locum 6 : “Whoso doth not communicate, let him give place.” Thus all they that either would not or might not communicate with the rest of their brethren, were willed to depart; whereof it necessarily followeth, that all they that remained did communicate.

Of this departure away and proclamation of the deacon, the action itself, which was the holy communion, was called missa. Afterward, when either through negligence of the people, or through avarice of the priests, the whole order hereof was quite altered, and the thing that had been common was become private, yet, as it happeneth often in other the like things, the former name remained still. For example, the vigils or night-watches were turned into fastings; altars, that served for offering up of calves and goats, were turned into the Lord's table; the sabbath-day was turned into the Sunday. Yet, the things being thus altered, the names notwithstanding of vigils, altars, and sabbath-days remain still in use, as they did before. Therefore M. Harding herein, as commonly elsewhere, thought it best to deceive his reader by the mistaking and error of the name.

Last of all, if the fathers in the council of Toledo and Leo meant all one thing, as here it is constantly avouched, then is M. Harding by the same fathers but poorly relieved. For it is most evident by that is already said, that Leo meant the holy communion, and not M. Harding's private mass.

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If M. Jewel agnise and accept for good the authority of this council, as the church doth, then must he allow these many things which he and the sacramentaries to the uttermost of their power and cunning labour to disprove and deface. First, the blessed sacrifice of the mass, which the fathers of this council call the true and singular sacrifice, the sacrifice of the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ (the sacrifice of the body and blood of Jesus Christ our Lord], which the priest offereth on the altar. Next, the truth and real presence of the body and blood of our Lord in the sacrifice offered. Then altars, which this council calleth divine or holy, for the divine and holy things on them offered, the body and blood of Christ. Furthermore, the (200) multitude of masses in one day: for they speak of many sacrifices, that is, The two hunmany masses, plurima sacrificia. Lastly, private masses. For the words nec ipse truth. sacrificans, rightly construed and weighed, import no less. For whereas no word in ing underthis decree is uttered whereby it may appear the people to be of necessity required to hisown book, receive, if the priests had received themselves at every mass, no fault had been found. Anil if the people had received without the priests, in this case it had been reason this decree should otherwise have been expressed. And so it is clear that at that time private masses were said and done.


as it shall appear.


The authority and credit of this council of Toledo is no part of our question. It was holden almost seven hundred years after Christ; and of greater antiquity M. Harding is able to allege none. Which thing, I trust, the indifferent and discreet reader will well remember.

Concerning these five notes, whereof one only toucheth this purpose. As this council saith the priest offereth the sacrifice at the altar or holy table, even so 1. Leo saith every of the whole faithful people likewise offereth up the same sacri- Leo ad

Diosc. Epist. fice.

I say not any other, but the very self-same sacrifice, and that in as ample 81. manner as it is offered by the priest.

Touching real presence, M. Harding seemeth to do as children sometimes 2. use to do, that imagine horsemen, and banners, and other strange miracles in the clouds. It is only his own fantasy; for there is no such word or mention in the council. The matter of altars is already answered. Private masses, and 3. also multitudes of the same, consideration evermore had to the computation of 4.

[ Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Dial. Lib. II. cap. xxiii. Tom. II. col. 253. See before, page 19, note 17.]

{? The words between brackets are found only

in H. A. 1564, and H. A. 1505.)

[8 Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Ad Diosc. Epist. lxxxi. cap. ii. col. 436. See before, page 630.]

Anno 680.

5. the years, might easily be granted without hinderance. Yet hath not M. Hard

ing, in the space well near of seven hundred years, hitherto found in one church more than two masses in one day; all this his great study and travail therein taken notwithstanding.

But the words of the council be plain : Plurima sacrificia: that is, “Many sacrifices ;” and therefore, saith M. Harding, “many masses." Hereby it may appear that M. Harding either considereth not his book, or else hath no great regard to that he writeth. His own books will reprove his oversight, and shew how much he is deceived. For plurima in this place signifieth not many, that is,

. neither six, nor five, nor four, nor three, but only two. And for trial hereof De Consecr. I report me to the gloss itself upon the decrees. The words be these : Nota Relatum est. hic, plurima dici de duobus ; quia plura non licet? : “Mark here, that this word

plurima is spoken only of two. For to say more masses than two, it is not lawful.”

