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1820.) Antient Custom.-Great Cold.— Family of Clare. 33 one thing at a time. This is an axioın means of referring to the new Edition of business, of which the wisdoin iş of the “ Antiquitates Vulgares," or pot to be disputed.

time to examine the custom archæoWhen I was a Member of the Uni- logically.

A, B. and C. versity, and I wai a contemporary with Lord Liverpool, Mr. Canning, Mr. URBAN, Barion.street, Jan. 21. &c. the public Examinations were not S you will probably have many exonerated from the stigma of Vicesimus Knox. But literary merit was mitted to you this month, allow me stili solicitously regarded by the in to add one, accurately observed on a culcation of “ Original Composition,” self-registering Instrument, exposed upon the plan of Ideas.

to the open air in Barton-etree!, Westwho are to plead at the Bar, or write minster, denoting the lowest degrees Sermons, nothing can be more in- in the present winter. structive or appropriate ; and, with a

Degrees. view to professional qualifications, the Dec. 11, 1819, 13 Highbury, 11 old plan is of infinitely more coose Jan. 1, 1820, 16 quence than chewing Greek roots,

5,

16 and preserving Herodolus and Thucy

13, dides in spirits. I am sorry, there

- Eltham, 4 fore, that the old plan of estimating

Stratford, 1 merit by composition is consigned

Tottenham, l only to the stimulos of the Prizes ;

Black heathi, but I do not blame the stress laid upon Classical acquisitions, because a great Yours, &c.

J. A. part of the Clergy, being obliged to keep schools for their support, during Mr. URBAN,

Jan. 20. their early manhood, such acquisitions

AS

S the object of your Correspond. are highly important. Besides, the ent C. (Mag. for Nos. last, pe Dissenters, in general, substitute a 410) in favouriog your readers with smaltering in Natural Philosophy for an account of the family of Clare, Classical "Proficiency; and, were it with a pedigree thereof, was to cornot for the Universities, it is doubıful reci the anachronisins and inaccuracies whether Classical Knowledge, beyond of former writers in your volumes, the mere parrot-like acquisitions of be ought to have been careful lest an upper-class school-boy, would be the same complaint should be made preserved in the nation. Latin, lov, against his statements, which he has is a substilute for universal language. brought forward against Thuse of An Old MASTER OF ARts. others. I am afraid, however, that

some parts of Cos pedigree will vol Mr. URBAN,

Jan. 14. bear a strict scrutiny; at least, they I

BEG to communicate to you an appear lo me lo require soine further

ancient superstitious custom, still explanation; and, in order to give obtaining at Tretyre, in Mereford- your correspondent an opportunity of shire, upon Christmas Eve. They affording such explanation, I shall make a Cake, poke a stick through state the doubts which have arisen in it, fasten it upon the born of an ox, my mind upon the perusal of bis and say certain words, begging a good leiter, &c. crop of corn for the master. The To the first place, C. states, that men and boys, attending the oxen, Fitz Gilbert de Clare, son of Fitz rango themselves around. If the ox Gelfrey, Earl of En, which Fitz Gilthrows the cake behind, it belongs to bert was called De Clare, from his the men ; if before, to the boys. Seignory of Clare, or Clere, in Nor. They take with them a wooden bottle maudy, having had a grant of lands of cyder, and drink it, repeating the on the river Stour, (not Storn) iu charin before-mentioned. I strongly Suffolk, built a Castle there, wbich he suspect, from the ox and the cake, an called Clare, from his own allusion to some sacrifice to Ceres ; Upon reference, however, to Dowes. and the Confarreatio, the Harvest: day Book, it appears that in the home, being a ceremonial appertain- line of K. Edward, “ Claram te ing to that goddess ; but I have no nuit Aluricus”; it seems, therefore, GENT, MAG. Janudry, 1820.

doubtful, 5

nanie.

34

of Tunbridge, where he built a Castle A Cigout London, in the year

London Association for Relief of the Poor. (Jan. doubtful, whether the Clare family Your correspondent C. will not, I took their name from their residence hope, imagine ihat these observations in Suffolk, or not; if they did, the are made in the spirit of opposition coincidence of names is certainly sin or controversy; but that they are ingular.

tended to further the object which hè, lo C.’s Pédigree, Richard Fitz Gil as well as myself, has in view, the bert, and his two immediate succes clucidation of facts. sors, are called Earls of Tunbridge.

Yours, &c. D. A.Y. I cannot find such a Peerage in any of the books to which I have access. Richard had a grant from the Crown

Mr. URBAN, London, Jun. 10.

