writers in whose days the like folly began to grow, and was

then reproved, and also by the plain words of M. Harding's own allowed doctors. August. de St Augustine saith there were some in his time that thought and taught the xxi. cap. xix: people that, if a man had been baptized and had once received the communion,

notwithstanding he lived wickedly and maintained heresies and wilful doctrine, yet he could not be condemned, only because he was baptized and had once

received the holy communion'; which thing now is called opus operatum. Chrysost. ad Chrysostom saith: Mulieres et parvi pueri, pro magna custodia, ad collum

Pop. Ant.
Hom. 19.

[' H. A. 1564 omits this reference. It appears in H. A. 1565.]

[? Neque negandum est defunctorum animas pietate suorum viventium relevari, cum pro illis sacrificium Mediatoris offertur, vel eleemosynæ in ecclesia fiunt. Sed eis hæc prosunt, qui cum viverent, ut hæc sibi postea possent prodesse, meruerunt. -August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. de Oct. Dulcit. Quæst. Quæst. ii. 4. Tom. VI. col. 130.]

[® Ex opere operante, hoc est, ex merito personali personæ celebrantis.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Basil. 1515. Lect. xxvi. fol. 50.

quia non in merito consecranth, sed in verbo perficitur Creatoris et virtute... et illud dicitur opus operatum.—Floret. Lib. Lugd. 1499. Lib. iv. fol. 96. 2.

missa non solum valet virtute meriti, sive operis operantis; sed etiam virtute sacrificii, et operis operati.- Joan. Duns Scot. Op. Lugd. 1639. QuodJib. Quæst. xx. Tom. XII. p. 515. Conf. Art. ii. ibid. pp. 524, 5.]

{* The words of Innocent in the place referred to are these : non in merito sacerdotis, sed in verbo conficitur Creatoris ... Quamvis igitur opus operans

aliquando sit immundum, semper tamen opus operatum est mundum.-Innoc. Papæ III. Op. Col. 1575. Myst. Miss. Lib. III. cap. v. Tom. I. p. 367.]

[ Ex opere operato. i. ex ipsa &c.-Gab. Biel. Can. Miss. Expos. Lect. xxvi. fol. 50. See above, note 3, and the next page.]

[ See above, note 3.]

[? Baptismus et cetera illa sacramenta...valent ex ipso opere operato... Non quidem ex aliqua virtute quæ in ipsis symbolis hæreat...sed ex una Dei voluntate hoc pendet universum, &c.--Alb. Pigh. Explic. Cathol. Contr. Par. 1586. De Miss. Sacrif. Controv. V. fol. 117.)

[e ... operi operato innitimur, hoc est, ei quod Deus per sacerdotis ministerium confert, insistimus.

-Gropper. De Præst. Altar. Sacram. Antv. 1559. Quart. Art. Tom. II. p. 160.)

[° Item sunt alii, ab æterno supplicio liberationem, nec ipsis saltem omnibus hominibus promittentes, sed tantummodo Christi baptismate ablutis, qui participes fiunt corporis ejus, quomodolibet vixerint, in quacumque hæresi vel impietate fuerint.August. Op. De Civ. Dei, Lib. XXI. cap. xix. Tom. VII. col. 639.]

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