« VorigeDoorgaan »
230 G. Wilcockson.--On National Debt and Taxes, [March, reason compels us to consider as to Mr. URBAN,
March 9. ļally different in kind. · But shall we, HE dismal apprehensions solely on this ground, proceed further to regard them as the specific attri- pressed with regard to the national butes of two substances or patures debt and taxes, very much diminish essentially different?
the sun of human happiness in this If so, I certainly, for my own part, country. The two portraits of a do pot see what limits we can ra- Colony, without and with taxation, tionally set to the actual variety of sent herewith, I am greally in hopes, such substances, which will obviously are calculated to assuage the one and be required, in order to perfect the allay the other. If so, there can be constitution of every individual bird no ineans more effectual than through or beast that moves upon the surface the extensive circulation of your of this earth; there being, beyond Magazine. dispute, in every such individual a Suppose 2500 families agree to emivariety of distinct faculties, instincts, grate, and they obtain a grant of land appetites, and passions ; which, on from a parent state. The first rank, the principle of reasoning above ad we will suppose, to consist of 250 pervanced, must needs be allowed to in
80118, taking with them four thousand dicale, most clearly, a correspondent pounds each, making a total of one difference in the elementary substances million: the second rank are 500, to which they severally appertain. taking out stores, &c. with a view of
If, bowever, it be once admitted' becoming traders: the third rank are that the striking difference observable 1750, mechanics, labourers, &c. each in the two properties above referred person having as much store as will to affords no kind of rational presuinp- last till the colony is established. 'By live, that two equally distinct essènces previous arrangement, all offices,civil, are indispensably required for the pur- ecclesiastical, &c. are iu be adminispose of completing the specific nature tered gratuitously by the upper ranks; of an eagle or a horse, are we not (by the labourers are to prepare the houses parity of reason) equally constrained of the opulent, and be rewarded by to own, that, in the mysterious sub- small grants of land for the erectiou slance which constitutes the human of their own collages. soul, there may be combined, together All being thus settled, the houses with those lower attributes of which built, and the stores which each indiman confessedly partakes in common vidual had taken out for immediate with the rest of the animal creation, sustevaoce being exhausted, the two the incomparably bobler principles of lower ranks of the Colony must now, intellectual ability and moral feeling? by traffic or labour, Jook out for fuAnd that, withoui the least impeach- ture maiutenance. The traders have ment of the soul's simple and homo. goods to sell ; and they, as well as the geneous nature; any more than we upper raoks, need the assistance, in can justly be regarded as impeaching various ways of the labouring people: The integrils, or perfect soundness of hence wages are given. The money the musical string, merely by ascribing expended by the upper ranks, either to it its well-known power of pro- for necessaries purchased of the trad. ducing an intinile variety of lones? ers, or for the hire of the lower ranks,
A.2. now forms the circulating mediuin of
the colony; and, supposing the up.
per ranks to live at the rale of Mr. URBAN,
2001. per andum, each family, the SHOULD be greatly obliged to circulatiny medium will be at the end
any of your Correspondents who of the first year fifty thousand pourds; could furoish me with some particu. of the second, one hundred thousand ; lara relativg to a Divine, of the name and, at the end of twenty years the of George Wilcockson. There are at
whole million will have been put into this time extant of his, two MS Ser- 'circulation. nons, bearing the date of 1663, and
Let us now take a view of the slate dedicated to Lady Dunsinore, with of the settlement at this period. For whoin he appears to have been in twenty years all has gone on joyously: some degreo connected.
po taxes, no lithes, oo placemen, no Yours, &c. CeciLL MORT. rent, the lowest rank has bad plenty
1820.) Effects of National Debt and Taxes.
