« VorigeDoorgaan »
Johan. Hom. 1.
Orig. in Lev. be well instructed in the holy scriptures." Origen saith unto his people: “Give
” your diligence, not only to hear God's word in the church, but also to be exer
cised in the same in your houses at home, and day and night bel studious in the August. in law of the Lord?.” St Augustine saith:
St Augustine saith : “Read ye the holy scriptures. For to that end God would have them written, that we might receive comfort by them.” St Hierome saith, as it is alleged before: Laici non tantum sufficienter, sed etiam abundanter verbum Dei habere debent, et se invicem docere* : “ The lay-people ought
to have the word of God, not only sufficiently, but also abundantly, and to instruct Chrysost. in one another.” St Chrysostom willeth the father with his child, and the husband
with his wife, at home in his house to talk and reason of the word of God. TheoTheodor. de doretus writeth thus: Passim videas hæc nostratia dogmata 8c.6: “Ye may com
monly see, that not only the teachers of the people and rulers of the churches, but also tailors, smiths, and cloth-workers, and other artificers do understand the principles of our religion; and further, that not only learned women, if there be any such, but also such women as live by their labour, and sewsters, and maidservants, but also husbandmen, and ditchers, and herdmen, and graffers, can reason of the holy Trinity, and of the creation of the world, and of the nature of
mankind, a great deal more skilfully than either Plato or Aristotle was ever able to Orig. in Josi do.” Therefore Origen saith unto his hearers of the lay-people: Me... dicente, quod
sentio, vos decernite et examinate, si quid rectum est aut minus rectum?: “While I speak that I think meet, examine and judge you whether it be well or otherwise.” Thus in old times the vulgar people, and such as M. Harding calleth swine, and rude and rash people, and curious busy-bodies, were able not only to
understand the scriptures, but also to judge of their preachers. And therefore the Cyril. contr. wicked renegade emperor Julianus reproved the Christians (even as M. Harding now vi. et Lib. vii. doth us), for that they suffered their women and children to read the scriptures 8.
But the enemies of God's truth, for fear and conscience of their weakness,
have evermore used violently to take away the word of God, not only from Chrysost. in
women and children, but also from all the whole people. Chrysostom saith : Op. Imp.
Hæretici sacerdotes claudunt januas veritatis. Sciunt enim,... si manifestata fuerit veritas, ecclesiam suam esse relinquendam, et se de sacerdotali dignitate ad humilitatem venturos popularemo: “Heretic priests shut up the gates of the truth. For they know that, if the truth once appear, they must needs leave their church, and
from the dignity of their priesthood come down to the state of other people.” Lento de rein. For Tertullian saith: Scriptura divina hæreticorum fraudes et furta facile convincit,
et detegit 10: “ The holy scripture will easily bewray and confound the guiles and thefts of heretics." Christ saith: “He that doth ill hateth the light.” And therefore they say, as it is written in the prophet Amos: Tace, et ne recorderis nominis Domini : “Hold thy peace, and never think upon the name of the Lord.” But miserable is that religion that cannot stand without hiding and suppressing of the truth of God.
in Lib. .
[? To be, 1565.]
[® Optamus tamen ut vel his auditis operam detis, non solum in ecclesia audire verba Dei, sed et in domibus vestris exerceri et meditari in lege Domini die ac nocte.-Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. In Levit. Hom. ix. 5. Tom. II. p. 240.]
[’ Legite scripturas: ideo voluit Deus ut scriberentur, ut nos consolaremur.-August. Op. Par. 16791700. In Psalm. xxxii. Enarr. ii. 17. Tom. IV. col. 224.]
[* Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. in Epist. ad Coloss. cap. iii. Tom. V. col. 1074. See before, page 685, note 12.]
[5 ... και μη μόνον ενταύθα αυτην επιδείκνυ. σθαι, αλλά και οίκοι γενομένους, τον άνδρα προς την γυναίκα, τον πατέρα προς τον παιδα, περί TOÚTWv dialéyeolat.-Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Joan. Hom. iii. Tom. VIII. p. 16.)
