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Nogæ Curiosæ et Antiquæ.

[March, The improvements made in all arts Germany than Mercury or Jupiter.and sciences within the last 200 years Worth. Ep. 169. This cannot be have nearly doubled the present limit thought improbable, since his assistation of life, in that we live more in ant Fust, or Faust, attained the title. less time.

of Conjuror for it, in so late times The Egyptians were so ignorant of and such a place as Paris.—Bp. Law, medicine, that, when any one was sick, Confid. 220. n. they called in as many persons as pos

If the aptients could come back to sible to see him, that, if any one of the world, and see and read modern them had had the like distemper, he Sciences as we read of theirs, they might say what was fit for his cure. would suppose themselves transplantShuckford, Con. 9. 367.

ed iuto some planet appointed for Surgery was much the oldest branch

their progressive improvement, beof physick which they practised.- fore they could be admitted into Diod. Sic. 1. 1.

Heaven. Æsculapius was followed by a dog It was an antient custom in the and a she-goat. The dog was taught to East, and in Palestine, to sprinkle salt lick all ulcerated wounds, and the goat's upon newly-born infants, by which milk was given for all diseases of the their skin was rendered more deuse stomach and lungs.-- Temple, i. 180. and solid. This practice is still con

The Chinese were so igoorant of. tinued in Tartary. The prophet Ezegeography, that their Literati seeing kiel (xvi. 4) charges Jerusalem with a. map of the world in the hands of not having been salted.--Hewlett, in the Jesuits, took one of the two be. loco. mispheres which contained Europe, Av antient painter having been orAsia, and Africa, for the Empire of dered to paint the portrait of his Cbina ;--aod in mechanics it was the prince, who had only one eye, adopl. same, for one mistook a watch for a ed the conciliatory expedient of paiut. living creature.-Jesuits' Travels, II. iog him in profile. Aod this i lake 304 ; Boyle, Final Causes, 230. to have been the origin of that node

The Chinese can never acquire a of painting, now become so general, knowledge of other languages, be- and so much more interesting than cause they have no idea of method in the full face. the construction of their owo), having The opposite extreme to what is no alphabet.

wrong, is coinmonly wrong also.— The common cubit, which was for. H. More. merly supposed equal to 18 of our A King of England, said Gourville, inches, is now allowed to contain al

who acts according to the laws, is the most 22 inches ; according to which greatest of all monarchs ! measure, the Ark must have been The Works of Tacitus were conabout 547 English feet long, 91 broad, demned to the flames from the Papal and 54 high. Bp. Wilkins has made Chair, because the author was noi a it plain that these dimensions were Roman Catholick.-H. More. sufficient for all the uses for which Pope Gregory the Great expelled the Ark was designed. It contained the Works of Livy from every Chris-, 72,625 tons. There are not above tian Library on account of bis super100 species of quadrupeds kpowo in stition.-Ibid. the world ; nor above 200 of birds. Christina of Sweden complimented Bp. Wilson; Hewlett on Gen. 6. 15. the celebrated Vossius, by saying that

Noab was the first husbandınan, and he was so well learved, as not only to planted the first vineyard.-Gen. 9. 20. know whence all words came, but

Divine honour and deification were whither they were going:-Ibid. formerly paid to men who invented The great use of increasing light improvements in agriculture, arts, and liberiy, in any age, is to enable &c. such as Jupiter, Bacchus, Mi man to see vice io its own feature, nerva, Ceres. But there is not a mo aod power to renouoce its bondage. dern ploughboy who would not have The negligence in which the French become a god, with his present skill lived in regard to truth, was one of in husbandry. Had the mystery of the leading causes of their infidelity ; Printing been invented in antient and the same habitual neglect will times, Guttenberg of Mentz might operate in the same effect with any have been a god of higher esteem in oiher pation or individual.

