seventh Trumpets, is alluded to in the end of the prophecy relative to the ten-horned beast'; is again distinctly foretold in the fourteenth chapter”; is again brought forward, with additional circumstances of awe and sublimity, on the pouring out of the fifth Vial on the seat of the Beast”; and, again, on the pouring out of the seventh Vial, when great Babylon is described as coming up in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. It is afterwards the subject of that more clear and awful prophecy which is contained in the eighteenth chapter; and it is again brought forward, when the beast is finally described as being cast, together with the false prophet who wrought the miracles before him, into the burning lake'. But the same analogy pervades the whole chain of prophecy relating to this important subject. It is seen in the manner in which it is introduced, in the first instance, in the seventh, the eighth, and the eleventh chapters of the prophecy of Daniel ; and in each succeeding repetition of the subject with some additional circumstances, and some more explicit revelation; and, again, in still more clear and striking characters by St Paul”; and, lastly, in this prophecy, in which the rise and the decline of this great apostasy is described in characters so awful. Indeed, the manner, in which this last, the most striking and prominent of the prophecies of the Apocalypse, is introduced in the different portions of Scripture in which it appears, and with different degrees of clearness suited to the different

1 Chap. xiii. 10.
? Chap. xiv. 8_11.
3 Chap. xvi. 10, 11.
4 Chap. xvi. 19.

5 Chap. xix. 20.
* See the Note in the Appendix.

7 2 Thess. ii. 1-12; 1 Tim. iv. 15.

stages of the dispensation of prophecy, to which each separate revelation belongs, is at once a conclusive evidence of the harmony of prophecy under both dispensations; and of the power and the interest, with which the important subjects of Scripture prophecy are invested by this peculiar mode of prophetical revelation.

The weight and clearness which is derived to many of the prophecies of the Apocalypse, from this consideration of the connection of the different prophecies with each other, and the light which is thrown by each succeeding prophecy on those which go before, have been illustrated by a reference to different prophecies of this book, and particularly to those which relate to the rise, the progress, and the downfall of the Papal apostasy. But it may be farther illustrated generally, by a consideration of the comparison which has been already instituted between the Trumpets and the Vials; and, again, by a comparison of the different subjects of the Vials, both with the preceding and succeeding prophecies; for instance, by a comparison of the subjects of the first four Vials with those of the first four Trumpets, and of the sixth Vial with the first part of the sixth Trumpet. This Vial, which is described as being “poured out on the great river Euphrates, upon which the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared,” has, we know, been understood by some commentators to foretell the restoration of the Jews to their own land. But a comparison of it with the prophecy contained in the first part of the sixth Trumpet, will lead us to the belief, that it has reference to the destruction of that great spiritual apostasy, which had its origin

in the regions of the Euphrates, and to the great conversion of the eastern nations, which will follow this great event': and a comparison of the remaining part of the sixteenth chapter with the close of the nineteenth chapter, will enable us to form some idea of the dreadful conflicts with the powers of darkness, which still await the Church of the Redeemer, before the efforts of the great enemy of God and man are finally and entirely destroyed. In like manner the trials, which, it is foretold, will await the faithful servants of the Redeemer before the end of these dispensations, as well as the means by which the great apostasies will be finally overthrown, (namely, by the preaching of the everlasting Gospel to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,) is in perfect harmony with the declaration of Daniel, that before the time of the end many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased ; and with the prophecy of St Paul with respect to the Man of Sin, of whom it is expressly said, that the Lord will consume him with the breath of his mouth, and destroy him with the brightness of his coming ?

These coincidences, which are exhibited in the different prophecies of the Apocalypse, compared together and viewed in connection with the prophecies of the old dispensation; the harmony which is found between the different dispensations of prophecy, both in its language and its imagery; the spiritual object and tendency of the whole dispensation of prophecy; and the spiritual purport of the whole Levitical dispensation, which, in its temple and its services, constitutes the basis of the scenery of the Apocalypse, and thus exhibits a remarkable agreement with that

1 Comp. Isai. xliii. 5-7.

2 Dan. xii. 4.

3 2 Thess. ii. 8.

which is represented as the ultimate object and tendency of this dispensation by the other inspired writers of the New Testament;-all tend to confirm the view which has been taken of the great object and tendency of the Apocalyptic prophecy, and of the striking manner in which the Redeemer is manifested, as the great Agent and Object of prophecy under both dispensations.

But there are some other points to be remarked in connection with this important subject. The Redeemer and his everlasting kingdom, which was the subject of the earliest prophecy, and pervades the whole scheme of prophecy under the Jewish dispensation, is still the great and the most engrossing subject of this last and concluding revelation of the Redeemer relative to his Church ; in which, as the great obstacles which oppose the universal extension of the Redeemer's kingdom are more plainly and awfully set forth, so are the assurances of its final triumph more clear and explicit; the prospects of the Gospel appear to brighten as we draw towards the close of the divine dispensations; and the difficulties which seem to obstruct the progress of God's purposes of mercy towards his Church, appear to vanish as they approach to the period of their consummation, when the kingdom of the Redeemer shall be universally established, and all flesh shall see the salvation of God. But the most striking thing connected with the prophecies of the Apocalypse, is the light which these later revelations, viewed in connection with the progress of events, throw upon the distant objects of ancient prophecy, and the manner in which they fill up and illustrate the nature of events, which, when they are viewed only through the veil of ancient prophecy, are involved in almost impenetrable darkness.

(1) For instance, with regard to the prophecy of Noah, (Gen. ix. 25—27), to which allusion has been made before in the second chapter, where we have, endeavoured to establish its spiritual purport', how much light does it derive from this prophecy of the Apocalypse, in which the conversion of the Eastern nations to the faith of Christ is so plainly and explicitly foretold. For why is the Vial to be poured out on the river Euphrates, the great seat of the Mahometan apostasy and that the waters may be dried up, that the way of the kings of the earth may be prepared, and the glory of the Lord may arise upon regions which are now lying in darkness and the shadow of death ? But if we are right in our conjecture, that this prophecy of Noah, in addition perhaps to a temporal fulfilment, had also a spiritual object in view ;(and if we so interpret the former part of the prophecy with regard to God dwelling in the tents of Shem, it seems impossible to view the last part of it in any other light;)—in what way is it to be fulfilled ? It is declared that God shall enlarge Japhet, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. Now when we consider how wonderfully God has enlarged Japhet, and the manner in which the power of that portion of his descendants, who profess in its greatest purity

power, but

1 The author is happy in being able to confirm this view of this important prophecy by the high authority of Bishop Horsley, who has treated the subject with great learning and eloquence. See Horsley's Sermons, Ser.

mon XVII. He had forgotten the fact, that this prophecy had been treated by this learned Prelate at the time when the second Chapter was written.

2 Chap. xvi. 12.

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