231 of employment ; the middle rank a will be an 'ample fortune and which constant sale for their commodities; must be continually returoed into cir. but! -- the higher ranks have culation, they paying taxes equally spent all their money; many of the with the rest of the community, and labourers have, by various means, be- being neither traffickers nor labourers, come unable to work ; the middle must give employment to those that rank has accumulated all the wealth, are ; and this state of things inay conand with it all the power. The popu
tipue for ever. lation may be supposed to be very These very 250 persons, having first much increased; the labourers in preserved their country, will now pay greater plenty, and consequently worse iwenty thousand two hundred and paid ; and all articles of general con- fifty pounds of the taxes raised for the sumption become, year after year, interest of their own money, furnishdearer and dearer, in proportion to ing employınent for a great proporthe, increased circulating medium. tion of their labouring compatriots, There will be a numerous poor, and leaving only twenty-four thousand no provision for them; the ministers, seven hundred and fifty pounds to be the magistrates, the teachers, will all raised upon all the other 2250 perhave become paupers, and their influ. sons, and the descendants of the whole epce gone. Then will arise a peremp community. The money that was tory obligation to form some new sent away will make that which rekind of government: a levy of rates mains much more valuable; and comand an imposition of taxes will become modities will, from time to time, beinevitable.
come cheaper and cheaper. The new system inust embrace the If, instead of a gratuitous admi. means of letting and lending, or there pistration of the affairs of Goverywill be no retiring: and the toils of ment, salaries are appoioted, it will commerce can be solaced only by the a quicker circulation of the hope of a tranquil enjoyment of lei. medium, which must again revert to sure when life is declining.
the traffickers and labourers. Let us now suppose the colony esta If, instead of borrowing the sum blished as before, the same pumber of amongst themselves to emancipate persons with the same property. Two their country, they had agreed to pay years go on in the same manner, and tribułe; and supposing that tribute one hundred thousand pounds have to be only the sainc as the interest, been expended by the upper rank, namely, forty-five thousand pounds forming then the circulating medium each year, they would, in liltle more of the colony. At this period they than twenty-two years, have paid are attacked by the natives on whose away the whole of their money; territory they have settled ; and, being would thus have been left without any unable to resist, are compelled to circulating medium, and would have treat. The higher ranks lend the fed and strengthened their enemies, whole of their remaining money, and while they had ruined themselves'; the land is purchased ; all the com whereas, by the establishment of a munity haviog agreed to pay their fund and taxes, they support their proportion of interest for the sum friends; they keep alive a constant borrowed; and taxes are accordingly circulating mediunı; and they give agreed upon. The circulatiog medium employment to a great part of the being one hundred thousand pounds, population. the public debt nine hundred thou If the public debt becomes transfer. sand, the taxes at five per cent. will be able, it will hold out a grand stimulus annually forty-five thousand pounds, to ivdustrious emulation ; for prowhich is nine shillings in the pound on perty, acquired by exertion, will enthe circulating medium. This sum, able the possessor to obtain quietne sø raised and paid by quarterly dividends, and repose, while he leaves a void for becomes the perpetual support of the one more vigorous and young lo fill higher ranks, being one hundred and up, and thus it is that the circulation eighty pounds per annum for each of of money not only supports the circu. the 250 families of the upper rank, lation of human existence; but an which, in a colony where the circu- imaginary stock, upheld by a nation's Jating medium amouols to no more soleinn engagenient, becomes the rest. than one huodred thousand pouuds, ing place of those who have, while
, , ,
232 Christ-Church Conventual Church described.
[March, they laboured, contributed to its sup been made. The fine lace-work carv. port; and who, in turn, become par. ing in wood running round the top of takers of the rest which it affords. the stalls, which, on the south side, Yours, &c. A LOMBARD. was much injured, and on the north
almost entirely destroyed, together Mr. URBAN,
Feb. 17. with the rich Gothic crockets, or AVING lately passed through finials, which had been sawn off from the fine old Conventual Church there, been replaced. The Sub-Prior's stall and was extremely gratified by the has been removed opposite the Prior's, great improvements made during the where it originally stoud ; and its CAJast year in that magnificent structuré, nopy, which was much broken and which now resembles a Cathedral destroyed, completed in unison with much more than a Parish Church. what remained of the original design.