N Association was formed in the and from thence was often called Ri. chard de Tonebridge: his son Gilbert 1799, for the distribution of prow. was also frequently called de Tone. sions, or other articles of the first brige. Instead therefore, of Earls necessity, at reduced prices, to the of Tunbridge, the more correct de Poor. For several winters the Consignation would perhaps have been mittee have adopted the sale of Coals Lords of that place.

at 9d. a bushel, and Potatoes at 1416. Gilbert de Clare, younger son of for 3d.' as a mode of relief, the most Gilbert de Clare, surnamed Stroug- acceptable and efficacious; for, while bow. This, surely, is incorrect. It it affords material assistance to the was his son Richard, who, from the jodustrious and necessitous, it bolds length and strength of his bow, ob out no encouragement to the idle and tained that surpairie.

profligate. Subscribers, moreover, The occurrence which is slated to

are supplied with a certain number of have been the cause of the loss of its tickets every month which they may honours to this family, was surely uot distribute themselves to worthy obproductive of such an effect. The jecls, and thus become their own honours were conveyed out of the Almoners, while they promote the family, in consequence of the failure views of a most useful and extensive of male issue, and went to those fa- charity. milies which intermarried with the During the last Season, from Januheirs general of the Clares. These ary to April, 356 chaldrons of coals, · Josses, therefore, could not complete and 72 tons of potatoes, were distrithe ruin of the family, which had pre. buted, affording relief to not less than viously come to a natural end, at least 2500 poor families, consisting of about ja its main branches; por could such 12,500 individuals, residing in various Josses have been increased by joining parts of the Metropolis. The exthe Lancasterian party in England, pence to the Association amounted to which had no existence for many years 7381. 98. after the death of the last male heir The Committee commenced the of the family, which happened in delivery of Coals and Potatoes, at the 1295, 24 Edw. l.

Cily Public Kitchen, New - street, I should be glad to know the au Blackfriars, on the 20th ult. for the thority which C. has, for deducing the present winter. As a very heavy exNorfolk family of Clere, from this of penditure attends the distribution, and Clare. I dare say, he will be at no as the disbursements last year exloss to produce it; but in the Pedigree ceeded the subscriptions, it has been of the former family, in Blomef. deemed necessary earnestly to solicit Norf. vol. xi. Svo edit. p. 234, &c. the liberal Contributions of the af. such a descent is not hinted at; and fluent and charitable, in aid of an there exists no similitude in the arnis, institution which renders such imwhich we might have been led to cx portant benefits to the Community. pect would have been the case, had Signed, on behalf of the Conimittee they been descended from the same of the Association for the relief of stock: nor do Clere's arms at all apo the Poor of the City of London aod proach those of Fitzwalter, or Bay. . parts adjacent, jard, with both which great families,

R. CLARK, Chamberlain of according to C. they claim a common

Loudon, President. [By whom Subscriptions are received.]

Mr.

prigio,

35

1820.] Hints on the Colonization of the Cape. .

Mr. URBAN, Newcastle, Jan. 8. houses, but it would have given them I

HAVE read the Observations of bread, and instruction in their profes

T. W. on the Colonization of the sion: it would give foformation to Cape of Govd Hope, with considerable every one going there, to pick out the interest. His recommendations cor. situation suitable to his own ideas, respond with my own ideas in many and corresponding with his line of respects; but, although I concur aod life, or profession, whether a vine. accord with T. W. and the Govero- planter, à corn farmer, a grazier, ment or Administration of this coun iniller, or any other profession or try, in the general plan of making a calling: one of the necessary liuks of Colony there; yet it has very often the chain for the formation of a struck me as very imperfect in the Colony. manger in which it continues to pro

The various productions of so exceed ; that they have taken oo sleps, tensive a country as the Cape of Good no measures for their being better ac Hope, must naturally be great. We quainted with that country, although are informed that there is iron in such we have now had it in our possession productive yielding as to be equal to for nearly twenty years. The Travels the highest produce of the mines of of Lieut. Patterson, of Vaillant, and of Sweden ; that they yield nearly 80 Mr. Barrow, are of ou further in per cent. This is equal to the greatest formation than ļo say, that it is a produce of that country. Now, as most extensive country, inhabited that article abounds within our own literally by nothing else than wild colony, is it not worth while to have beasts, save here and there a few it pointed out where it lies, the proDutch Boors; that the climate is ca. bability of its being brought down to pable of producing Wine, Wheat, and the coast, the making of a road, or, alt the Necessaries of Life; that if there can be any chance of its conthere are great tracis of country veyance by water, if only a part of called Karroo, that produce nothing the way? These things point out: and are perfectly sterile; and that what I have before observed) the they lie north of the coast from Algoa great call and necessity of having a Bay, or end of Seldanah Bay, by the large and accurale set of Maps of Cragee River, or near to the Drahen- that Colony immediately published. sleen; and get wandering away to

