Yet that he had an unfavourable bias is evident, were it only from that passage in which he speaks of Swift's practice of saving, as "first ridiculous, and at last detestable ;" and yet, after some examination of circumstances, finds himself obliged to own, that "it will perhaps appear that he only liked one mode of expense better than another, and saved merely that he might have something to give."

One observation which Johnson makes in Swift's life should be often inculcated: "It may be justly supposed, that there was in his conversation what appears so frequently in his letters, an affectation of familiarity with the great, an ambition of momentary equality, sought and enjoyed by the neglect of those ceremonies which custom has established as the barriers between one order of society and another. This transgression of regularity was by himself and his admirers termed greatness of soul; but a great mind disdains to hold any thing by courtesy, and therefore never usurps what a lawful claimant may take away. He that encroaches on another's dignity, puts himself in his power; he is either repelled with helpless indignity, or endured by clemency and condescension."

Various Readings in the Life of SWIFT.

"Charity may be persuaded to think that it might be written by a man of a peculiar [opinions] character, without ill intention.

"He did not [disown] deny it.

"[To] by whose kindness it is not unlikely that he was [indebted for] advanced to his benefices.

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“[With] for this purpose he had recourse to Mr.



Sharpe, whom he [represents] describes as harmless tool of others' hate.'


"Harley was slow because he was [irresolute] doubtful. “When [readers were not many] we were not yet a nation of readers.


66 [Every man who] he that could say he knew him. Every man of known influence has so many [more] petitions [than] which [he can] cannot grant, that he must necessarily offend more than he [can gratify] gratifies.

"Ecclesiastical [preferments] benefices.

“Swift [procured] contrived an interview.

66 [As a writer] In his works he has given very different specimens.

"On all common occasions he habitually [assumes] affects a style of [superiority] arrogance.

"By the [omission] neglect of those ceremonies. "That their merits filled the world [and] or that there was no [room for] hope of more."


I have not confined myself to the order of the Lives," in making my few remarks. Indeed a different order is observed in the original publication, and in the collection of Johnson's works. And should it be objected, that many of my various readings are inconsiderable, those who make an objection will be pleased to consider, that such small particulars are intended for those who are nicely critical in composition, to whom they will be an acceptable selection. (1)

(1) Mr. Chalmers here records a curious literary anecdote that when a new and enlarged edition of the "Lives of the Poets" was published in 1783, Mr. Nichols, in justice to the purchasers of the preceding editions, printed the additions in a separate pamphlet, and advertised that it might be had gratis.

"Spence's Anecdotes," which are frequently quoted and referred to in Johnson's "Lives of the Poets," are in a manuscript collection, made by the Reverend Mr. Joseph Spence (1), containing a number of particulars concerning eminent men. To each anecdote is marked the name of the person on whose authority it is mentioned. This valuable collection is the property of the Duke of Newcastle, who, upon the application of Sir Lucas Pepys, was pleased to permit it to be put into the hands of Dr. Johnson, who I am sorry to think made but an awkward return. "Great assistance," says he, “has been given me by Mr. Spence's Collection, of which I consider the communication as a favour worthy of public acknowledgment:" but he has not owned to whom he was obliged; so that the acknowledgment is unappropriated to his grace. (2)

While the world in general was filled with admiration of Johnson's "Lives of the Poets," there were narrow circles in which prejudice and resentment were fostered, and from which attacks of different sorts issued against him. (3) By some violent Whigs

Not ten copies were called for. It may be presumed that the owners of the former editions had bound their sets; but it must also be observed, that the alterations were not considerable. — C.

(1) The Rev. Joseph Spence, A. M. Rector of Great Harwood in Buckinghamshire, and Prebendary of Durham, died at Byfleet in Surrey, August 20, 1768. He was a fellow of New College in Oxford, and held the office of Professor of Poetry in that University from 1728 to 1738. - M.

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(2) It appears from a letter of Mrs. Boscawen in Hannah More's Memoirs, that she was the person who procured Johnson the loan of Spence's papers.- C.

(3) From this disreputable class, I except an ingenious though not satisfactory defence of Hammond, which I did not see till

he was arraigned of injustice to Milton; by some Cambridge men, of depreciating Gray; and his expressing with a dignified freedom what he really thought of George, Lord Lyttelton, gave offence to some of the friends of that nobleman, and particularly produced a declaration of war against him from Mrs. Montagu, the ingenious essayist on Shakspeare, between whom and his lordship a commerce of reciprocal compliments had long been carried on. In this war the smaller powers in alliance with him were of course led to engage, at least on the defensive, and thus I for one was excluded from the enjoyment of "A Feast of Reason," such as Mr. Cumberland has described, with a keen yet just and delicate pen, in his "Observer." These minute inconveniences gave not the least disturbance to Johnson. He nobly said, when I talked to him of the feeble though shrill outcry which had been raised, "Sir, I considered myself as intrusted with a certain portion of truth. I have given my opinion sincerely; let them show where they think me wrong."

lately, by the favour of its author, my amiable friend, the Reverend Mr. Bevil, who published it without his name. It is a juvenile performance, but elegantly written, with classical enthusiasm of sentiment, and yet with a becoming modesty, and great respect for Dr. Johnson.




Warren Hastings.

· Liberty and Necessity.·


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of a Man, by Shakspeare and by Milton. stration of Deeds.— Duty of a Member of Parliament. - Deportment of a Bishop.- "Merriment of Par

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Scale of Liquors.


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Dancing. Sir Philip Jennings

American War. - Dudley Long.


gerated Praise." Learning to Talk."-Veracity. Death of Mr. Thrale. Queen's Arms Club. Constructive Treason. Castes of Men. - Passion Week. Addison. · Blackstone. Steele.

- Educating by Lectures. The Resurrection. Apparitions.

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WHILE my friend is thus contemplated in the splendour derived from his last and perhaps most admirable work, I introduce him with peculiar propriety as the correspondent of Warren Hastings! a man whose regard reflects dignity even upon Johnson; a man, the extent of whose abilities was equal to that of his power; and who, by those who are fortunate enough to know him in private life, is admired for his literature and taste, and beloved for the candour, moderation, and mildness of his character. Were I capable of paying a suitable tribute of admiration to him, I should certainly not with

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