Josh. i.

called fathers; for that the people are so in subjection unto them as the child is in obedience under his father,

But chiefly it is required in them, it is chiefly, and above all other things, required in such as are magistrates, that they themselves know God; that they themselves, I say, above all other men, have perfect knowledge of God and his laws; so that the people by that mean may follow him, and they all together

may follow God. Therefore, in the book of Deuteronomy, God himself gave [Deut. xvii.] in charge to all such as should become magistrates, saying: “He that is called

to bear office, whatever he be that is appointed to be a ruler, shall first write out all this book of my law with his own hand.” And again he said: Non recedet liber iste ab ore tuo: “This book of mine shall not depart from thy? mouth;” this book of mine shall not be out of thy hand.

This is God's charge to all them that bear office: this is his charge and commandment given unto

them. Therefore that good king David, when God had appointed him to be Psal. cxxxii. king and chief ruler of his people, he said : Si dedero oculis meis somnum, aut

palpebris meis requiem, antequam invenero domum Domino meo, et tabernaculum Deo Jacob: “If I shall give myself unto sleep, or mine eyelids any rest, before that I find out a house for my God, and a tabernacle for the God of Jacob,” &c. As who would say, I will never study mine own matters, I will never go

about mine own business, before I have established the matters of my God, 2 Chron.xxix. and the business of the God of Jacob. Therefore in like manner Ezechias,

that virtuous king, when he was called by God to bear office, would not go home to his own affairs before he had purged the church of God. Justinian also, that good and godly emperor, was wont to say, that he as much cared for the preservation of God's church, as he did for the safeguard of his own soul. And thus look what care David, the prophet of God, had over God's people; look what care that virtuous king Ezechias had; look what care that good and godly emperor Justinian had; the same and the like ought every good magistrate to have: as David, Ezechias, and Justinian did, so should every good and godly officer do; he must not give himself unto sleep, nor his eyelids unto rest, before he hath provided a temple for the God of Jacob; he must not go home unto his own house before that he hath purged God's church; he must have as great respect to the salvation of God's flock as he hath regard to the safeguard of his own soul; he must remember that his chair is God's chair, that his sword is God's sword. Now, good brethren, it behoveth you of your part to put away all hatred, to abolish from him all pride, dissension, all discord, and to honour the magistrate, to follow you your shepherd as the sheep do their shepherd, to joy in him your captain as the soldiers rejoice in their captain, to be governed by him your head as the members of the body are ruled by the head, and, lastly, so to be in subjection unto him as the child is in obedience and subjection to his father. And so shall there then be both a godly magistrate, so shall there be godly people, and so shall there be a godly realm.

Now let us here think that St Paul speaketh these words unto us, as indeed he speaketh them unto us, if we are, or will be, called Christians : unto us he saith, “ Be not high-minded;” unto us he saith, “Be not wise in your own opinions;" unto us he saith, “ Recompense no man evil for evil;” unto us he saith, “If it be possible, have peace with all men.”

O then, why are we of such proud hearts? Why are we high-minded? Why are we wise in our own opinions ? Why recompense we evil for evil? Why seek we revengement? Why agree not we together? O by whose name shall I call you? I would I might call you brethren; but, alas ! this heart of yours is not brotherly. I would I might call you Christians; but, alas! you are no Christians. I know not by what name I shall call you: for, if you were brethren, you would love as brethren; if you were Christians, you would agree as Christians. Christ said unto his disciples, and so by them to all such as profess his name: Mandatum novum do vobis, ut diligatis mutuo, sicut et ego dilexi vos : “I give you a new commandment,” said Christ, “that you love together, even as I have loved you." By this token, by this cognisance of mine, shall men know you

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John xiii.

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[' My, 1609.]

all men.

to be my disciples, if you love together as I have loved you. Let us look well upon ourselves : let us behold ourselves well: alas ! this badge, this cognisance is gone; this peace that Christ left unto us is not to be found amongst us. O ye that sometimes were brethren, but now mortal enemies; ye that sometimes ware this badge, this cognisance of Christ's peace, which now ye have cast from you, O how long will you follow vanity, how long will ye dwell in dissension? I have done my part; I have called you to peace, I have called you to love, I have called you to unity: do you now your parts; do you ensue after peace, love you each other, continue ye in unity together. I have not the keys of your hearts, I am not able to loose and open those stony hearts of yours: God make you all one, God mollify your hearts, God make you friends, God grant you to love as brethren together!