A new vaulted roof of stucco, joint. At the back of some of the stalls ed and coloured so as to imitate stone, the carving had been taken away, aud has been erected in the Nave, after the the vacant places filled up with plain early pointed style, from the designs wood: the carvings have now been of William Garbett, esq. of Winches. replaced. The whole of the stalls, ter; the proportions of which are ex. together with the altar, rails, &c. &c. tremely fine, and the outline pecu. have been cleaned, oiled, and varbishliarly bold. The rib-mouldings are a ed. A trumpery painting in watercontiovation of the springers that re colours over the uorivalled stone mained of the old stope-roof, wbich screen behind the high altar, encomthe inhabitants have a tradition was passed with a salmon-coloured frame, carried in by the fall of the centre which was placed there some 50 years Tower and Spire; and the bosses of ago, has been defaced, and the groundfoliage at the intersection of the ribs work of wood coloured the same as are copied from some fioe key-stones the screen, in other parts of the Church ; so that Many minor improveinents have the general effect is beautiful and taken place lately in this interesting antique.
buildings which reflect the greatest The lengthened perspective from credit on the Gentry, Clergy, and the western door is very fine: and, Churchwardens of this extensive since the organ, which is placed on Parish. the stone screen at the entrance of the The expence of ceiling the Nave, as Choir, bas been reduced several feet the Sexton informed me, amounted to in height at the centre of the frame 8001, which was raised by subscripwork, the whole of the groined roof tion ; and that it was now in conteni. of the Choir is now visible from the plation to ceil the western and antient west end of the Church ; and the con tower as the Nave, and to place a flat trast afforded between that elaborate ceiling on the south transept similar and enriched canopy, and the simple to that on the north. and beautiful groin of the Nave is In the ailes of the Choir and in the very strikin
The Gothic columns Lady Ci pel are some fine Chantries, and the mouldings round the windows many grave-stones of the Priors, and of the upper or Clerestory tier of tombs of benefactors to the Conarches, as well as the Norman pilas. ventual Church; and some very fire ters and columos, &c. of the Navé, modern monuments ; particularly one, have been restored. The fine stone by Flaxman, to the memory of Lady screen under the organ and the gal. Fitzharris, and another by Chantry. lery, which, unfortunately, was placed In short, Mr. Urban, I was so much upon it 30 years ago, have been delighted wiih this ioteresting buildcleaned and repaired; they were both ing, that I could not but regret that painted of a bright blue colour. The my lime would not allow me lo exascreen bas been scraped and cleaned; mine it with more attention. aod the gallery painted to imitate dark Yours, &c.
VIATOR. oak wainscot.
P.S. The old Sacristy, which is not To the Choir, which was (excepling the Vestry, presents some curious the stalls) restored under the direction specimens of antient sculpture, partiof the Rev. Wm. Bingley, A. M. with cularly a beautiful head of a female due care and attention, some years Religieuse. Under the Transcpls are ago, great improvemenls have now subterraneous Chapels, or Crypts.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
38. A short Account of the ancient and Bishops Wetenhall, Smalridge, Tal.
modern State of the City and Close of bot, and Newton, were natives of LichLichfield. 12mo. Pp. 226. Longman field; as were John Rowley, the celeand Co.
brated mathematician, and inventor T has long been a source of surprise of the Orrery ; Dr. Samuel Johnson, a city, celebrated for giving birth to several loger ; and (in his profession) the not eminent characters, and possessing in itself less eminent David Garrick. so many attractions, should be deficient in Sir John Floyer, Knt. F. R. S. phywhat other places, of comparatively little sician to Charles II. was born at Hiots, interest, furnish to the enquirer, a short and resided at Lichfield. account of its beauties and antiquities.”