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1820.] Nugæ Antiquæ, &c.-Small Farms recommended. 221

The celebraled Dutch Minister De mind terms of reproach. The apathy Witt explained the secret of dispatch: which marked bis latter years strongly By always doing one thing at a time. illustrated the infelicity of an uptur{The skill of doing more is the seed Dished mind.--Ibid. of perplexity.]

The people will always be liberal If there are fewer revolutions in to. a prince who spares them; and a Christendom than berelofore, it is good privce will always spare a libebecause the principles of sound ino. ral people.-Selden. rality and government are better and Henry IV. of France fought for bis more universally kuown; men, are prerogatives bravely, and defended less savage and fierce, their under- them vigorously ; yet, it is said, be standings better cultivated. - It is ever carefully avoided the use of the their interest to be humane and vir- term.-H. More. tuous.-Sp. of Laws, B. 21, C. 16. It is difficult to say whether Julius

Alphabetical writing, among its Cæsar plavned his battles with more mang benefits of spreading Religion skill, fought them with more valour, and the Arts, set the axe to the root or described them with more ability. of Idolatry, which bad been greatly -Ibid.

A. H. assisted by symbolical characters. The avenues to Learning of all kinds Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 29. were planned and opened by Lord PPROVING the remarks of H. H. mate recesses of the human mind were agree with bim in the necessity of unfolded and explained by Locke every one giving his assistance against and the frame and constitution of the the daring attacks of uopriucipled and universe by Sir Isaac Newton, in a irreligious men. more perfect manner than ever was The late alarming circumstances done or attempted by human skil- that have taken place, must fully consince the foundation of the world. yince every reasonable thinking man, Bp. Law, 230, n.

ibat the dreadful state of frenzy into The lives of the pupils of Fenelon which the lowest classes have been and Machiavel are the best comment brought must proceed from some on the works of the respective au very unusual causes, that ought to be 'thors. Fenelon produced Telemaque, searched for from the very bottom of and the Duke of Burgundy; Machial their root; fór we must all be aware vel produced “ Il Principe,” avd Ce- that in such cases even the terrible sar Borgia !-More.

vengeance of the Law, and the exe. It was a fact well known in the cutions thereof, avail but little, unless Court of Versailles, that Madame de you do away the evil which has been Mootespan, during the long period in ihe occasion of it. which she continued the favourite If the Legislature would turn its mistress of the King (by whom she attention to the diminishing of the had seven children), was so strict in large Farms, which are occupied by religious observances, tbal, lest she one family, and reduce them so as to should violate the austerity of fast- be partitioned into smaller ones, it ing, ber bread, during Leni, was con would po doubt tend to the employ. stantly weighed.-Ibid.

ment of a number of

poor families, Farinelli used to complain heavily and to improving the morals of their that the pension of 20001. a year children,whom, for want, they are now from the King of Spain was com- obliged to send into the inaoufac. pensation little enough for bis being turing districts, at a distance from sometimes obliged to hear his Ma any of their friends, to observe tbeir jesty play.-Ibid.

manners, and where their habits are Could Louis XIV. have read, pro too often soon changed into a certain bably the Edict of Nantz had not been depraved state. This would be avoidrevoked; be was upiostructed upon ed, if they could be brought up in the system ; Cardinal Mazarine, with a usual industrious occupations of laview to secure his own dominion, bour, busbandry, and ihe retirement baving withheld from bim all the ne of a country life. Many other reacessary means of education ; - the sons might be assigned to convince terms wit and scholar were in his you of the necessity of some altera

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for that purpose.

MENTOR

222 Pews in Churches.---Lithographic View, &c. [March, tions being adopted, but for the pre- fore, that, in the next Act of Parsent, 'I will not intrude further upon liament respecting the building of your time, but take another oppor. churches, a clause will be introduced, tunity of imparting to you what may giving power to the rector or vicar present itself to my observation. Yours, &c. En RETIRO.

Yours, &c. Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 26.

