structed, believed in Christ; and, as St Augustine writeth, bare Christ's Tract. in Jo.
cross in their forehead, and marked themselves with the samel.The
second were such as, notwithstanding they had been christened, yet for the incon-
stancy of their mind were vexed with unclean spirits. The third sort were they,
who for their sins committed had not yet made an end of doing their open penance.
All these were judged by the governors of the church at the beginning unworthy
to be present at these holy mysteries. Now, if this great reverence towards the
holy things in them was justly praised, the admitting of all sorts of people, not
only to be present and to behold the same, but also to hear and understand the words
of consecration (218) (that hath thus always been honoured with silence and secret-

ness), cannot seem to wise, zealous, and godly men a thing commendable ; specially the contrary in these times, in which the holy christian discipline of the church is loosed and

utterly shaken off, and no difference nor account of any diversity is? made between the perfit and godly people, and them that ought to do open penance, that be possessed with devils, and be infamous for heinous and notorious crimes committed.

The two hundred and cighteenth untruth.

is known and evident.

Concil. Araus. cap. 19. Chrysost. in Epist. ad Gal. сар.


Hom. 40.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. The reverence, that M. Harding presumeth was given only to this sacrament, was given likewise and in as ample sort to the sacrament of baptism. And, as the catechumeni were sequestered from the presence and sight of the one sacrament, so were they also sequestered from the other. In the council holden at Arausica it is written thus : Catechumeni ad baptisterium nunquam admittendi sunt : “ The catechumeni may never be admitted to the place of baptism.” St Chrysostom, touching the words of baptism, writeth thus: Verba Dei, quæ norunt fideles, in aquæ lavacro per sacerdotem pronuntiata, tanquam in utero quodam, formant ac regenerant eum qui baptizatur4: “The words of God, which the faithful know, being pronounced by the priest in the water of baptism, do form

and regenerate him that is baptized, as if it were in the mother's womb.” LikeChrysost. in wise again he saith : Cupiam sane verba illa clare proferre, &c.5: “Fain would

I in plain sort utter these words (of baptism), if the presence of these ungodly men, the heathens, did not let me. They cause my interpretation to be the

harder: I may not speak plainly, nor publish our mysteries because of them.” Cyril. contr. So saith Cyrillus : Dicerem de baptismo alia, ... nisi vererer non initiatorum aures 6:

“ Touching baptism I would say more, saving that I doubt the ears of these

profane people that are not christened.” To like purpose St Augustine saith : August. in Opera nostra bona vident etiam pagani ; sacramenta vero nostra occultantur illis? :

“The heathens may see our good works; but our sacraments (that is, our baptism and our Lord's supper) are hidden from them." The like may be said

both of public and solemn prayers, and also of the understanding of the scripClorysast ad tures. Chrysostom saith : Quid ... oratione potentius ? ... Et catechumenis quidem Hom. 79. hoc nondum permissum est, &c.8 : “What thing is there more mighty than the

solemn prayer (of the church)? yet is it not lawful for the catechumeni to use the same.

For they are not yet come to that boldness. But you (being christened) are commanded to pray for the whole world, and for the church.” Thus, like as for reverence of the mystery the catechumeni might' not be present at the ministration of the sacrament of Christ's body, even so, for like reverence,

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Julian. vi,

Psalm. civ.

Pop. Ant.

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[1 Si dixerimus catechumeno, Credis in Christum? respondet, Credo, et signat se: jam crucem Christi portat in fronte.-August. Op. Par. 16791700. In Johan. Evang. cap. iii. Tractat. xi. 3. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 376.]

[’ 1565, and H. A. 1564, omit is.]

[Ad baptisterium catechumeni nunquam admittendi.-- Concil. Araus. I. cap. 19. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. I. p. 623.]

[* Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In cap. iv. Epist. ad Gal. Comm. Tom. X. p. 711.]

[6 Και βούλομαι μεν σαφως αυτό είπείν, ου τολμω δε δια τους αμυήτους: ούτοι γαρ δυσκολωτέραν ήμίν ποιούσι την εξήγησιν, αναγκάζοντες ή μη λέγειν σαφως, ή εις αυτούς έκφέρειν τα απόρ

inta.-Id. in Epist. i. ad Cor. Hom. xl. Tom. X. p. 379.]

[© Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Contr. Julian. Lib. vii. Tom. VI. p. 249.)

[ These words do not appear in the place referred to. Ideas, however, something similar are there expressed. See August. Op. Enarr. in Psalm. civ. 2. 5. Tom. IV. cols. 1179, 80.] [ Chrysost. Op. Lat. Basil. 1547.

Ad Pop. Ant. Hom. lxxix. Tom. V. col. 471. The homily proceeds: permissum hoc nondum est, quoniam nondum ad hanc pervenere fidutiam : vobis autem et pro terrarum orbe et pro ecclesia...jubetur orationes emittere.]

[° Mought, 1565.]

they might' not be present, neither at the sacrament of baptism, nor at the solemn common prayers.

But now let us weigh M. Harding's reasons. In the old time 19, saith he, the catechumeni, which were only novices in the faith, and as yet unchristened, and other renegades, frantic and ungodly people, might' not be present at the holy mysteries ; ergo, now the godly faithful people may not hear the words of consecration. No man would use such logic but M. Harding. And yet this he thinketh for wise, zealous, and godly men is sufficient. As for the rest, indeed M. Harding, as a man of travel, that hath been in Rome, and hath seen bishops and cardinals men of war; children and boys set in the highest degrees and dignities of the church; open stews so dearly rented ; so many thousand cortegians so well regarded; priests so freely allowed to keep their concubines; the church of God turned into a cave of thieves; such corruption in the clergy, such corruption in the people; so little difference between wife and harlot, honest and unhonest, godly and ungodly, and, as Bernard 11 saith of them, “the servants of Christ serving antichrist 12 ;” and all this suffered without correction, and well allowed of and accounted catholic; seeing, I say, the church of God in Rome thus used, he may justly complain of corruption of life and looseness of discipline. Howbeit, it were hard hereof to conclude, that therefore no man may hear the words of consecration. Verily, it is thought lawful for usurers, thieves, whores, murderers, traitors, and all other like to be present and to hear mass without exception.

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Whereas in old times, when by wholesome discipline the faithful people were kept in godly awe and obedience, that prayer also, which was said over the oblation before consecration (219) was pronounced closely and in silence; and therefore The two it was called of the Latins secreta, of the Greeks mystica oratio, meaning thereby hundred and that it ought not to be uttered openly and made common.

untruth. For the same secret prayer was pronounced aloud, as


Lib. il.

Here M. Harding, for want of other proofs, presumeth of himself that in old shall appear. times the prayer before consecration was pronounced, as he saith, closely and in silence. And that he guesseth only by his 13 word secreta, which is a term peculiar only to his mass-book, and in the old catholic fathers was never found. And yet doth not the same import any such silence or secrecy as M. Harding supposeth. For so Gerardus Lorichius writeth of it: Non arbitrandum [est], Ger. Lorich. orationem eam dici secretam, quasi non liceat laicis illam vel nosse vel audire ; sed quod, juxta atque canon, non cantetur roce 14 altiori 15: “We may not think that the prayer is called secreta for that it is not lawful for the lay-people to know it or to hear it, but only for that it is not sung out with loud voice, as is the canon.” Therefore M. Harding concludeth this matter with two untruths both together.

Thus, notwithstanding this new dumb ceremony hath 16 been only received in the church of Rome, and nowhere else, and that only for a time, and not from the beginning, and therefore mere particular, and no way universal, and so not catholic; notwithstanding also it be utterly void of any shew, either of the scriptures, or of the old councils, or ancient fathers, or of any manner antiquity; yet M. Harding thinketh himself well able to maintain it, as he doth the rest, against St Ambrose, against St Augustine, against St Chrysostom, against Leo, against his own Clemens, against the whole primitive church, both Greek and Latin, and against the decrees and traditions of the apostles, and against his own knowledge, and, I fear me, also against his own conscience.

[1° Times, 1565.]
(" St Bernard, 1565.]

[1° Bernard. Op. Par. 1690. In Cant. Serm. xxxij. 15. Vol. I. Tom. Iv. col. 1393. See before, page 382, note 11. See also In Concil. Remens. Serm. 5. Vol. II. Tom. V. col. 737.]

[13 This, 1565.]
[14 Alteriori, 1611.)

[15 Ger. Lorich. De Miss. Pub. Prorogand. 1536.
Lib. II. cap. i. Secret. p. 120; where quia for quod.]

