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and on the top stood the figure of the emperor without
Both these columns are still standing at Rome, the former most entire. But Pope Sixtus the First, instead of the two statues of the emperors, set up St. Peter's on the column of Trajan, and St. Paul's on that of Antoninus. Kennett's Antiquities of Rome.
The monument of London is perhaps one of the noblest columns in the world, it was built to commemorate the great fire of London, and the rebuilding of the city after the fire. It was built by Sir Christopher Wren, in the reign of King Charles the Second. It was begun in the year 1671, and finished in the year 1677. The height is 202 feet, considerably exceeding that of the highest of the two celebrated Roman pillars. The fire broke out just 202 feet eastward of this column, which is exactly its height.
ON the anniversary of the birth-day of Linnæus1 the celebrated naturalist, a meeting was held at the rooms of the society in Soho-square, when the annual report of the auditors was read, and the secretary read a biographical list of the members who had died in the previous year. Amongst various illustrations in natural history, the most important was a portable machine for artificial incubation, from Mr. Bucknell. There were exhibited birds in every stage of progression from the embryo to the perfect, living, liberated, and healthful animal. A fresh egg was first broken to show the germ or cicatricula of the future being, and afterwards twentyone eggs in succession to show the process of development to maturity. Under a glass cover, warmed artificially, was about a dozen birds that had come into existence within a few hours, which displayed great vivacity; and in a second, were placed eggs, in which the birds were attempting to liberate themselves from their shells, which
1 Linnæus, the most celebrated naturalist of his age, and the founder of modern botany, was a native of Sweden. He was born in the year 1707, and died in the year 1778.
they perform in a curious manner by making circular openings with their bills.
SINCE the tradesmen of Somerstown tried the experiment of giving up Sunday trading, the improved state of that neighbourhood has been highly gratifying to all who have a regard for public decency and order. To induce other neighbourhoods about London to follow the example, the result of the experiment at Somerstown will be more convincing than any argument or exhortation. So far from the tradesmen finding their weekly returns injured by shutting up their shops on the Sabbath, they have found them increase very considerably. While Sunday was considered the principal market-day, the labourers went on the Saturday night to the ginshop or the alehouse. The early part of the Sunday morning was spent in the same manner; and, when they went to the Sunday market, their pockets were half emptied. The regular tradesmen were the losers, and the gin shops were the gainers by such a system.-But, when a man comes to the market on the Saturday, he brings his money to the fair trader. But this is not all. Not only do the labourers spend a greater portion of their earnings on the necessaries of life, but they have more to spend: for the wasteful folly and extravagance and sottishness of the Saturday's night and Sunday morning often made them unfit for work on the Monday morning, so that Monday was often an idle day, and no wages were then coming in.
These suggestions, or rather confessions, come from a body of tradesmen who have found, by experience, how much they were actual losers by the Sunday trading, which they were formerly so unwilling to give up. of them says" that tradesmen only keep open their shops on a Sunday to enable the gin-shops to get the first call on their customers." Abridged from the Morning Herald.
ONE of the most striking features of British history in the last half-century, is the establishment of these institutions, and which, from the great success which has attended their efforts, make a fair promise of extending throughout the length and breadth of the empire the beneficial influence of the sober and provident habits which come into their train. The middle and lower ranks of society begin very extensively to appreciate their value, as manifested by the steady advancement they have made. All our cities and principal towns now number one of these among their chief ornaments, and every year adds to their strength, numbers, and stability. It is not quite certain with whom the idea originated; but it is very generally acknowledged that the late Right Hon. George Rose was the first to bring them before Parliament, and procure a legislative sanction to their proceedings, thus rendering them national institutions. We believe, that, according to the latest parliamentary returns, the capital now vested in the funds of these institutions is considerably more than 20,000,000l. When it is considered that out of the whole number of depositors in these books, the claims of more than two-thirds do not exceed 50%., and that, even of these, nearly three-fourths cannot claim above 20%., their vast importance to the industrious classes can scarcely be rated too highly.
THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT.
THE lessons of wisdom, which our blessed Saviour teaches us in His sermon on the mount, are very different from those which the world would teach us: that character, indeed, on which our Lord stamps the mark of true wisdom is such as the world has been accustomed to call weakness and folly. But it is true, and the Christian believer knows it by experience to be true, that the way into which the Gospel calls us is the way of real happiness; and it is assuredly the way of safety. It is the way of wisdom. It not only leads to happiness here, but to everlasting life; to joys unspeakable, eternal in
the heavens. Those, whom our Lord pronounces to be "blessed," are not those who make their portion in this life their chief concern. Divine wisdom could not pronounce that they were blessed; for a breath of disappointment, the checks and the overthrows to which all earthly things are exposed, may, at any moment, lay all their schemes prostrate in the dust. The happiness, which our Lord promises to His followers, is not such as is aimed at by those who are seeking the world's praise, or craving after those vanities which the world admires, or seeking greatness by the exercise of those dispositions which the world applauds. It is not for the vain, the proud, or the ambitious; nor is it for the wise and learned in mere worldly wisdom: but it is for those who can lay aside these earthly anxieties, and seek, first, the kingdom of God, and His righteousness; who can be content to give up the applause of men, when it cannot be had, without forfeiting that honour that cometh from above. These are "blessed" for they are delivered from the thraldom of enslaving passions, and from the grief of disappointed earthly hopes, when they take up the yoke of Christ, which is easy, and His burden, which is light. Our Lord shows what His people are to be, when he pronounces them to be blessed; they are to be meek and gentle and forgiving: they are so to mourn for their sins, as to see the need, above all things, of coming to Christ for pardon. Blessed are they when they so mourn, for they shall be comforted. That must be wisdom, which produces those dispositions which prevent the vexations by which worldly men, even in their best days, are constantly harassed! That must be wisdom, which can support a man in the hour of the deepest earthly affliction, can guard him when tempted by the dangerous allurements of prosperity, which can sustain him in the hour of death, and prepare him for the day of judgment.
THE design of public worship is to bring people together with one heart in their prayers to God, thus continually showing us that we depend upon His goodness, and mercy,
for all we enjoy at present, and hope for hereafter. When we worship God in a large assembly, we kneel before Him as one great family, all having the same cares, the same interests, the same wants; it teaches us brotherly love, and kindness one to another, and reminds us that whatever may be our different degrees of rank, and riches, or knowledge and power, in this world; we are all equal in the sight of God; all alike His weak and sinful creatures. There the man in humble life feels that his hope of heaven is the same as that of the richest, and greatest; there the great man is reminded that all his dignities end in this world, that the grave levels all distinctions, that whatever may be the lowliness and poverty of our lot here, we all equally depend on the mercy of God for pardon; and, according to the works done in the body, will be our several portions in the life to come. Our Church is blessed with a most excellent liturgy, the greater part of the words and sentences being taken from the holy Scriptures; it is so plain that the most ignorant may understand it, yet the wisest may exercise their knowledge and devotion in its prayers; all which are pure, spiritual, and devout.-From a Correspondent.
THE nightingale is greatly and deservedly esteemed for the excellence of its song: but it has no particular beauty of appearance, no variety or richness of colours. The upper parts of its body are of a rusty brown colour tinged