A LITHOGRAPHIC VIEW OF THE SEYAN any of your Correspondents,

VERAL COUNTIES IN ENGLAND:
By THE LATE

MR. EMANUEL belonging to the Ecclesiastical Court, inform me whether a Fucully

MENDEZ DE COSTA, F. R. S. Pew in a parish church goes with the FROM London to Tunbridge.

Mount Hermon ; rucks of sand. granted (consequently devisable, as Birchdon; forge of iron, two miles the donor pleases)? or does the same

from it, worked from ferruginous go with the dwelling house wherein geodæ. An iron forge at Hamsel, in the person resided at the time such Sussex; five miles from it the ore is Faculty was granted ? and is such Pa. found in beds of ochre. culty registered in the Diocese where From Tunbridge to Portsmouth, in probate of wills are usually granted ? Hampshire. This route must be made

An elderly maiden lady, with only along the further parts of Surrey, as her niece, occupy the largest pew Reigate, Guildford, Farnham, &c. to (capable of holding eight or ten per. Alton, in Hampshire; thence to Portssons) in the parish church in the vil. mouth. At Reigate, fullers' earth lage, although they reside in a very pits and freestone. Quarries theresmall house there; her father, at the abouts. The rest of Surrey is all great time when such Faculty was granted, chalk-bills. Farnham, a chief place being then a proprietor of one of the for hops, and generally fixes the price, largest mansions there, the present

or is the staple mart of hops through. occupiers of which are now placed out the kingdom. Two miles near in a back pew in the church. Al this place, the counties divide. Portsthough the rector, highly to his ho. mouth, Gosport, Spithead, &c. places nour, bas used his utmost endeavours of rendezvous for the Navy of Engto lessen those old large pews, and land, the Dock, &c. make them more commodious for The Isle of Wight. At the end fachis parishioners, by increasing the ing the Needles, the cliffs and the number of the pew: ; yet this lady amazing quantities of sea birds are frustrates his good designs ; and worthy remark. The Needles are some other parts of the church are

remarkable rocks. On this isle copfrom the same cause prevented from peras stones are gathered, and a fine being improved by this praiseworthy argilla alba, called Hayters' Clay, is *Divine *.' I most highly approve of dug in it. the Act of Parliament for building

To Southampton: thence along the Churches ; but this I am cerlain, that New Forest. Hordell Cliffs, between nine-tepths of the present sacred build. Christ Church and Lymington ; a vast ings, were the interiors to be pro- variety of elegant curious fossil shells, perly regulated agreeable to the wish &c. are found beat out by the sea of this eminent divine, and pewing an account of them is given in the entirely afresh in the churches, with Conchylia Hantonensia, in 4to. by additional (or in many where there Mr. Brander. are not any) galleries, there would Then enter Dorsetshire to Pool. he sufficient accommodation for the Fine argilla alba, or pipe clay, worked inhabitants without the expence of through all England, found at Hungerbuilding new churches. I hope, there hill or Wareham. Dorchester. Wey

mouth; the cliffs there abound with * In those large pews the farmers and fine fossils

, chiefly figured. Portland their families sit facing each other, and Island, famous for its excellent quarone half of the congregation are seated ries of freestone. Purbeck Islands with their backs to the Clergyman and stone quarries and pipe clay. Communion Table ; this is surely highly port cliffs, remarkable improper.

Long Burton , shell marts

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1820.) Lithographic View of England and Wales. 223 bury; its quarries and fossils, and its cially that of Mr. Dunngtborne, and manufactures of lace, stuffs, and stock- Pyran Mines, &c. ings. Lyme; the pier is built of Cor You return from Corowall, coastnua ammonis. Sherborne ; its quarries ing the other part of Devonshire, in abound with nautili, anomiæ, and other which route lie the mines of Conib. curious petrifactions.