[16 Have, 1565.]




Or that the priest had then authority to offer up Christ unto his Father.


ARTICLE XVII. H. A. 1564.]


Agnus occisus


THE FIRST DIVISION. Christ is offered up to his Father after three manners; figuratively, truly with bloodshedding, and sacramentally or mystically. In figure or signifi- Threefold oblation cation he was offered in the sacrifices made to God both in the time of Christ. the law of nature, and also in the time of the law written. And there- est ab origine fore St John calleth Christ the Lamb, which was killed from the be- Rev. xiii. ginning of the world," meaning in figure. The sacrifices of Abel, Noe, and Abraham, and those of the people of Israel commanded by the law of Moses, figured and signified Christ. For which respect chiefly the law is reported of St Heb. x. Paul to have the shadow of the good things to come.St Augustine, Lib. vi. cap. v. writing against Faustus the heretic, saith : [Testamenti veteris sacrificia] omnia ... multis et variis modis unum sacrificium, cujus nunc memoriam celebramus, significaverunt? : “All the sacrifices of the old testament signified by many and

sundry ways this one sacrifice, whose memory we do now celebrate.And in *M. Harding another place he saith, * that "in those fleshly sacrifices there was a De Fide ad Pe

signification of Christ's flesh, which he should offer for sins, and of cap. zui.
his blood, which he should shed for the remission of our sins2."

Truly and with bloodshedding Christ was offered on the cross in his own person,
whereof St Paul saith: Christ gave himself for us, that he might Tit. ii.
redeem us from all iniquity." And again : Christ hath loved us, and Eph. v.
hath delivered himself for us an oblation and sacrifice to God into a
sweet savour.”

Sacramentally or in mystery Christ is offered up to his Father in the daily Christ offered sacrifice of the church under the form of bread and wine, truly and indeed, not in of the man respect of the manner of offering, but in respect of his very body and blood, really

(that is, indeed) present, as it hath been sufficiently proved here before.

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trum Diaconum,

hath pur posely inaimed this place of St Augustine, as shall appear.


not in respect



Heb. v.

The greater and worthier the work is that our adversaries have imagined, that is, for a mortal and a miserable man to offer up the immortal Son of God unto his Father, and that really and indeed, the more ought the same, either by manifest words or by necessary collection, expressly and plainly to be proved. “For no man taketh honour and office unto himself, but he that is called and appointed thereto by God.” But for ought that may appear by any clause or sentence, either of the new testament or of the old, God never

appointed any such sacrifice to be made by any mortal creature. And TheophyTheophyl. in lact saith : Jesus, ejiciendo boves et columbas, presignavit, non ultra opus esse

animalium sacrificio, sed oratione3 : “ Jesus, throwing the oxen and doves out

Matt. cap.


[' August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Contr. Faust. Lib. vi. cap. v. Tom. VIII. col. 205.]

[ Id. Lib. de fid. ad Petr. cap. xix. Tom. VI.

Append. col. 30. See the next page.]

[ Theophyl. Op. Venet. 1754-63. In Matt. Comm. cap. xxi. Tom. I. p. 110.]

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Orat. ad

Chrysost. in

Rom, Hom.

of the temple, signified, that they should no longer have need of the sacrifice of beasts, but of prayer."

Howbeit, the old learned fathers, as they oftentimes delighted themselves with these words, sabbatum, parasceve, pascha, pentecoste, and such other like terms of the old law, notwithstanding the observation and ceremony thereof were then abolished and out of use; even so likewise they delighted themselves oftentimes with these words, sacerdos, altare, sacrificium,“the sacrificer," “the altar," “the sacrifice," notwithstanding the use thereof were then clearly expired, only for that the ears of the people, as well of the Jews as of the gentiles, had been long acquainted with the same. Therefore Pachymeres the paraphrast, writing upon Dionysius, saith thus : Presbyterum appellat sacerdotem, Pach. p. 401.

και η συνήut etiam in Coelesti Hierarchia ; idque usus jam obtinuits : “ Him that is the priest beca'expan or elder he calleth the sacrificer, as he doth also in his Celestial Hierarchy; toe. and the same word "sacrificer' is now obtained by custom.'