" He was one of the first to notice the This deficiency is well supplied by pulsation of the arteries, and is supposed the little voluine now before us ; to be the person alluded to in the fifteenth which, after a good abridgment of number of the Tatler*. the early periods of the history of this "Amongst other works, he published, in antient City, introduce to the prio. 1702, the ancient Psycrolusia revived, or cipal Videndu.
an Essay on Cold-Bathing The “ Eminent Characters" form
" He caused baths to be erected at Unites
well, a remarkably cold spring, which rises ap important portion of the vo
out of a rock near the summit of a hill at lume. Among these are
the Abenhalls, to which he gave the name “ Robert Whittinlon, an eminent gram- of St. Chad's Bath, marian, and author of many noted works. “ He died in 1733, and bequeathed his
" He was with great ceremony created library to Queen's College, Oxford. Doctor of Grammar, and crowned with lau “ Dr. Darwin, afterwards becoming posrel; he was highly esteemed for his learn. sessed of the baths at Abenhalls, formed a ing, and in great favour with Cardinal botanic garden ; which, under his skilful Wolsey.
He styled himself Proto-vates hands, assiimed a form of the greatest Angliæ; and pretended to cope with Wil. beauty. After learing the baths, the stream liam Lilly, the greatest Grammarian of his was conducted by several falls of highly age, io comparison with whom, says Pul picturesque appearance to a small pool ler, he was but a crackling thorn." surrounded by a shrubbery, through whose Some of his works were printed in 1524 by thickets were wound a mazy path, having, -Wynken de Worde."
to the stranger, all the effect of an extenElias Ashmole was born in Bread. sive wilderness. market-street, May 23, 1617.
“ The following inscription was over the Gregory King, the laborious herald entrance of a grotto:
“ If the meek flower of bashful dye and antiquary, was born in the parish
Attract not thy incurious eye; of St. Chad, Dec. 15, 1648.
If the soft murmuring rill to rest, “ He was son of Gregory King, who prac Encharm not thy tumultuous breast, tised land surveying and dialling. At the Go, where Ambition lures the sain, grammar school in Lichfield he learned Or Avarice barters peace for gain." Latin, Greek, and Hebrew; and in 1662,
“ Dr. Darwin resided several years at by the recommendation of Dr. Hunier, was received as clerk to Dugdale, the celebrated of which Sir Brooke Boothby, Bart, well
Lichfield, and formed a Botanical Society. antiquary, whom he accompanied in his known by his poetical publications, and visitations, taking with him blank shields of arms, which he filled up for such as de.
Mr. Jackson, a proctor, were members. sired them; he afterwards became archæ- of Vegetables,” and “ The Families of
The translation of the “Linnæan System ological secretary to Lord Hatton. Rem Plants," were the productions of this turning to his native place in 1669, he
society." employed himself in teaching writing and accounts, painting arms and signs, &c. In the description of the MarketBecoming Rouge Dragon, Lancaster He. street we are told, that rald, and Deputy Garter King at Arms, he « On the South side is the house of the conducted several installations of knights : he died at London, and was buried in the * “ There is a portrait of Sir Joha church of St. Bennet, Paul's wharf, where Floyer in the possession of the Rev. T. O. there is an inscription to his anemory:" Burns Floyer, at Aldershaw." GENT. MAG. March, 1820.
(March, late Mr. Greene, well known as the collector In this Catalogue, dated 1717-18, is of a museum, rich ia general as well as the following notice, addressed local curiosities. Of an ingenious and per
“ To all Gentlemen, Ladies, and others, severing disposition, indefatigable, in his
in and near Worcester. favourite pursuit, he rescued many frag.
“I have had several auctions in your ments of antiquity from destruction ; he discovered the great seal of Prince Henry, neighbourhood, as Gloucester, Tewkesbury. which was used in an attorney's office in Evesham, &c. with success, and am now Lichfield, to compress papers.