Dist. 2.

In Glossa.

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be of

1 Cor.ri.

Now, if M. Jewel refuse and reject the authority of the church represented in that council, then he giveth us a manifest notice what mark we ought to take him to

Then may we say unto him the words of St Paul: Nos talem consuetudinem non habemus, nec ecclesia Dei : “We have no such custom, neither the church of God hath not,to condemn the church. And in this case he must pardon us, if according to the precept of Christ, for that he will not hear the church, we take him for no better than a heathen and a publican.

Matt. xviii.


Matt. xxi.

Jer. xii.
Isai. i.


To these simple premises M. Harding hath laid a large conclusion. If we hear not him and his church, then are we heathens and publicans. God knoweth, this is a very poor bravery. In the schools it is called petitio principi, and

a fallacia accidentis, a deceitful kind of reasoning, without either ground or good order. I need not to open it; it is known unto children.

But doth M. Harding think that every man is an heathen that reproveth. error, that discloseth the man of sin, and wisheth the reformation of God's church? Christ said unto the scribes and Pharisees: “You have made the house of God a den of thieves." Hieremy saith: “The labourers themselves have

trodden down and torn the vine of the Lord.” The prophet Esay saith : “ Your Bernard. in silver is turned into dross." St Bernard saith of the bishops in his time: Pro

mercenariis habemus diabolos, &c.2 : “Instead of hirelings we have devils :” “From Bernardain. the top to the toe there is no part left whole in the church of Rome3.” Nicolaus Nicol. de de Clavengiis saith : Calamitosa desolatio est in domo Deit : “ There is a miserable Claveng. Alb. Pigh.

desolation in the house of the Lord.” Pighius confesseth there be abuses in de Poriw.cories the private massø. Latomus confesseth there is an error in the administration

in one kinde. And will M. Harding know all these by his own privy mark? Or must Christ, Hieremy, Esay, St Bernard, Pighius, and Latomus, be taken for no better than heathens and publicans ? Certainly, touching these pluralities of masses, and this shameful profanation and waste of God's holy mysteries, both Christ and his apostles, and all the old catholic fathers of the primitive church, will say : Nos hujusmodi consuetudinem non habenus, nec ecclesia Dei:


1 Cor. xi.

[Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ii. Gloss. in can. 11. col. 1917.]

[? ... sic facit Jesus hodie, eligens sibi multos diabolos episcopos.-Bernard. Op. Par. 1690. In Concil. Remens. Serm. 3. Vol. II. Tom. v. col. 736.)

[ Id. In Conv. S. Paul. Serm. i. 3. Vol. I. Tom. III. col. 956.)

[* A fearful picture of the corruptions of the church is drawn by N. de Clameng. De Corrupt. Eccles. Stat. Lib. in Fasc. Rer. Expet. et Fug. Lond.

1690. Tom. II. pp. 555, &c.; but the precise words used by Jewel do not appear in this treatise.]

[S Alb. Pigh. Explic. Cathol. Contr. Par. 1586. De Miss. Priv. Controv. vi. fol. 123. 2.]

[¢ B. Latom. adv. M. Bucer. Defens. Col. 1545. De Disp. Euch. foll. D. &c. See especially G. ii.... dico optandum esse, votisque omnibus expetendum, ut nulla res unquam impediat, quo minus sacramenta ipsa, quo ritu quave cæremonia a Domino instituta sunt, ita possimus integre sine omni detrimento accipere.]


“We have no such custom, neither the church of God.” And to the wilful maintainers of the same Christ will say: Frustra colitis me, docentes doctrinas Matt. zy. præcepta hominum : “Ye worship me in vain, teaching the doctrines and commandments of men."

And whereas, M. Harding, ye countenance and furnish your errors by the name of the church, remember St John saith : “ Make no vaunts that ye be Matt. iii. the children of Abraham. For God is able even of the stones to raise up children unto Abraham.” And the angel saith in the book of Revelations : Dicunt se esse Judæos, et non sunt; sed sunt synagoga Satanæ : “ They name Rev. ii. themselves Jews,” that is, the people of God, “but they are not: they are the synagogue of the devil.”