[6 ... και έστιν ιδείν ταυτα ειδότας τα δόγματα, ου μόνους γε της εκκλησίας τους διδασκάλους, αλλά και σκυτοτόμους, και χαλκοτύπους, και ταλα
σιουργούς, και τους άλλους αποχειροβιώτους και γυναίκας ωσαύτως, ου μόνον τας λόγων μετεσχηκυίας, αλλά και χερνήτιδας, και ακεστρίδας, και μέντοι και θεραπαινας, και ου μόνον αστοί αλλά και χωρητικοί τήνδε την γνώσιν έσχήκασι και έστιν ευρείν και σκαπανέας, και βοηλάτας, και φυτουργούς, περί της θείας διαλεγομένους Τριάδος, και περί της των ύλων δημιουργίας, και την ανθρωπείαν φύσιν ειδότας 'Αριστοτέλους πολλώ μάλλον kai IIlátwvos.-Theodor. Op. Par. 1642-84. Græc. Affect. Cur. Serm. v. De Nat. Hom. Tom. IV. p.
[? Orig. Op. In Lib. Jesu Nave Hom. xxi. 2. Tom. II. p. 448; where discernite.]
[8 Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. Contr. Julian. Libb. vi. vii. Tom. VI. pp. 206, 9, 29, 30, 4.)
[ Chrysost. Op. Imp. in Matt. Hom. xliv. ex cap. xxiii. Tom. VI. p. clxxxvi; where januam, and eorum ecclesia est relinquenda, et ipsi de sacerdotali dignitate ad humilitatem venient popularem.]
[10 Tertull. Op. Par. 1580. Lib. de Trin. p. 505.)
OF CONSECRATION UNDER SILENCE.
THE SIXTEENTH ARTICLE.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
Or that it was then lawful for the priest to pronounce the words of consecration closely and in silence unto 11 himself.
(OF SECRET PRONOUNCING THE CANON OF THE MASS.-ARTICLE XVI.
H. A. 1564.]
The matter of this article is neither one of the highest mysteries nor one of the greatest keys of our religion, howsoever M. Jewel pleaseth himself with that report, thinking thereby to impair the estimation of the catholic church. The diversity of observation in this behalf sheweth the indifferency of the thing. For else, if one manner of pronouncing the words of consecration had been thought a necessary point of religion, it had been every where uniform and invariable. That the bread and wine be consecrated by the words of our Lord pronounced by the priest, as in the person of Christ, by virtue of the 12 which, through the grace of the Holy Ghost, the bread and wine are changed into our Lord's body and blood; (213) this thing The two hath in all times, and in all places, and with consent of all, invariably been done, thirteenth and so believed. But the manner of pronouncing the words, concerning silence or untenthopen utterance, according to diversity of places, hath been diverse.
vouched, and never proved.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY. This, saith M. Harding, is but a small key of our religion. Which thing may very well appear, both otherwise, and also by the small weight and slenderness of his proofs. Howbeit, in cases of religion, and in the service of God, nothing ought to be judged small, specially that may deceive the people. Verily, how small soever they will now have this key to seem, as it hath been heretofore cause of no small superstition, so it hath shut out God's people from the sight and understanding of our greatest mysteries.
Certain it is that the religion of Christ may well stand without this kind of mystical silence, as it may also without transubstantiation, or private mass, or any other their like fantasies. But if the matter be so small, wherefore doth M. Harding take so great pains to prove it, and that by so great untruths and so manifest fables? Wherefore are they not ashamed to say, that Christ himself at Thom. in iii
. his last supper consecrated in silence and secrecy, and that in like order and form as they do now 13 ? Or how durst the bishops in this present council of Conci Trident so solemnly to abanne 14 and accurse all them that dare to find fault with Sess. 2. the same 15 ? So small a matter as this is now supposed to be should never need so great ado.
But, whether these words be uttered secretly or aloud, he imagineth that by the power thereof the substance of the bread and wine is really and wholly changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ. The untruth hereof is mani
Part. Summ, Quæst. 78.
[" To, H. A. 1564.)
[13 Different opinions are recited by Aquinas.-
[14 Aban: ban, curse.]
[15 Si quis dixerit, ecclesiæ Romanæ ritum, quo summissa voce pars canonis et verba consecrationis proferuntur, damnandam esse, &c. ...anathema sit. Concil. Trid. Sess. xxii. De Sacrif. Miss. can. 9, in Concil. Stud. Labb, et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. XIV. col. 856.)