It will be furlber of great utility in Graaf Rennett, as if it was at hand, pointing out the great line of Roads, or as near to the Cape Town, as

and the several changes necessary to Windsor or Oxford are near to the be made; for in all countries in the capital of England : Graaf Reonelt state in which the Cape is, the roads is near 600 miles from the Cape lie without interest as to the several Town.

productions. They have been made The first thing that should have and followed, for the convenience of been set out with, as a temptation to a very few, without recourse to the those who might wish to emigrate general service of a great population there, should have been the publish, and commerce. ing of a large Map of each division of Would it not be doing this that extensive country, for the in- country, an essential service, if the formalion of those who had ideas of Universities of Oxford or Cambridge going there.

This Map should have were to send some of their learned been done by our own Engineers : it travelling fellows out there, to inveswould have been of double use, not tigate the natural productions of that oply in making us acquainted per. great country?

We could depend fecily with the boundaries of the more on their information than op course of the rivers, but we should the many travellers sent by France, have been generally informed, as to Denmark, or Germany. Besides, it is its geological productions, where the a reflection on Great Britain to have valuable mines lie, their possibility of such valuable countries as the Cape, being brought down to the coast and and Demerara, and to be ignorant of conveyed to Great Britain, &c. &c. their produce and value, whether as Add this survey would have not only to science or commerce. It was alemployed our youug eogineers, who ways the first thing the French Góc are wasting their time in coffee. verament began with, un 'taking puso

session

.

36
New System of Farming.

(Jap. session of a new Colony, to set the En. mendations, as the public generally gineers to work, and have an accurate are concerned in the questiva. survey thereof, with an accompanying As enlargiog the sum of agricul memoir of every thing that might be tural comforts and happiness, accordof use, or was curious in Natural ing to the múltiplication of these History.

kinds of tenures, it is to be observéd, Yours, &c.

G. A. as relates to the tenant, tbat a double

produce being obtained from the same

land, at a double expence of culti. Mr. URBAN,

Jan. 9.

valion, will yield him three tiine's the HE multiplication of small Farms profil it formerly did ; which may be

with a view to affording the thús briefly explained :-Taking the poblick a better and cheaper supply old calculation ihal a farin ought to of Poultry, and the smaller agricul- produce thrce rents, the one for the tural articles, baviog long been a po- landlord, avother for llie expeuces of pular sentiment amongst us, I have its cultivation, and the third for the ihe pleasure of announcing 10 you maintenance of the tenant's family ;' that a New Agricultural System, di. if we take this gross produce as being vested of the disadvantages to which 301. this gives 101. to each item; but small farms are subject under the this being doubled produces 601.: so established agricultural regine, bas that alloiting to the landlord bis 101. been conceived and arranged; and is and allowing 201. as the doubled expow in a forward state of preparation pénce of cultivation, these two sunis for bringing before the public, with a being added together 'nake but 301. view of ascertaining their sentiments leaving the remaining 301. as tlie pro. upon it. As the narrow limits allotted it to improved cultivation, instead of to each miscellaneous article in a Ma his forover 101, upon the old plan. gazine do not admit of going into de. To realize these idea's will be the * fails of a comprehensive subject, the grand object of our endeavours, which essence of it may be briefly stated to we propose to attain by thirée distinct be, 'That by affording a larger scope of means : first, by a superior cultivaemployment to human labour, to be tion of the soil, as before 'expressed ; advantageously excited through newly secondly, by a quicker succession of invented wechanical means, in licu of crops, and by an improved method of having recourse to the usual expe- making the most of them, and dient of employing agricultural horses thirdly, by breeding and feeding, by jp the tillage of the soil, the great improved methods, a more profitable excess of it now in the market may description of stock than sheep and be turned to a beneficial account, both, oxen, namely, pigs, poultry; rabbits, as to enabling the individuals them. pigeons, and even game, if legislative selves lo acquire the comforts of life counlcoance be given thereto, off the through the ineans of their industry; land. Upou which lasl bead, as it and relieving the public from the pre- differs from the established agricut. smt heavy pressure of their poor.' tural opinions alniost universally difrales proportionally; and, at the fused throughout the Jaod, we prosame time, affording a more abundant pose to join issue with them upon the supply of provisions to the public question, whenever they thiok proper markets, from the double cause of to give notice of trial. thus converting to the use of the bu How greatly the landed interest of man species that portion of the pro the country is julerested in the 'esta. duce of the earth which has bitherto blishment of these measures will be beep consumed by useful but devour. manisest enough, on merely a slight ing agricultural horses, joined to the consideration of them ; für as it is The enlarged production of the soil, which characterick of all the different kinds will infallibly be caused, according to of small stock enumerated, that their the laws of viature, by the elemenis of nalural fecundity is 'such that a few luxuriant vegetation, - waler, sun, wetl-'selected parent pairs of each inantre, and the pulverization of the would soon multiply their species into soil, -being advantageously brought any extent of stock which it might into chemical action, in unison with be desirable to keep: the expence of each other. These constitute tbe this, therefore, would be '80 'small. leading features of its various recull, compared with that of slucking a farm