martin and Northmoulton above menDevonshire. Exeter; its cathedral tioned; then enter into aod woollen maoufactories. Ply Somersetshire. The Mendip Hills mouth, built on rocks of four kinds full of mines of lead, manganese, caof marble ; ils dock for tbe Navy ; lamin, ochres, and many other mineaud Eddystone Light-house, off Ply- rals, fossils and petrifactions, and the mouth. Slate quarry at Buckland and cavern called Wooky Hole, near Wells, Fleet, oine miles from Dartmouth and Bristol; its trade and manufactories, Totness. Torbay marble. Lead mives spelter work of Mr. Champion, and at Bear Alston, Combmartin, Liras its Hot Wells; and St. Vincent's Rocks, Newton, Bearferris. Copper inine at

iron ore and crystals; coal-pits at North Moulton. Coal pils at Bovey, Kingswood; and Cottam stone. and bituminified wood. Manganese Bath ; its waters ; Allen's Quarries; al Uptontine near Exeter.

Walcot Quarries, full of curious petriCross Crimble Ferry to Mount Edge. factions; ammonitæ at Keiosham, becumbe, the seat of Lord Edgecumbe, tween Bath and Bristol. This county near which you enter Cornwall. abounds with stone quarries and pe

Cornwall. This county is one con trifactions ; as also with coal pits, as tinued scene of the mineral kingdom, Cluttoo, Finsbury, &c. in which imworthy the greatest attention of a tra- pressions of vegetables are found in veller. Every spot is replete with ihe

strata over ibe coal. Brass works mines, so that a particular specifica- . at Wormley, near Bristol. tion is as impossible as unnecesary. From Bristol to Aust Passage over The mines themselves of tin, copper, the Severo, for the route tbrough the and lead; the țin stream works and Principality of Wales. lodes; the sheads, smelting-houses, From Aust Passage cross the Severn and coioage of it; the copper wines into Moumouthshire. The iron works and works; the antimony of Endel- of Mahon, Tredegar, Tinton, Monlion ; cobalt, marcasites, mispickel, mouth, and Pontypool. crystals, granites, and various other Glamorganshire. The culm coalfossils; the soap rocks, &c. ; are all pits at Neath. Iron works at Forrest, sources of curiosity worthy inspection. Abberavan, Velin Gryffys, and New The fossils to be collected are tin Forge. grains and ores ; grey, red, blue, Carmarthenshire. Iron forges at green, and turcois ore, and marcha. Kidwelly, Whitland, Cymdwgfram, sitical copper ores, or fire ores; as Cambrayne and Fandovaine. also nalive copper; the marcasites Pembrokeshire. Iron works at and various minerals called indif- Blackpool and Coiducore. ferently mundics, corpei, called Cardiganshire. Full of mines. Rich cockles, samples of veins called gos lead and copper inines, called Cwmysens, mineræ zinci, called black Jack, stwith, ten miles from the seaport of wolfram and other minerals called Aberystwith; mine of Esgair y Mwyo. mock-iron, call, &c. the stones and Iron work at Fanfrede: countries of the lodes, called moor Meriogethshire. Lead mines of stone, killas, growan, elvean, &c. Dolgelly. The Rev. Dr. Borlase has lately pub Carnarvonshire. The bills full of lished the Natural History of this slate quarries. In several parishes of county, in folio. No petrifactions are the manor of Snowden, many copper, to be found in all this county.

lead, and calamin mines. On the shores Some chief copper mines are, Huel of this county and Bardsey Island very Virgin in Gwennep ; Northdown, at beautiful and curious bowlder stones Redruth ; Oldpool, at Illughan ; Ros- of jaspers, porphyries, marbles, &c. kear, at Cambron, and Huel Kitty ;

are found. Hueland, at Gwynpear, &c. Tin The Isle of Anglesea. The asbestos mines: Godolphin ball; Bellarnoon, and green marble rock at Monachty, at St. Just; Mines at St. Agnes, espe- and fine large coralloids on the coasis.