Euch. Lib. i.
festly reproved by St Augustine, St Chrysostom, Theodoretus, Gelasius, and by
the general consent of all the old fathers; and is answered more at large in the D. Tonst. de tenth article of this book?. Certainly this error neither was ever confirmed in Concil. Lat. the Latin church before the council of Lateran in Rome, which was above
twelve hundred years after Christ, nor ever received in the Greek church from the birth of Christ until this day,
" the Greek and La
Bessarion a young doctor
The Greeks in the east church have thought it good to pronounce [The manner of the words of consecration clara voce", as we find in Chrysostom's consecration in mass, and, as Bessarion writeth, alta voce, that is plainly,
“out aloud,” tin churches dior “ with a loud voice." Sacerdos alta voce juxta orientalis ecclesiæ vers. H.A. 1564.]
[In Libello ritum verba illa pronunciat: Hoc est corpus meum4: “ The priest,” cramento Euchasaith Bessarion, “after the rite or manner of the east church, pro- 1564.] nounceth with a loud voice these 5 words, “This is my body?” Which manner of loud pronouncing was thought good to be used in the Greek church,
as it may be gathered by that Bessarion writeth (who, being a Greek born, and Heliked anno brought up in learning amongst the Greeks, knew right well the order of that
church), to the intent the people might thereby, for the better maintenance of their faith, be stirred and warned to give token of consent and of belief thereto. “When the priest,” saith he, "pronounceth those words with a loud voice, the people standing by, in utraque parte, that is, first at the consecration of the body, and again at the consecration of the blood, answereth, Amen; as though they said thus : Truly so it is as thou sayest. For, whereas Amen is an adverb of affirming in Hebrew, in Greek it signifieth so much as 'truly. And therefore the people answering Amen to these? words, Verily, say they, these gifts set forth are the body and blood of Christ. So we believe : so we confess 8.” Thus' far Bessarion. It is declared by Clement, Lib. viii. Constitutionum Apostolicarum, that the people said Amen when the words of consecration had been pronounced 10. Whereby we understand that order to have been taken by the apostles. The same custom also may be gathered out of St Ambrose, who saith thus : Dicit tibi sacerdos, Corpus Christi; et tu dicis, Amen, hoc est, Verum. Quidll confitetur lingua, teneat
, , affectus 12. De Sacram. Lib. IV. cap. v.: “ The priest saith, “The body of Christ;' and thou sayest, 'Amen,' that is to say, True. Hold with thy heart that which thou confessest with the 13 tongue.” He saith likewise hereof, De iis qui initiantur Mysteriis, cap. ix. 14 Frustra ab illis respondetur, Amen, &c.16: “Amen is answered in vain by them who dispute against that which is received," saith Leo, Sermone 6, De Jejunio vii. Mensis.
THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.
It is clearly witnessed by all these doctors, against M. Harding and the order of the church of Rome, that the words of consecration were pronounced with a loud voice; and that the people not only heard, but also understood and answered
[See before, pages 562, &c.]
[2 Tonst. De Verit. Corp. et Sang. Dom. in Euch. Lut. 1554. Lib. 1. fol. 46. See before, page 549, note 8.]
[8 Ευλογεί τον άγιον άρτον, εκφώνως λέγων, K.7.1.-Chrysost. Lit. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. p. 96.)
[Meum, &c. H. A. 1564.]
[® Sacerdote enim verba illa alta voce, ut vos Græci soletis, pronunciante, assistens populus in utraque parte respondet, Amen, quasi dicat, Vere ita est, ut tu dicis. Amen enim cum affirmandi apud Hebræos adverbium sit, Græce idem quod vere significat. Amen igitur ad ea verba respondens populus, Certe, inquit, corpus et sanguis Christi sunt munera
ista proposita, ita credimus, ita confitemur.--Bessar. De Sacram. Euch. in Biblioth. Patr. per M. de la Bigne, Par. 1624. Tom. VI. col. 481.]
[° This, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]
[o Constit. Apost. Lib. VIII, cap. xii. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par: 1671-2. Tom. I. col. 483.]
[" Quod, 1565, 1609, and H. A. 1564.]
["Ambros. Op. Par. 1686-90. De Sacram. Lib. iv. cap. v. 25. Tom. II. col. 372; where quod.)
[13 Thy, H. A. 1564.]
[14 Id. Lib. de Myst. cap. ix. 54. Tom. II. col. 340.]
[15 frustra ab illis Amen respondetur, a quibus contra id quod accipitur disputatur.-Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. De Jej. Sept. Mens. Serm. vi. 2. col. 248.]
the same. Wherefore M. Harding can find but small relief in these authorities. Verily in his church, which he so often calleth ancient and only catholic, the people neither answereth, nor understandeth, nor heareth the words of consecration. Thus it appeareth he hath alleged these five doctors in three special points against himself.