Let us lay aside this pride of our heart, let us not be wise in our own opinions, let us not requite evil with evil; let us, as much as may be, have peace with

Alas! it is no great thing that I require of you : I require only your love, I require your friendship one towards another; I ask no more, but that your hearts be joined in mutual love and unity together. Alas! it is a thing that soon may be granted of such as pray together, of such as have one heavenly Father, of such as are partakers of Christ's holy sacraments, of such as profess Christ, and will be called Christians. O how can

we pray our heavenly Father to forgive us, if we will not forgive our brother wherein he trespasseth against us? How can we with clear conscience come unto the holy communion, and be partakers of Christ's most holy body and blood, if we are not in charity with our own neighbour ? Let us therefore lay aside all discord without hypocrisy; let us lay apart all malice without dissimulation ; let us all join together in brotherly love, let us all be of like affection one towards another: but let us not be high-minded, let us make ourselves equal to them of the lower sort. So shall we make our bodies a quick and lively sacrifice; so shall we make them holy and acceptable unto God; so shall we be reconciled unto God, and God reconciled unto us; and, finally, so shall we which are called Christians be known to be God's servants, and such as profess the name of Christ, if we shall be found to have this peace and brotherly love, which is the badge and cognisance of Christ. And so shall God be ours, and remain with us for




(JEWEL, 11.]






I HAVE opened unto you the contents of the Lord's prayer, and shewed you upon whom we ought to call, and what to ask; and the articles of our christian faith, in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, of the church, of remission of sins, of the resurrection, and of life everlasting, &c. And I have opened unto you the ten commandments, and in them what our duty is towards God, towards our prince and magistrates, towards our parents, towards our neighbour, and towards ourselves?. All this huve I done simply and plainly, without all shew of learning, that it might the better sink into our hearts.

Now I think good to speak of the sacraments of the church, that all you may know what they are, because you are all partakers of the holy sacraments. Christ hath ordained them, that by them he might set before our eyes the mysteries of our salvation, and might more strongly confirm the faith which we have in his blood, and might seal his grace in our hearts. As princes' seals confirm and warrant their deeds and charters; so do the sacraments witness unto our conscience that God's promises are true, and shall continue for ever.

Thus doth God make known his secret purpose to his church: first, he declareth his mercy by his word; then he sealeth it and assureth it by his sacraments. In the word we have his promisės : in the sacraments we see them.

It would require a long time, if I should utter that might be said in this matter; especially in laying open such errors and abuses as have crept into the church. But I will have regard to this place, and so frame my speech, that the meanest and simplest may reap profit thereby. That you may the better remember it, I will keep this order. I will shew you what a sacrament is ; secondly, who hath ordained them; thirdly, wherefore they were ordained, and what they work in us; fourthly, how many there are; and then I will briefly speak of every one of them.


August. de

Lib. cap. .

A sacrament is an outward and visible sign, whereby God sealeth up grace in our hearts, to the confirmation of our faith. St Augustine saith : Sa- Doctr. Christ

. cramentum est invisibilis gratice visibile signum4: “A sacrament is a visible sign of grace invisible.” And, that we may the better understand him, he telleth us what thing we should call a sign. “A sign is a thing that, besides the sight itself which it offereth to the senses, causeth of itself some other certain thing to come to knowledge5." In baptism the water is the sign; and the thing signified is the grace of God. We see the water; but the grace Ad Marcell. of God is invisible: we cannot see it. Moreover he saith: [Signa], cum ad Epist. 5.

[1 In the edition of 1583 the following copy of verses is prefixed to this treatise :

Ornatissimo viro Thomæ Randolpho armigero serenissimo ad Scotos Legato integerrimo.

Quis te junxit amor docto, Randolphe, Juello,

Oxonia, exilium, musa, laborque notant.
Et, quod ad exequias defuncti ducere plectrum

Triste, Buchananos Patritiosque facis :
(Quis tibi gratus erit pro tali munere?) certe

Auctior hoc studio gratia facta tua est.
Nec nihil ex illo referes. Sacra signa Redemptor,

Essent ut fidei tessera fida, dedit.

Hæc tuus ex posuit sancte, tibi dedico: ne sit

Tam raræ et fidei tessera nulla piæ.

Tuæ dignitatis studiosus Johan. Garbrandus.) [? These works have never been printed.] [1583, 1609 omit one.)

