1820.] Antient Sculptures in the Royal Museum at Paris. 499 mentine Museum, and two in the XLII. ENEAS. A Bust. This war. French ; one brought from the Pa- rior, whose head is covered with a lace of Modena, the other from the helmet, and who seems to direct sor. Villa Albani. After his busts, all rowful looks to Heaveo, has been those of the following Emperors de taken for a wounded Diomede, im. cline in merit.

ploriog the protection of Minerva ; XXXVII. A WOUNDED COMBA. but the absence of every iodication of TANT. A Statue. The attitude is re a wound, and the crooked form of the markable. The wounded hero, with top of the helmet, wbich seems to imione knee on the ground, does not ap: tate the Phrygian bonnet, may rather pear vanquished. (Visconti, p. 17.) induce us to think, that it represents It is just as probable that he is in the a Trojan Hero, probably Eneas, who', act of supplicating mercy from his upon the shore of Africa, where he conqueror: unless the statue refers has been thrown by a tempest, is into one of Homer's heroes.

voking the aid of his Goddess mother. XXXVIII. A Young HERCULES (Visconti, p. 18.) This conjeclure is

BEARD. The bandeau very ingenious, for the helmet of around his head was often given by Eneas is of this fashion in the illumi. the Greeks to deified heroes. (Visa nations of the Vatican Virgil, supconti, p. 17.) Upon the Palais Royal pused to be of the reign of TheodoGems (1. pl. 80.) is a head, very fine, sius, towards the end of the fourth of the young Hercules : but, whether century, and it also occurs upon the young or old, his forehead has the head of the Goddess Rome,' in the form of that of a bull: and his hair coins of the family Cornelia. These is curled upon his head.

are the authorities from which the XXXIX. ANTINOUS. A Bust. The presumptive form of the Trojan hel-, lvy crown which encircles his head, met is taken. gives him the character of a Bacchus, XLIII. AN EGYPTIAN Gop. A or Osiris. (Visconti, p. 17.) All the Statue of alabaster. Egyptian morepresentations of Antinous are in numents sculptured in alabaster are the Egyptian style, as it was modi very rare. This seated figure is of a fied by the Greeks under the Lagidæ. large dimension and Egyptian work. The two finest known beads of him manship: and is, for its matter and are engraved in the Monumenta In antiquity extremely precious. edita. Mr. Hope has a fine bust in seat' is ornamented with hieroglythe Greco-Egyptian style. The pre- pbicks. Il is probable that this statended Belvidere Antinous, so common tue formed the ornament of the Temp. in the shops, is a Meleager, or a Mer ple of Orus, in some town of Egypt, cury.

perhaps that which the antient GeoXL. PLANTILLA. A Bust. This grapbers called the “ City of Alauodoubted portrait of the wise of Ca basters.” We know that the Egypracalla, is equally perfect in conserva tians were accustomed to sculp the tion and execution. (Visconti, p. 17.) images of this God of Light upon Qu. if this bust is not unique, or ex

wbite stones. (Visconti, p. 19.) Only cessively rare: Moogey takes no no two other Egyptian statues of alatice of any bust.

baster are known; they are two lsises XLI, BACCHANTE. A Statue. She seated, holding horns upon their is crowned with vire leaves, and dra. koees. Onc is at the Roman College ; ped in two tunics without sleeves, of the other at the Villa Albana. . unequal leogth, over which a goat

(To be continued.) skin is negligently thrown. (Visconti, p. 18.) Winckelman says, that the


May 13. face of a Baccbante expresses the Au. NOME years ago enquiries were rora of Pleasure. They have the an. tient character of comic grace, like specting the custom of lighting fires Faups, a gay smile, delinealed by the on Midsummer Eve, slated to be preangles of the mouth, drawn upwards. valent in the West of England. It Besides this, the fine Bacchaote of the seems to be pretty well established, Villa Albani has a flat profile, and the that it is a relique of Pagan worship. eyes elevated, like those of Fauos. Gebelin in his Allegories Orientales, The goat's skin, says Montfaucon, is Hist. d'Hercule, observes, that at the common.

moment of summer solstice the an.



300 On Lighting Fires on Midsummer Eve. (June, tients were accustomed to light fires And many other flowers faire, with violets io honour of the New Year, which

in their hands; (whosoever stands they held to have originally com

Where as they all doe fondly thinke that menced in fire. Nor is there, he as.