Now, good christian reader, that thou mayest see how vainly M. Harding hath wandered throughout this whole treaty, it may please thee to remember my first negative proposition touching the same, which in effect is this : They are not able to shew that, within six hundred years after Christ, there were five masses said any where, in any one church, in one day, throughout the world. In which proposition two points are specially touched; the number of masses, and the number of years. To prove the affirmative hereof, M. Harding hath alleged the council of Antisiodorum and the council of Toledo, either of them being Anno 613.7 without the compass of six hundred years. He hath also alleged Leo, an ancient bishop of Rome, speaking only of the holy communion, and not one word of the Leo, Epist. private mass. All these three authorities touch only one priest, and, as it appeareth by the gloss, only two ministrations at the uttermost. Thus hath De Consecr. M. Harding failed, both in the computation of the years, and also in the number Relatum est. of his masses.

Yet must this be defended among the rest, be the profanation thereof never so horrible; and whosoever dare wish a reformation herein must be no better than a heathen and a publican. O how much better had it been for M. Harding, either to have passed the matter over in silence, or plainly and simply to have confessed his error!


Dist. 2.



[7 614, 1565.]

[ Leon. Magni Op. Lut. 1623. Ad Diosc. Epist. lxxxi. cap. ii. col. 436.]

[° Corp. Jur. Canon. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ü. Gloss. in can. 11. col. 1917.]




Or that images were set up in the churches to the intent the people might worship them.

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to be wor shipped ; ergo, to be worshipped,

That images were set up in churches within six hundred years after Christ, Not specially it is certain, but not specially either then or sithence to the intent the people might

worship them. The intent and purpose hath been far other, but right godly, as shall

be declared. Wherefore the imputing of this intent to the catholic church is both speciality not false and also slanderous. And because, for the use of images, these new masters


charge the church with reproach of a new device, breach of God's commandment, and idolatry; I will here shew, first, the antiquity of images, and by whom they have been allowed ; secondly, to what intent and purpose they serve; thirdly, how they may be worshipped without offence.


cap. vii,

This article of images may be easily passed over, both for that the weight thereof is not great, and also for that M. Harding, as his wont is, hath purposely dissembled the matter that was in question, and devised other fantasies that were not touched. Wherein, notwithstanding he use large discourses and make great shew, yet in the end, as it shall appear, he concludeth nothing. I grant images were erected in some churches within six hundred years after Christ, albeit neither so rathe as it is pretended, nor without much repining of godly men and great contention.

But M. Harding, of his modesty, once again calleth us new masters; so as he would call Moses if he were now alive, or much rather God himself. For this doctrine is God's doctrine, and not ours. And therefore St Augustine saith :

Hujusmodi simulacrum Deo nefas est in christiano templo collocarea: “In a Fid. et Syıb.

christian church to erect such an image unto God (resembling God to an old Epist. Epiph. man), it is an abomination.” And Epiphanius, the bishop of Cyprus, entering into tepise. Hjeros, a church, and finding there a veil hanged up and the image of Christ painted in

it, tare it asunder, and pulled it down, because it was done, as he writeth himself, contra auctoritatem scripturarum, "contrary to the commandment of God's word.” Again he saith : Hujusmodi vela .... contra religionem nostram veniunt : “Such veils (so painted) are contrary to our christian religion.” And again : Hæc scrupulositas indigna est ecclesia Christi, et populis qui (tibi] crediti sunt: : “ This superstition is unmeet for the church of Christ, and unmeet for the people that is committed unto thee.” St Augustine saith : “ It is abomination." Epiphanius saith: “It is contrary to the scriptures, and contrary to christian religion ; unmeet for the church of Christ, and unmeet for the people of God.” Howbeit, M. Harding perhaps will suffer these two to pass in the number of his new masters.

ad Johan.


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[? Were then set, H. A. 1564.)

[? August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. Lib. de Fid. et Symb. cap. vii. 14. Tom. VI. col. 157; where tale enim simulacrum, and christiano in.)

