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As in the former part of this Work it has 529. been neceffary to be fomewhat particular in the mode of tranflating the Greek word +тXH, Spirit; fo perhaps I ought not to conclude these Obfervations, without remarking, that it seems to have a moft peculiar kind of meaning annexed to it by the LXX, not only in the paffage alluded to, but also in other parts of Scripture.
Even fuch an one as plainly leads us to infer, that they clearly intended to distinguish it from the Soul, properly fo called; and such as leaves room to fuppofe, that they conceived Man to be compounded of three natures,a Spirit, a Soul, and a Body.
Confiftently with this idea we find, afterwards, a remarkable expreffion of the apoftle St. Paul, in his First Epistle to the Theffalonians, ch. v. ver. 23. which Dr. Macknight (whofe very learned work fell into my hands
* See Vol. I. p. 190.—and in the quarto edit. p. 122.
fince the greater part of this book was printed) has tranflated thus: And may your whole perfon, the fpirit, and the foul, and the body, be preferved unblameable! obferving moft accurately, at the fame time, that this paffage has a great conformity to the opinion of the Pythagoreans, and Platonifts, who divided the thinking part of man into fpirit and foul, in confequence of a notion derived from the moft ancient tradition.
But I must add, that there is ftill another moft remarkable ufe of the word by the LXX, which points out a far more extraordinary and accurate diftinction, than merely the division mentioned by the ancient philofophers.
For although ugh certainly means, in its usual sense, spirit, of fome fort or other, and life; yet the LXX, in fome inftances, use it with reference to what is in a ftate of deprivation of life.
With regard to the firft, and more ufual meaning, we find it written in the Law
Leviticus, ch. xvii. ver. 11, 12, 14.
II. Ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα
αὐτῷ ἐςιν, καὶ ἐγὼ δέδωκα αὐτὸ ὑμῖν ἐπὶ τῇ
11. For the fpirit [or life] of all fello is its blood, and I have given IT unto you upon the altar to make propitiation for your spirits [or lives]. For THAT blood maketh propitiation in the ftead of the firit [or life].
12. Διὰ τῦτο ἔἴρηκα τοῖς ὑιοῖς Ισραήλ· 531. Πᾶσα ψυχη ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐ φάγεται αἷμα, καὶ ὁ προσήλιος ὁ προσκείμενος ἐν ὑμῖν ἐ φάγεται αἷμα.
12. For this reafon I have faid to the fons of Ifrael, Not one living being of you shall eat blood; not even any profelyte that dwelleth among ft you shall eat blood.
14. Ἡ γὰρ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα αὐτῇ ἐςιν. Καὶ εἶπα τοῖς ὑιοῖς ΙσραήλΑἷμα πάσης σαρκὸς 8 φάγεσθε, ὅτι ἡ ψυχὴ πάσης σαρκὸς αἷμα αὐτῷ ἐσιν· πᾶς ὁ έστ θων αὐτὸ, ἐξολεθρευθήσεται,
14. For the fpirit [or life] of all ftello is its blood. And I have faid to the fons of Ifrael, Ye shall not eat the blood of any flesh; because the fpirit [or life] of all fello is its blood. Every one, whofoever eateth it, fhall be utterly deftroyed, [and cut off.]
And in Deuteronomy, ch. xii, ver. 23, 24,
23. Πρόσεχε ἰσχυρῶς τῇ μὴ φαγεν αἷμα· τὸ γὰρ αἷμα αὐτῇ ψυχή· ἐ βρω 8 θήσε]αι ψυχὴ μετὰ τῶν κρεῶν·
8 ἐ φάγεσθε αὐτὸ, ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἐχεῖτε αὐτὸ ὡς ὕδωρ.
23. Be most exceedingly careful not to eat blood; becaufe the blood is its fpirit [or life]. Spirit [or life] fhall not be eaten with the fleshy parts.
24. Ye shall not eat it; ye fball pour it out upon the earth as water.
And again, in the Book of Numbers, we read concerning the divifion of the living cattle, and of the perfons which were taken prifoners and fpared in war.
Numbers, ch. xxxi. ver. 28.
Καὶ ἀφελῆτε τὸ τέλος Κυρίῳ παρὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῶν πολεμισῶν τῶν ἐκπορευόμενων εἰς τὴν παράταξιν, μίαν ψυχὴν ἀπὸ πεν]ακοσίων, ἀπὸ τῶν ανθρώπων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν κ]ηνῶν, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν βοων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν προβάτων, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ὄνων.
Where our tranflation, in the defcription, even makes use of the word foul; though both the Alexandrian and Vatican Manufcripts have the word ur. Perhaps it would be a more clofe tranflation from the Seventy, to render the word uxar, here, Spirit, or living being. But the other is confiftent enough with common fenfe, because either way the word certainly indicates life; and it may perhaps therefore be allowed to ftand, as in our verfion.
And levy a tribute unto the Lord, of the men of war which went out to battle; ONE SOUL [or one living being] of five hundred, both of the perfons, and of the beeves, and of the affes, and of the sheep.