And thorow the flowers beholds the flame,

his eyes shall feel no paine, serts, any computation of time more

When thus 'rill night they daunced have, antiently received than that which fixes the beginning of the year in

they through the fire amain

With striving minds doe run, and all their June. These fires, he proceeds, were herbs they cast therein ; accompanied with vows and sacri And then with words derout, and prayers, fices for plenty and prosperity, with they solemnly begin, dances and leaping over the flames, Desiring God that all their illes may there aod each person on his departure confounded be; took a firebrand of greater or less Whereby they thinke through all that magnitude, while the rest was scat. yeare from augues to be free." tered to the wind in order that it

Vide Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, p. 317. might disperse every evil as it dis The vestiges of these rites are not persed the ashes.

quite obliterated in South Wales, and Tbe vigil of St. John the Baptist may perhaps be instanced as falling on this day, the Midsummer. amongst many proofs of resemblance Eve rites seem to have been care. between Welsh and Scottish customs. fully practised and handed down by At Port-Einon, a small village in that our inore immediate ancestors; for insulated part of Glamorganshire, Stowe and his contemporaries par- called Gower, culin is collected and ticularly describe its observance. bid against a fire on the 23d of June, Bourne mentions it iu 1725, and Bor as I had an opportunity of being witlase about 30 years later. As to the ness to last year : on enquiry I found universality of this custom through that the custom had been observed out the nations of Celtic origin, we

time immemorial. At Llapgeneth, a know that in the North of England, neighbouring village, the festival of in Ireland, and in Scotland, it is still the Patron-saint, or Mabsapt, i.e. retained. And may perhaps argue holy man, falling on the 24th, the from its oame Belteine-Bells Beal's, garlands and the poll, as well as the or the Suu's fire-that it is cueval dances and bonfire, are still retained. with the Aboriginals of our Island, This ceremonial is not wholly un. who, as well as almost every other known in Pembrokeshire. It does nation of Idolaters, paid homage to

not appear that it was necessary to that glorious luminary. Traces of it light the fire invariably in the same appear in Sweden, where the houses spot, although a conspicuous situ. are oroamented with boughs. Stowe ation was generally chosen. The says they ought to be greene birch, foundations of a small inclosure once Long Fennell, St.

John's Wort, Aspiu, used for this purpose, may still be White Lillies, and such like, and the traced in the turf about å furlong yonng people dance around a poll till from the noted well at the secluded inorning, and even among the Ve. village of Newton in Glamorganshire. hosti, a Tartar tribe, subject to Rus. A few of the old people still rememsia, who assemble, as we are told, ber convening there, and throwing a under a tree at night, and remain till small cheese across through the flame morning on the festival of St. John,

on Midsummer's Eve. They report shrieking and singing and dancing that the enclosure was afierwards round a great fire.

used as a pound, though it seems too The best account of the attendant small for that purpose, and that the ceremonies is given by Googe, in 1570,

stones have been taken to mend the iu a translation which he dedicated

road that leads to the little harbour to Queen Elizabeth.

below. “ Then doth the joyfull feast of John the

I have only to add, that the lines Baptist take his turne,

above cited contain so satisfactory a When bonfires great, with lofty flame, in description of this corious rite, that every towne doe burne,

should it fall into total disuse, I can still And young men round about with maydes heartily congratulate Morganery and doe daunce in every street

her neighbours on being free from With garlands wrought of motherwort, or

the evils which it was erst intended to else of vervaine sweet, deprecate.

H. Mr.

On Protection of Literary Property.

501 Mr. URBAN,

May 16. cause of complaint than the loss of THE first decided protection grant. his ducals. It is easy to conjecture for literary property appears to have modern publisher on such an occabeen in the reign of Queen Anne; for sion. A compromise was subsequentthough Queen Elizabeth permitted ly entered into between Manuziadó no book to be published without the and Beroaldo, and the former perpermission of the persons appoioted mitted under certain restrictions to by the Crown, as Licensers of the vend bis spurious edition. press, and directed that only one li The Copy - right Act, notwithcense should be granted for the same standing its improvements, is still work, this afforded but very, slender susceptible of further modification. protection to the Authors; since it is

“ Authors,” says

Mr. D’Israeli *, well known that the said Licensers were “ continue poor, and booksellers befrequently tampered with, and pre- come opulent an extraordinary revailed upon to countenance every sult! Booksellers are not agents for species of literary depredation which authors, but proprietors of their ingenuity of the age could suggest or works ; so thai the perpetual revepractice.

nues of Literature are solely in the The origin of Copy-right may, how. possession of the trade." ever, be traced to a inuch more re Literary might be as profitable as mote period iu Ilaly. The earliest in- landed properly to its possessor, if stance of the positive protection of properly secured; but, as M. D’Israeli literary property occurred in 1514, very pertinently observes, "successduring the pontificate of the accom ful Authors are heirs to fortunes, but, plished Leo x. Having committed by a strange singularity, are disin. the five books of Tacitus (which he herited at their very birth ; for on bad purchased for 500 zechins of Ad- the publication of their works they gelo Arcomboldo, who brought them cease to be their own properly." from the Abbey of Corvey in West. This is ordered somewhat differently phalia) to the care and editorship of in France, where the descendants of the learned Beroaldo ; in order to se. Racine and Corneille retain a claim cure him the reward of his labours as to compensation from the proprietors editor aod collator of the MSS. lie of the French Theatres, whenever the denounced sentevce of excommunica- Dramas of their immortal ancestors tion, besides the penalty of 200 du are performed. Jo that country parcats and forfeiture of the books, ticular encouragement has been given against any person who should re to literary men. It was there decreed, print the work within ten years of in the affair of Crebillou, that liits publication by Beroaldo, without terary productions should not be liahis express permission.