He was a
to address myself, and try my fortune with
you. You must not wonder, that I begin frequent contributor to the Gentleman's
every day's sale with small and common Magazine, and furnished Mr. Urban with
books; the reason is, a room is some time many useful aod curious articles *." " Most of the local curiosities are in
a filling, and persons of address and busi.
ness seldom coming first, they are enterthe possession of Dr. Wright."
tainment till we are full; they are never " On the North side of the street is the
the last books of the best kind of that sort Bank, a little above which stood a building
for ordinary families and young persons, called the gate-house, through which was
&c. But in the body of the catalogue you a passage to the ferry, formed for the use
will find Law, Mathematicks, History; and, of the pilgriins who visited the shrine of St.
for the learned in Divinity, there are Drs. Chad in the cathedral. The Guild, and af. terwards the Corporation, possessed a land
South, Taylor, Tillotson, Beveridge, Fla
vel, &c. the best of that kiod; and to please ing place in the close and a road to the
the ladies, I have added store of fine pica church. “ In the large white house at the corner
tures and paper hangings, and by the way
I would desire them to take notice that the of the street, on the Westside of the market. place, in the chamber next the inilliner's
pictures shall always be put up by the noon
of that day they are to be sold, that they shop, was born Samuel Jobuson, LL. D. who, in his Dictionary, has thus noticed
may be viewed by day-light. I have no his native place: “ Lichfield, the field of
more but to wish you pleased, and myself the dead, a city in Staffordshire, so called
a good sale, who am your humble servant,
“ M. JOHNSON.” from martyred Christians.--Salve, magna parens !"
As a short account of the Cathedral A very neat view of the house is has been recently published, little on given, from a drawing taken in 1760.
that subject is here given ; but, in deThe house has since that time under scribing the Close, the Author says, gone some alterations.
“ There are few places more iuteresting Old Michael Johnson, the Doctor's to a lover of literature than the walk in Father, was buried in St. Michael's front of the palace ; he stands in the aveChurch, where the monumental stove, nue described by Farquhar as leadiug to inseribed by his son, is covered by the
the house of Lady Bountiful, and in which new floor.
Aimwell pretends to faint ; at the gates of
the hospitable Gilbert Walmésley, the pa* He was a respectable bookseller in this
trou of merit, where Garrick may be supcity, and attended, on market-days, the
posed to bave imbibed his taste for that neighbouring towns; and had auctions of
profession he so highly ornamented ; the books, prints, &c. The following is the
favourite spot of the unfortunate Andrè ; title and address to his customers, of one
before the paternal gates of the elegant of his original sale catalogues : “ A Cata
Addison ; under the walls of that fortress logue of choice Books in all Faculties, Di
which first obeyed the calls of loyalty, and vinity, History, Travels, Law, Physick,
look up arms in defence of the unfortunate Mathematicks, Philosophy, Poetry, &c.
Charles; within sight of the spot on which together with Bibles, Common Prayers, Shop Books, Pocket Books, &c. Also fine lost his life, with singular circumstances.
one of the greatest enemies of episcopaey French Priats for stair-cases and large
“ Panatic Brooke chimney pieces, Maps, large and small.
The fair Cathedral storm'd and took, To be sold by auction, or he who bids most, at the Talbot, in Sidbury, Worcester; the
But thanks to God, and good St.Chad, sale to begin on Friday, the 21st of this
A guerdon meet the spoiler had." instant March, exactly at six o'clock in
Marmion. the afternoon, and to continue till all is
“ Looking down upon the beautiful val. sold. Tbe books to be exposed to view
ley in wbich stands the celebrated willow; three days before the sale begins.. Cala
and at the termination of which rise the logues are given out at the place of sale,
houses of Mrs. Gastrell and Aston, the or by Michael Johnson, of Lichfield.”
friends of Johoson, whose natal house is
visible from this spot ; by the side of the * See a View of Mr. Greene's Museum pool he sees the church and dwelling-place in our Vol. LVIII. p. 847.
of St. Chad, a saint in the Romish calendar