M. Harding addeth hereto: Amen is as much as Verum est, “ It is true.” And therefore the people, answering Amen, confessed thereby that they believed the very real and substantial changing of the bread into the body of Christ. It was needless and out of season to renew this matter in this place. But he thought it better skill to speak from the purpose than utterly to hold his peace and to say nothing.
First, as it is said before, the Latin church never received this new belief before the council of Lateran holden in Rome; the Greek church never until Anno Dom. this day. Therefore, by M. Harding's skill, the people thus answering said Amen 1915. to that thing that they believed not; and so confirmed the child eight hundred years and more before it was born. Indeed, the people said Amen to that they heard spoken by the priest. But the priest spake nothing neither of real presence, nor of transubstantiation, nor of accidents without subject. Therefore it is not likely the people's answer had relation to any such matter. Other.. wise they should seem to answer that thing that was not spoken. The priest only uttered these words of Christ, “ This is my body;" whereunto the Greeks make answer in this sort, as it is recorded in the council of Florence: Firmiter Concil. credimus, verbis illis dominicis sacramentum fieri16 : “We believe stedfastly that ult. by these words of our Lord there is made a sacrament.” Likewise St Ambrose : Post consecrationem corpus Christi] significatur 17 : “ After the consecration the Ambros, de body of Christ is signified.” Again : Ante consecrationem aliud dicitur : post cap. ix. consecrationem sanguis nuncupatur. Et tu dicis, Amen, hoc est, Verum est 18 : “Before the consecration it is called another thing : after consecration it is named the blood of Christ. And thou sayest, 'Amen,' that is to say, 'It is true.”” So Dionysius writeth unto Sixtus, the bishop of Rome, of one that had been baptized amongst heretics : Gratiarum actionem in ecclesia audivit, et ad illam una Euseb. Lib. cum aliis respondit, Amen 19: “He heard the thanksgiving in the church, and to
ευχαρισthe same together with others he answered, ‘Amen." So St Augustine: Fratres rías...éna
κούσαντα, nostri eadem sacramenta celebrantes [et]...unum Amen respondentes 20:"Our brethren kai ouvresorting to one sacrament, and answering all one Amen." This answering Amen etiqleyguimported not any sudden transubstantiation, but a thanksgiving unto God for Amiv.
"Αμήν. our delivery by the death of Christ.
August. in But Leo saith, they answer Amen in vain that dispute against the same Leo de Jejun. thing that they receive21. For clear understanding of which words, it behoveth Serm. 6. thee, good reader, to remember that Leo, as well herein as also in sundry other places, bendeth the whole force of his learning against the heretic Eutyches, whose error was this, much like unto the common error that is now defended; that Christ's body after his ascension was turned wholly into the Godhead, and so was no longer a man's body. Against which error Leo taketh an argument of the holy mysteries, wherein the faithful people, as with their bodily mouth they receive the mystical bread and wine, so with their spirit and faith they receive the body and blood of Christ, and that verily and in truth; and in witness thereof the receiver saith, Amen. But, saith Leo, “he saith Amen in vain that denieth the same thing that he receiveth ;" that is to say, that receiveth the sacrament of Christ's body, and yet nevertheless is persuaded, as the heretic Eutyches was, that Christ indeed hath no body. And in this sense St Augustine seemeth to say: Mors illi erit, non vita, qui mendacem putaverit vitam 22 : “ The Bed. 1 Cor. x.
iis qui init.
vii. cap. ix.
(1® Responderunt [Græci], se firmiter credere, &c.-Gen. viii. Synod. Sess. Ult. Florent. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. III. p. 474.]
("? Ambros. Op. Lib. de Myst. cap. ix. 54. Tom. 11. col. 339.]
(18 Id. ibid. col. 340.]
[19 Euseb. in Hist. Eccles. Script. Amst. 16951700. Lib. vii. cap. ix. p. 208.]
[20 August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Psalm. xxxii. Enart. iii. 29. Tom. IV. col. 208; where fratribus nostris, celebrantibus, and respondentibus.]
[" See above, note 15.]