[Epiph. Op. Par. 1622. Epist. ad Joan. Episc. Hieros. Hieron. Interp. Tom. II. p. 317; where ejus. modi, and ut scrupulositatem tollat quæ indigna.)

And albeit by these fathers' judgment it is plain, that by setting up of images God's commandment is broken, yet it may the better appear by comparing God's words and M. Harding's words both together. God saith: “Thou shalt make to thyself? no graven image:” M. Harding saith : Thou shalt make to thyself4 graven images. God saith : “ Thou shalt not fall down to them, nor worship them:” M. Harding saith : Thou shalt fall down to them, and worship them. Now judge thou, good reader, whether this be a breach of God's commandment or no.

Verily M. Harding in the first entry hereof saith thus: “Images are not specially set up to the intent the people may worship them.” The sense whereof must needs be this : Images are set up to the end to be worshipped, although not specially to that end. But an image is a creature, and no God; and to honour a creature in that sort is idolatry. Therefore, by M. Harding's own confession, images are set up to be used to idolatry, although not specially to that end. Howbeit, by this simple distinction of general and special, idolatry is easy to be excused.

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Cap. ir.

Concerning the antiquity and original of images, they were not first invented by Antiquity man, but (201) commanded by God, brought into use by tradition of the The two hunV images. apostles, allowed by authority of the holy fathers and all councils, and by untruth, custom of all ages since5 Christ's being in the earth. When God would the taber- containing nacle with all furniture thereto belonging to be made, to serve for his honour and untruths toe

gether in . Exod. xxv. glory, he commanded Moses among other things to make two cherubins of beaten gold, so as they might cover both sides of the propitiatory, spreading abroad their wings, and beholding themselves one another, their faces turned toward the propitiatory, that the ark was to be covered withal. Of those cherubins St Paul

speaketh in his epistle to the Hebrews. Which images Beseleel, that excellent
workman, made at the commandment of Moses, according to the instruction

by God given. Again, Moses by the commandment of God made the brasen Numb. zxi, serpent, and set it up on high for the people that were hurt of serpents in

wilderness to behold, and so to be healed. In the temple also that Salomon 1 Kings vi. builded were images of cherubins, as scripture sheweth. Of cherubins men

tion is made in sundry places of the scriptures", specially in Ezechiel the

prophet, cap. xli. Josephus writeth of the same in his third and eighth book Antiquitatum Judaicarum 8. The image of cherubins representeth angels; and the word is a word of angelical dignity, as it appeareth by the third chapter of Genesis, where we read that God placed cherubins before paradise, after that Adam was cast forth for his disobedience.

Erod. arvii.

2 Chron.


. .

M. Harding doubteth not to derive the first invention of his images from God himself, even as rightly and with as good faith as he deriveth his mass from Christ and his apostles; or his holy water from the prophet Elizeus; or the cardinal's hat from St Hierome. Unless perhaps he will reason thus : God saith, “ Thou shalt not make unto thyself4 any graven image, nor the likeness of any Exod. xx. thing ;" and, "Accursed be the man that maketh an image;" and, “Confounded be Deut. xxvii. all they that worship images;" ergo, God commanded images to be made. If he Psal. xevii. can avouch his images by such warrants, then doubtless God himself was the first inventor of images.

But learned and wise men think that the invention hereof came first from the heathens and infidels that knew not God. Thus it is written in the book of Wisdom: Vanitas hominum invenit artes istas, ad tentationem animae, et decipulam Wisd. xiv. insipientium: “ The vanity of men first found out this art, to the tentation of the soul and to the deceiving of the unwise." St Cyprian saith: Ad defunctorum Cypr. de Idol. rultus per imaginem detinendos expressa [sunt] simulacra..... Inde posteris facta


['Theeself, 1565.]
[ Sith, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]
[ Instructions, H. A. 1564.)
[? The scripture, H. A. 1564.]

[Joseph. Op. Amst. 1726. Antiq. Jud. Lib. II. cap. vi. 5; Lib. viii. cap. iii. 3. Tom. I. pp. 135, 6, 424.]

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