Flintshire,

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224 Lithographic View, &c.--Secretaries of State. [March,

Flintshire. Full of mines and coal- , ed in this county are the iron-stones,'-pits; as also very curious calamins, limestones, and petrisactions. especially about Holywell. Bulkeley Cheshire. The salt rocks and works Mountain ; its clay for lutings, fur- at Nantwich, Middlewich, &c. Silk nace-bricks, &c.

mills at Stockport. The peat mosses. Denbighshire. Collieries at Wrex. Copper mines at Alderley Edge. Other ham. Barsham and Peutablue iron mineral works in this county ;-iron forges.

forges at Cranage, Warmington, and Montgomeryshire. Lead and cop Lea. per mines in the manor of Keferliog, Lancashire. Liverpool, famous for and iron works at lltattravail and trade. The Candle or Kennel coalDolobrao.

pits at Haigh, Wigan, &c. This coal Radnorshire, and

turns and polishes; and toys, utensils, Brecknockshire. Iron works at &c. are made of it. Coal-pits at WiTappers Forge and Fanelly.

gan, Warrington, Burnley, Townly, Return to Bristol through Mon- Hindley, and many other places. mouthshire again.

Manchester, and its manufactures. Though I have only particularised Copper mines at High Furness, Conygome few parts of Wales, yet all that ston Fells; copper works and furnaces Principality is properly a mineral at Warrington, but the ore smelted country, and well worthy the search there is brought from Wales. Lead of a mineralist.

mines at Andlesack. Fine hæmatites From Bristol take your route ore found in the fells, and much of it through Gloucestershire.

is sent to Carrop in Scotland, and ShefThis county is chiefly stony, abound. field and Rotherham in Yorkshire s ing with free-stone quarries, full of and iron forges at Cunsey, Bachbar. petrifactions. Gloucester. The Fo row, Sparkbridge, Con yston, Caton, rest of Dean; full of irou mines, coal- and Burgh. The navigable canals run pits, and other mineral works. It is through this county. governed by its own mining laws and

[To be continued.] jurisdiction. The mines are large, rich, and furnish curious ore of the SECRETARIES OF STATE. stalactites kind, called Brush Iron From A MS. of Dr. DUCAREL, 1768.

A cavern at Char fordab-piton: Tubedekings of England had this two from Coalpits at Seridge, Broad Moor Green, Acton, officer was anciently called Clericus and Redbrook. Copper works also Regis, or Secretarius; a title given at Redbrook, near Colford, five miles to him that is ab epistolis, et scriptis from Monmouth. Cheltenham mine- secrelis. ral waters. Lead mine near Sodbury. The name of Secretary was’ at first Iron forges at Lidbrook, Lidney, Up- applied to such as, being always near leadon, Fartworth, and Flaxley. the King's person, received his com

Herefordshire. I do not find any mands. These were called Clerks of particular in this county remarkable the Secret, whence was afterwards enough to be specified, except the formed the word Secretary, regi a iron works at New Weare, Bring wood, secretis. and Lanidloe.

There was but one Secretary of State Shropshire. The iron works at in this kingdom till about the end of Coalbrookdale, with the curious pe- the reign of King Henry VIII. ; but trifactions and impressions of vege. then, business increasing, that Prince tables in the iron stone balls. There appointed a second Secretary; both of are many other iron works, at Pres- equal power, and both stiled “ Princot, Sutton, Upton, &c. The pitch- cipal Secretaries of State.” slone at Pitchford, Bental, Broseley, These Secretaries did not sit at the and other places. Pipe-clay at Wen- Council Board till the time of Queen Jock, and limestone used to fuse the Elizabeth, who first admitted them to iron-stone of Coalbrookdale. The the place of Privy Counsellors. limestone mountains of the Wrekin, On the Union, Queen Apne added a and Cym y Bwch, and the petrifac third Secretary, who is frequently tions in ihem. Many coalpits in stiled “ Secretary of State for North Shropshire. The fossils to be collect Britain."

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