[22 Ven. Bed. Op. Col. Agrip. 1612. Ad Cor. 1. cap. x. Tom. VI. col. 363; where erit autem illa homini mors.)
receiving of the sacrament shall be death, and not life, unto him that thinketh that Christ, being the life itself, was a liar;" delivering these holy mysteries as the
sacrament or pledge of his body, himself indeed having no body. So likewise Prosp. de Prosper Aquitanus: Christum...a populo Judaico fuisse occisum, nullus jam ambigit Pars i. cap."' Christianus; cujus sacrum? sanguinem omnis nunc terra accipiens clamat, Amen :...
ut neganti Judæo, quod occiderit Christum, recte dicatur a Deo: Vox sanguinis fratris tui clamat ad me de terra?: “Whether Christ were slain of the Jews or no, there is no christian man now that can stand in doubt. For now all the earth receiveth his holy blood, and crieth Amen. Therefore, if the Jew will deny that ever he
slew Christ, God may justly say unto him: “The voice of the blood of thy brother Chrysost, in crieth unto me from the earth.” So St Chrysostom: Hæc afferentes mysteria,
ora ipsorum consuimus. Si enim mortuus Christus non est, cujus symbolum ac signum hoc sacrificium est3 ? “ Laying forth these mysteries, we stop their mouths. For, if Christ died not, whose sign then and whose token is this sacrifice ?" Thus, by the judgment of these learned fathers, Eutyches the heretic, or any other, that denied either the body or the death of Christ, might soon be reproved, even by the receiving of these holy mysteries. For they receive the sacrament, and yet deny the thing itself that is represented by the sacrament; and so, as Leo
saith, they dispute against the thing itself that they receive. And thus Leo Leo. Epist. 81 himself plainly expoundeth and openeth his own meaning: Quam...sibi in hujus
sacramenti præsidio spem relinquunt, qui in Salvatoris nostri corpore negant humanæ substantive veritatem ? Dicant, quo sacrificio [sint] reconciliati: dicant, quo sanguine sint redemptit: “What hope do they leave themselves in the help of this sacrament, that say there is no truth of the substance of man in the body of our Saviour ? Let them tell me by what sacrifice they are reconciled: let them tell me with what blood they are redeemed.”
By these holy fathers it is plain, that whoso receiveth the holy mystery of Christ's body, and yet thinketh and holdeth that Christ indeed hath no body, as
Eutyches the heretic did, he disputeth against that thing itself that he receiveth. Gelas, contr. For Gelasius saith: Hoc nobis in ipso Domino Christo sentiendum (est], quod in ejus Eutych.
imagine profitemur5 : “We must think the same of Christ the Lord himself that we profess (in the sacrament, which is) his image.” And therefore in the communionbook that beareth the name of St James it is written thus : Quotiescunque comederitis hunc panem, et hunc calicem biberitis, mortem Filii hominis annuntiatis, ... donec veniat. Populus respondet, Credimus, et confitemur 6: “As often as ye shall eat this bread, or drink this cup, ye do publish the death of the Son of man, until he come. Hereto the people maketh answer, “We believe it, and we confess it.”” This is it that St Ambrose, St Chrysostom, Leo, and Clement call Amen. And this is that undoubted truth of Christ's body, not in the sacrament, as M. Harding imagineth, but in the unity of one person, that Leo defendeth against
the heretic Eutyches. Bessarion's authority in these cases cannot be great; Anno Dom. both for that he was but of very late years, and therefore a very young doctor
to be alleged; nd also for that, being promoted to the bishoprick of Tusculum, and made a cardinal of Rome in the late council of Florence, contrary to the minds and judgments of the rest of his brethren of Græcia, he openly flattered and yielded himself unto the pope.
And that the people should give their consent and apply their faith to this truth without error and deceit, and that by saying “ Amen” they should then believe and confess the bread and wine to be made the body and blood of Christ, (214) when it was made indeed, and not else, for so were it a great error-for this cause
The two hundred and fourteenth untruth. For
[' Sacris, 1609, 1611.)
[? Prosp. Aquit. Op. Par. 1711. De Promiss. et Præd. Dei, Pars I. cap. vi. 2. Append. col. 95. This treatise is not genuine.]
[? Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. lxxxii. Tom. VII. p. 783.]
[* Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Ad Palæst. Episc.
Epist. lxxxiii. 4. col. 410.)
[" Gelas, adv. Ent. et Nestor. in Mag. Biblioth. Vet. Patr. Col. Agrip. 1618-22. Tom. V. Pars III. p. 671; where Christo Domino.)
[6 Jacob. Lit. in Lit. Sanct. Patr. Par. 1560. p. 24; where the response is assigned to the deacons.]