In this sense St Paul saith of himself: Sacrifico evangelium Dei : “I sacrifice the gospel of Rom. xv. God." And Origen saith : Sacrificale opus est annuntiare evangelium : “It is a Orig. in work of sacrifice to preach the gospel.” So the learned bishop Nazianzenus Rom. Lib. x. saith unto his people: Hostiam vos ipsos obtuli?: “I have offered up you for a Nazianz. ir sacrifice.” So saith St Chrysostom : Ipsum mihi sacerdotium est, prædicare et pleb. evangelizare. Hanc offero oblationem 8 : “My whole priesthood is to teach and to epist. ad preach the gospel. This is my oblation : this is my sacrifice.”

Thus the holy 29. fathers, alluding to the orders and ceremonies of Moses' law, called the preaching of the gospel a sacrifice, notwithstanding indeed it were no sacrifice.

Now to come to M. Harding's words. Three ways, saith he, Christ is offered up unto his Father: in a figure, as in the old law; indeed and bloodily, as upon the cross ; in a sacrament or mystery, as in the new testament.

Of which three ways the bloody oblation of Christ upon the cross is the


true and only propitiatory sacrifice for the sins of the world. The other two, as

, in respect and manner of signifying they are sundry, so in effect and substance they are all one. For, like as in the sacraments of the old law was expressed the death of Christ that was to come, even so in the sacraments of the new law of the gospel is expressed the same death of Christ already past. As we have mysteries, so had they mysteries ; as we sacrifice Christ, so did they sacrifice Christ; as the Lamb of God is slain unto us, so was the same Lamb of God slain unto them. St Augustine saith : Tunc... Christus venturus, modo Christus August. de venit. Venturus, et venit, diversa verba sunt; sed idem Christus': “ Then was cap. i. *Christ shall come :' now is Christ is come. Shall come' and 'is come sundry words; but Christ is all one.” Again, in like comparison between the law of Moses and the gospel of Christ, he saith thus: Videte, fide manente, August

. in signa variata. In signis diversis eadem fides 10: “Behold, the faith remaining, the tract. 26. (sacraments, or) signs are changed. The signs or sacraments being divers, the faith is one."

But here hath M. Harding done great and open wrong unto St Augustine, wilfully suppressing and drowning his words, and uncourteously commanding him to silence in the midst of his tale. Wherein also appeareth some suspicion of no simple dealing. St Augustine's words touching this whole matter are these: In illis ... carnalibus victimis figuratio fuit carnis Christi, quam pro nobis August, ple ... fuerat oblaturus, et sanguinis, quem erat effusurus in remissionem peccato- Diacon. cap. rum.... In isto autem sacrificio gratiarum actio est, et commemoratio carnis Christi quam pro nobis obtulit, et sanguinis quem pro nobis idem Deus effudit. ... In illis ... sacrificiis, quid nobis esset donandum, figurate significabatur : in hoc

Util. Pænit.




[* Oftetimes, 1565.]

[" The following is probably the passage meant : ...τους γαρ ιερέας πρεσβυτέρους είωθε καλείν, ως εν τω περί της εκκλησιαστικής Ιεραρχίας διετράvwoe.—Dion. Areop. Op. Antv. 1634. Schol. S. Max. in Epist. Octav. Tom. II. p. 123.}

[ Orig. Op.Par. 1733-59. Comm. in Epist. ad Rom. Lib. x. cap. xv. Tom. IV. p. 676; where esse for est.]

[? Perhaps the following may be intended: looù

#poodyw GOL TOùs čuoùs inétas.-Gregor. Nazianz.
Op. Par. 1778-1840. Orat, xvii. 13. Tom. I. p. 325.)

[8 Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. ad
Rom. Hom, xxix. Tom. IX. p. 731.]

[° August. Op. Serm. ccclii. De Util. Agend. Pen. ii. cap. i. 3. Tom. V. col. 1366.]