of,

1820.) Hydro- Agriculture and Poultry Farening. 37 of the same size with the larger ani- annual advantage, in investing it in nals, and furvishing it also, with all the new species of hydro-landed prothe necessary paraphernalia of dead perly proposed to be created, ihan stock,waggons,carts, harness, ploughs, either the funds, mortgages, or perdrays, and agricullural horses, ihat sonal securities will yield him. Suffice the competition for the occupaocy of it for the present io state generally, these farnis, where the returns are that if the lands in Great Britain and also ao comparatively quick, will be Ireland were improved so as to avebrought within the reach of thou rage only a shilling per acre in water sands who were before excluded from rent, for money laid out upon them aspiring to the tenantcy of even a to pay the monied meo advancing it small coro aud cattle farm, from the five per cent. for their money invested want of the necessary capital to ma therein ; this would absorb about page it. The interests of the soil will sixty niillions pounds sterling, laid out also be consulted in these arrange in their permanent improvement, and ments begood all former example, the enrichment of their respective for bere will not only be the greatest weighbourhoods, in the first instance: part of the heavy green crops pro- but as the niones thus disbursed is not posed to be raised consumed upon the annihilated, but voly changes hands by saod, which will therefore furoish being thrown into circulation, by be. abundant nature accordingly for re- ing paid to lahourers and artificers as production in future years; but this the wages of labour and the purchase quantity, great as it is already from of materials; and as the annual reits own resources, will be constantly venue accruing to the monjed interest in the way of being augmented by the thereby created, and, figuratively addition of the rich articles brought speakiog, sprioging out of the earth, in from other lands, for the purpose would be ihree millions sterling, it of fattening off the stock for market ; follows that when the first year's inà principle which will render corn terest was received, there would iben farms tributary 10 them in this im be 63 millions of money in the monied portant article for procuriog heavy market, looking out for objects on crops froin the soil; which will be which advantageously to employ ilagain 'assisted by another of still more selt: in the next year something note imporlance; as the irrigation water than 66 millions; and so on, progresproposed to be plentifully supplied, sively, according to the nature of and constantly at hand, to use at dis- compound interest : solbat one batch cretion, will of itself be in the nature of inprovements, as of the estates in of another standing magure heap con a whole parish together, for instance, stantly furnishing its contents. So will necessarily be the precursor of that with all these joherent and ex. succeeding ones. triusic advantages, aided by the tur

TIMOTHY TELEGRAPH. ther consideration, that the outskirts of al estate may virtually be rendered Mr. URBAN,

Jan. '10. of the value of honrestead land, by

17

Tis wiib mental endowners, being converted into poultry farms. as with other rich gifts of piroWhat is true as to the competition videnice; the inhabilant of the luxe likely to be excited by inviting cir. uriant Southern climes, where Na. cunstances for their lenantry, will lure has done every thing in the way alsı, be su 'for the purchase of them of vegetalion, indolently lays bold on upon the same principles, whenever this very plea of fertility which should toe party may wish to convert them animale bis exertions, as a reason for into munes. Nor have the interests doing nothing himself; so that the of the capitalists also been forgotten soil, which leems with such encoura amongst these numerous arrange- raging abundance, leaves the favour. nients of combinations, as' novel as ed possessor idle, and comparatively they are important; but on the con poor : while the native of the less trary, a wide field for speculation will genial region, supplying by his labe opened to 'his view, by which he bours the deficiencies of his lot, overwill be enabled to employ the tele takes his more favoured competitor ; scope of his understanding to deter- by substipating industry for opulence, inine for himself how far he may, or 'be in:proves the riches of his native may not, employ his money to greater Tand beyond that which is blessed

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