[* August. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Tert. Pars, De Consecr. Dist. ü. can. 32. col. 1926. See before, page 515.] [5 Id. in eod. ibid. Op. Par. 1679-1700.

De Doctr. Christ. Lib. II. cap. i. 1. Tom. III. Pars I. col. 19. See before, 458, note 3.)


August. Epist. 23. ad Bonifac.

res divinas adhibentur, sacramenta vocanturl: “Signs, when they be applied to godly things, be called sacraments.” The signification and the substance of the sacrament is to shew us, how we are washed with the passion of Christ, and how we are fed with the body of Christ.

And again :

“ If sacraments had not a certain likeness and representation of the things whereof they be sacraments, then indeed they were no sacraments. And, because of this likeness which they have with the things they represent, they be oftentimes 8 termed by the names of the things themselves. Therefore after a certain manner of speech (and not otherwise) the sacrament of the body of Christ is the body of Christ, and the sacrament of the blood of Christ is the blood of Christ; so the sacrament of faith is faith4."

Hom. 7. in 1 Cor.

Gen. ix.

Who hath ordained the sacraments ? Not any prelate, not any prince, not any angel or archangel, but only God himself : for he only hath authority to seal the charter, in whose authority only it is to grant it; and only be giveth the pledge, and confirmeth his grace to us, which giveth his grace into our hearts. Chrysostom saith : Divinum et integrum non esset mysterium, si quicquam ex te adderes 5 : “ The mystery were not of God, nor perfect, if thou shouldest put any thing to it.” In the days of Noah, when God determined to be merciful unto his people, and never to drown the whole world with water, he said: “I have set my bow in the cloud; and it shall be for a sign of the covenant between me and the earth; and when I shall cover the earth with a cloud, and the bow shall be seen in the cloud, then will I remember my covenant which is between me and you, and between every living thing in flesh; and there shall be no more waters of a flood to destroy all flesh.”

In like manner, when God would witness and stablish to Abraham and his seed after him the promise of his mercy, he himself ordained a sacrament to confirm the same: “ This is my covenant, which ye shall keep between me and you, and thy seed after thee: let every man-child among you be circumcised.” Thus God ordained the sacrament of circumcision. This sacrament was a seal of God's promise to Abraham, and a seal of Abraham's faith and obedience towards God. By this sacrament was man bound to the Lord; and by the same sacra

ment God vouchsafed to bind himself to man. But how is the sacrament Tract. 80, in formed ? of what parts is it made ? Augustine saith: Accedat verbum ad elemen

tum, et fit sacramentum?: “Join the word of Christ's institution with the sensible creature, and thereof is made a sacrament.” Join the word to the creature of water, and thereof is made the sacrament of baptism: take away the word, then what is the water other than water ? The word of God and the creature make a sacrament.

Gen. xvii.

xiii. Johan.

But why were sacraments ordained ? He telleth you: In nullum ... nomen religionis, ceu verum, &c. 8 : “Men cannot be gathered together to the profession of any religion, whether it be true or false, unless they be bound in the fellowship of visible signs oro sacraments.” The first cause why they were ordained is, that thereby one should acknowledge another, as fellows of one household, and members of one body. So was all Israel reckoned the children of Abraham, because of their circumcision; and all such as were uncircumcised were cut off from the people, and had no part in the commonwealth of Israel, because they were uncircumcised: even as we take them that are not baptized to be none of our brethren, to be no children of God, nor members of his church, because they will not take the sacrament of baptism.

Lib. xix. contr. Faust.

cap. xi.


[* Id. ad Marcellin. Epist. cxxxviii. 7. Tom. II.
col. 412; where pertinent and appellantur. ]

[° 1583 omits the.]
[ Ofttimes, 1583.]

[* Id. Ad Bonifac. Epist. xcviii. 9. Tom. II. col.
267. See before, page 503, note 11; 518, note 6.]

[Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Epist. 1. ad Cor. Hom. vii. Tom. X. p. 51.]

[Man was bound, 1583, 1609.]

[? August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. xv. Tractat. lxxx. 3. Tom. III. Pars II. col. 703; where accedit.]

[8 In &c. seu falsum, coagulari homines possunt, nisi aliquo signaculorum vel sacramentorum visibilium consortio colligentur.-Id. contr. Faust. Lib. XIX. cap. xi. Tom. VIII. col. 319.]

[° Of, 1609, 1611.)

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