[' In signis diversis eadem fides... Videte ergo, fide manente, signa variata.— Id. in Johan. Evang. cap. x. Tractat. xlv. 9. Tom. III. Pars 11, col. 598.]

contr. Faust.

autem sacrificio, quid nobis jam donatum sit, evidenter ostenditur. In illis sacrificiis prænuntiabatur Filius Dei pro impiis occidendus : in hoc autem, pro impiis annuntiatur occisus': “In those fleshly sacrifices (of the Jews) there was a figure of the flesh of Christ, which he would afterward offer for us, and of the blood which he would afterward shed for the remission of sin; but in this sacrifice of the new testament) there is a thanksgiving and a remembrance of the flesh which he hath already offered for us, and of the blood which he, being God, hath already shed for us. In those sacrifices it was represented unto us under a figure what thing should be given unto us; but in this sacrifice it is plainly set forth what thing is already given us. In those sacrifices it was declared that the Son of God should be slain for the wicked; but in this sacrifice it is plainly preached unto us that the same Son of God hath

already been slain for the wicked.” August. Likewise again he saith : Hujus sacrificii caro et sanguis ante adventum Christi Lib. XI. cap. per victimas similitudinum promittebatur : in passione ... per ipsam veritatem redde

batur : post ascensum [vero] Christi per sacramentum memoriæ celebratur? : “The flesh and blood of this sacrifice, before the coming of Christ, was promised by sacrifices of resemblance; the same in his passion (upon the cross) was given in truth and indeed; but after his ascension it is solemnized by a sacrament of remembrance."

This is the difference that St Augustine noteth between the sacraments of the old law and the sacraments of the new. Therefore the words that M. Harding hath hereunto added, “Christ is offered up unto his father, and that under the forms of bread and wine, yea, and that truly and indeed,” are his own only words, confidently and boldly presumed of himself, never used neither by St Augustine nor by any other ancient godly father.

But, whereas he addeth further, that Christ is indeed and verily offered by the priest, albeit, as he saith, “not in respect of the manner of offering, but only in respect of the presence of his body;" either he understandeth not what himself meaneth, or else with a vain distinction of cloudy words without sense he laboureth to dazzle his reader's eyes. For what a fantasy is this, to say Christ is offered verily and indeed, and yet not in respect of the manner of offering! What respect, what manner is this? Wherefore come these blind mysteries abroad without a gloss ? Which of all the old doctors or holy fathers ever taught us thus to speak? Certainly, as he saith, “Christ is really offered, and yet not in respect of the manner of offering ;" so may he also say, Christ died upon the cross, and yet not in respect of the manner of dying. By such manners and such respects he may make of christian religion what him listeth.

If he think somewhat to shadow the matter with these words of the council Concil. Nic. of Nice, Sine sacrificio oblatus3 ; let him consider aforehand it will not help αθύτως...

him. θυόμενος.

For the holy fathers in that council neither say that Christ is really offered by the priest, nor seem to understand these strange respects and manners

of offering. They agree fully in sense with that is before alleged of St AugusContr. Faust. tine: “In this sacrifice the death of Christ is solemnized by a sacrament of

remembrance4;" and with that St Chrysostom saith: Hoc sacrificium exemplar Epist. ad illius est5 : “ This sacrifice is an example of that sacrifice." Thus the death of

Christ is renewed before our eyes. Yet Christ indeed neither is crucified, nor dieth, nor sheddeth his blood, nor is substantially present, nor really offered

by the priest. In this sort the council saith Christ is offered åtúros, “withAugust. de out sacrifice.” So St Augustine saith : Quod ab omnibus appellatur sacrificium, Lib. x. cap. v. signum est veri sacrificii® : “ The thing that of all men is called a sacrifice is

a token or a sign of the true sacrifice.” Likewise again he saith: Vocatur ...

Lib, xx. cap.
Chrysost. in
Hebr. Hom.


Civ. Dei,

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De Consecr.
Dist. ji.
Hoc est.

[' Id. Lib. de Fid. ad Petr. cap. xix. Tom. VI. Append. col. 30; where significatio fuit, pro peccatis nostris, and gratiarum actio atque commemoratio est. See Fulgent. Op. Par. 1623. col. 356.]

[* Id. contr. Faust. Lib. xx. cap. xxi. Tom. VIII. col. 348.)

[Gelas. Cyz. Hist. Concil. Nic. cap. xxx. in Concil. Stud. Labb, et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2.

Tom. II. col. 233; where Ovóuevov.]

[* See note 2.]

[5 Τούτο εκείνης τύπος έστι, και αύτη εκείνης.Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. ad Hebr. cap. x. Hom. xvii. Tom. XII. p. 168.]

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. De Civ. Dei, Lib. x. cap. v. Tom. VII. col. 242.]

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