ble to be seized by creditors. Notwithstanding these serious in. I think it possible for a greater injunctions, bowever, the work was pic dulgence to be granted to Authors in rated and drinted at Milan in the same England than has ever as yet been alyear, by Alesandro Manuziar who lowed the without infrioging upon had established himself as a printer in the interests of the Commonwealth. opposition to Aldus Manuzio, and who And that the Copy-right Act, even in contended with him in the publica- its present reformed state, is capable tion of the writings of antiquity. He of being very materially improved, is appears to have obtained the sheets a fact, of which all who think proper of' Beroaldo's Tacitus as they came to deliberate calmly upon the matter from the press, and bad probably must be aware. nearly completed his impression be I shall be pleased if these imperfect, fore he was aware of the heavy pe- hints elicit remarks from any of your nalties he was provoking. He was numerous correspondents, on a subcited before the Pontiff to answer for ject of such vital importance to Lihis offence; but, owing to the inter- terature as that to which they are diference of some powerful friends, he rected ; and shall gladly avail myself, was excused the weightiest portion of at some future time, of such an ophis punishment, namely, excommuni- portunity for entering more at large cation; though it is a question whe into the discussion.

A--C. ther he would not have deemed the curses of the Pope a much ligbler * " Calamities of Authors."


502 Tower at Tewkesbury. --Saxon Chronicle. (June, Mr. URBAN,

May 1. present the Mythe, in the parish of To O rescue from oblivion the pe. Tewkesbury, withio half a mile of

rishing memorials of antient the Town. The drawing was taken piety and magnificence, ere yet en at least 10 years ago ; as about that tirely effaced by the overwhelming time it underwent some material alpower of Time, or the yet more le terations in the exterior. It is yol velling arm of “ Modern Improve. garly called King John's Castle, from ment,” is a pleasing, though melan an unfounded idea that that Monarch choly lask, which, while it affords once inhabited it.

F. I. a legitimale source of innocent pleasure, must at the same time impress Mr. URBAN,

April 26. on the mind an awful, though salu


HAVE been much gratified by tary lesson.

a perusal of the Translation of Ťbe Quadrangular Tower, a draw. the Saxon Chronicle, reviewed by ing of which accompanies this *, was you

- in p. 336. Not having the pulled down about two years ago, to original of the Saxon Chronicle. make way for the erection of a School by me, I cannot refer to it; but I for the education of Children on the suspect Miss Gurney has no authoSystem of Dr. Bell, and was for many rily for what appears to me an error, years used as the Common Gaol of pp. 31. 635. “This year, &c. at Dorthe Borough of Tewkesbury. It is chester (Oxfordshire)." conjectured to have been originally In the late edition of Hutchins, vol. intended as a receptacle for the bells IV. p. 86, Birious, an Italian monk, belonging to the Abbey, of which it did the same anno 634 in Wessex, was undoubtedly an appendage, though and fixed an Episcopal See at Dorits site is now at some distance from, chester in Oxfordshire, and the ar. and apparently unconnected with it. thorities quoted are in Saxon Chron. But probably being found too weak p. 230. Godwin de Præsul. p. 202, (not to support the powerful vibration of 329.) Dug. Mona. Bede Hist. 1. 3. the Bells, to which the extensive fis c. 7. (not 1. 5. c. 19.) W. of Malmssures on the North side are attributed, bury, Brompt. Leland. It has always they were transferred to the central been a doubt with me whether Bitower of the Abbey. To each of the rinus ever went into Oxfordshire. four coroers was affixed a winged fi. Bede says he arrived in the nation of gure, which has been supposed to re the Geoisseans (West sex) and fiadpresent demoos in the act of flying ing them all Pagans, he continued away from the “

Harmony of the there, and the two Kings, Cynegils Steeple," to which they are said to and Oswald, gave him the City call. bave an aversion, though this pro- ed Dorcic.

E. B. perty is not enumerated in the list of good offices performed by bells in the On the Extent of the Historic Relafollowing distich :

tion, in discovering and marshalling “ Laudo deum verum, plebem voco, con the Subjects of Human Knowledge.

gregu clerum, Defunctos ploro, pestem fugo, festa de.

(Continued from p. 391.)

W mually defined in philosophiOr in the inscription for Bells, men. tioned by Weever in his " Puneral cal inquiries-1 mean FAITH. Faith Monuments :"

is the eye of the soul. This is a dis“ Funera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata

tinct organ, act, or faculty of the miod :

: as much so as reasoning, imapango, Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cru.

gination, or belief of human accur. entos."

A mau may lose the use of Allow me to suggest, that the build.

this facully, as he may his eye-sight: ing drawn and engraved by Mr. Mal

or he may bave it diseased and illcolm, in vol. LXXVII. ji.

affected, just as he may any vlher was most probably intended to re

sense, external or internal. Is it pos

sible that some persons (like HUME * The Tower being accurately repre

for example) may, in this accepta-, sented in the Wood-engraving in p. 526,

tion of the word, have been born it is upuecessary to copy this drawing blind? Hume could no more reason Epit.

upon, or cooceive, what religious




p. 489,

1820.) On the Extent of the Historic Relation.

503 feeling was - still less calculate its the superior order of beings, and is effects - than a mao born blind could part of that goldeo chain let down comprehend what was meant by the from heaven – alluded to by Homer, word “ scarlet.” The property of and the Pagan Poets. And, by the faith is to perceive a superpatural way, all the Pagan superstitions, whecommunicatiou, a fact, precept, in ther antient or modern, have, by the fluence, command, or power divine. voanswerable learning of sound cri. It is the faculty whereby to perceive ticism, been shewn to be only so many and feel Revelation li has sagacity corrupted and mutilated remains where reason is blind : and that it is revelation, imperfectly transpired. not wrong, is proved by its effects, a The virtue of the Stoics, Epicusupernatural goodness and cheerful: reans, Sceptics, and Academicians, is ness from hope penetrating its coun 'founded on apathy, and a self-balanced tebance, speech, and actions.-It car. independence of the historical chain ries the divine letter of recommenda- of things—the mutual connection with tion in its face wherever it goes. It God and man. So the modern phihas a steady perception, and belief (of lanthropist (as he is foolishly called) course) in the systein of Providence- resolves charity into an expansion of the full extent of whose plan is above self-lovema solecism in terins. But and beyond its keu, but it sees plainly Cbristians make virtue a communithat the system of Providence here is cated feeling, (moving in the contrary a mysterious fragment of some whole direction, that is, from without, from chat the human soul, wondrous in around, and from on high : a grace its energies, possessing and agitatiog derived from the Deity, our common this body, its senses and organs, yet FATHER. It is drawn historically from remaining invisible-is in a stage of that sublimest and purest origio. Hence progress from, and to, some point duty, fortified by habits of forbearing, ibat from the infinite distance is hid and of active exertion of our facul. from view. That it is making a tran- ties, repressing, of consequence, selfsit over the disc of finite space. love: crossing, but not mortifying Faith has a curiosity, a yearving after, it, in the sense of the Monks, and Meimmortality-an anxious expectation thodists, but of the Apostle. Hence as if longing to be gone, upon a fair general maxims, which are the prejourney a tenderness as of haviog cis, result, or suin total, of bistorical been parted from some oneand will experiences, and cominunicated truths. take no consolation-a thoughtful And thus it appears that prudence, ness, as if recollecting a state, not by temperance, fortitude, and justice, any means to be found here; but as are only consequences that inmedi. something that it has seen or known ately arise from Christian duty, or before. Formed exclusively to believe benevolence, i.e. gratitude to God divine truth, it has a ready presenti. and man, arising from the historical ment of heavenly grace and favour, potice of our relations to them, reunless diseased with fanaticism or su- spectively. perstition, its two fatal disorders. Traditionary maxims of life, proBut when sound, it is the rightful verbs, approved apophthegms, rules, witness and trier, as to the fact, of and aphorisms, or definitions, i.e. lidivine interpositions, of the corres mitations of moral truth, were, as we pondence in evidence of things not have observed before, the first step contrary, indeed, to reason, por in in the science of moral philosophy. compatible with it - closely in the Proverbs are in ETHICS what the best analogy of it-for both are bistori poetry and narration are in CRITICS, cal; — but it is specifically different from their simplicity, ever in the from reason - - and as far above it, mouths of the common-people. They as reason itself is above brutish sa were the precis of historical ootices. gacity.

So the first poetry consisted of short Whoever has heard the evidence of real histories. Christianity must be stupid if he is A didactic order or system of these not a Christian. He must have suf. proverbs reduced to heads, was next fered some paralysis of the mind. He formed by the operation of simply must have been by some accident be- noting differences among things agreereft, as Dr. Clarke has demonstrated, ing, and agreements ainong things of that faculty, which links us with differing, and then the further con


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