1820.) Mary Magdalene. - Origin of Money. 915 v. I and 2, and ch. xii. 1, 2, 3). St. well for the observation, that Maya Luke asserts, that the woman who did daan is now in common use amongst this was a singer (ch. vii. v. 37, 38). modern Greeks. Yours, &c. St. Mark says, that Mary Magdalene CHARLES ROBERT FANSHAWE. was she out of whoin our Lord cast seven Devils (chap. xvi. v. 9); aod perhaps our Lord's prohibition to


Edgbaston, Birmingtouch him (Joho xx. 17) after his re

ham, Apr. 7, 1819. surrection, might allude to her former demoniacal and sinful stale. give a History of the Silver CoinThus far these two women seem to


of Scotland from the earliest aube identified, and the difficulty arises

thentic records, and also of that of our from the second name Magdalene,

own country subsequent to the Norwhich has always been supposed to be

man Conquest ; it is also my internomen gentile, baviog reference to

tion to present your readers with a

short account of the origin of moMagdala, an ideal city on the Western bank of the lake Siberias, whereas

ney, and to enumerate some of the the family of Mary, the sister of La

more strikiny particulars concerning

the coins of our Anglo-Saxon anzarus, was of Bethany. Now as the

cestors. article in the original Greek is used

For a long series of years the indifferently in Μαρια η Μαγδαληνη,

transactions of the commercial world Ιωαννης ο Βαπτισης, Σιμων ο Κανανιτης,

were carried on in the way of barter, she might as justly be so called from

or the exchange of one conmodity some act of her life, like John the

for another, a practice which was atBaptist, as from her country, like

tended, as may readily be supposed, Sinion the Canaanite. The chief oc

with very great inconvenience. At currence of her life was anointing our

length, however, after mature deliLord's feet with oil, and wiping them

beration, it occurred to the minds of with her hair, instead of a lowel or

sone of the most enlightened of our naplin, of which they had none in

ancestors, that the metals, particuantient Greece; but they had what served them instead, the soft part of Jarly gold and silver, on account of

their scarcity and value, their indebread on which they cleaused their structibility and superior specific gralands, as the Persians and Abyssinians vily, might lie advantageously em. still do. This substance in classic ployed as a circulating niedium in all Greek was called Maydansa (vide Scap. commercial transactions, and would Lex. Art. Mogow), and in vernacular contribute in no small degree to simGreek we have the authority of Dod- plify and facilitate all trading conwell for stating that a towel is called cerns whatever. When the inetals magdalee or paydaan; hence Mary were first used for this purpose, their Magdalene, or Mary of the Napkin, value was determined only by the may be the sister of Lazarus, and of weight, a circumstance which affordthe city of Bethany; there will then be ed in the dishonest trader frequent only three Marys, and all discrepancy opportunities of defrauding others on this trifle ceases. I am further sup with regard to the quality or fineported by the curious fact, that this ness of the metals which he gave in surname or agnomen (since you ob payment; and this joconvenience had serve I take it for granted that it is already been very extensively and derived from the act, and not from very severely feli, when it was or. the city) is never added by any Evan dained that all the metals used as gelist till after the record of the act inoney should be divided into small of wiping the feet. I cannot conclude pieces of equal size, and that each withoul acknowledging, and calling piece should be impressed with ceron my brethren to acknowledge, with tain marks which should indicate at humble gratitude, the blessing of the same time its weight and value. God, who has caused all the researches Thus originated the practice of of modern travellers to abound in re that most valuable art, which, in the sults which elucidate more and more present state of civilization, seems the dark passages

holy writ, and

almost necessary to our existence, serve to confirm the wavering. Lam but when or where the first coins iņdebted to our countryman Mr. Dod were struck, appears now to be a



Particulars of Anglo-Saxon Coinage. [March, matter of considerable uncertaiuty. which appears never to have been a The art of coining, however, is said real coin, but to have origioally imto have been introduced into this plied as many of the smaller silver country soon after the invasion of coins as would weigh 5400 Troy our island by Julius Cæsar, or about grains, or a Saxon, since called a twenty-five years before the birth of Tower pound ; the silver coinage of Christ; but though a variety of cir- Eogland was uniformly regulated by cumstances teod to prove this fact, this weight till the year 1527, when it does not appear that any British Heory ihre Eighth sabstituled the coins are now extant prior to the Troy pound, containing 5760 grains, time of Cunobeline, a prince who in its stead. The next devoin mation flourished in this island a short time of inoney ho use auxongst the Angleafter the cominencement of the Chris. Saxons was lbe Mark, which, like the tian æra.

The subsequent attacks Pound, was only a nominal coin, sig. which were made upon Britain by nifying eight Saxon ounces, or 3600 the Emperor Claudius, and the final grains Troy. The Mancus, which establishinent of the Romans within next follows, is not certaiuly known its peaceful sbores, A. D. 43, was fol. to have been a real coin, though it lowed by the introduction of Roman is strongly suspected as sach ; and money among our ancestors, when whether the Ora, or Saxon ounce, the circulation of the coins which was a real or only a nominal coin, bad bitherto been current in the is now also a matter of dispate; the island, was prohibited under very former weighed 675 grains, the latheavy penalties. On the departure ter 450.

The Shilling appears to of the Romans from Britain, about have been one of the most common the beginning of the fifth century, of the Anglo-Saxon coins, and is very they took with them all their cash frequently mentioned by the histoand reost valuable effects ; as they rians of this period; its weight was had long treated the native inhabi- 1121 grains Trog, and four of lhem tants of our island rather as friends were equal to the Ora or Saxon than enemies, and had defended them ounce, six to the Mancus, thirty-two against the incursions of the Scots to the Mark, and forty-eight to the and Picts, and other warlike nations Pound. The Thrimsa was the next of the North, their return into their silver coin in size, a piece which bore own country was regarded by our an to the shilling the proportion of threecestors as a serious evil, since it left fifths, its weight being 671 grains. tbein in an impoverished and defence. The penny, with its subdivisious, the less condition.

halfpenny and farthing, all of silver, The tranquillity which the Romans and the styca, or half-farthing of had preserved throughout the island brass, close the list of the Anglofor so long a period, was disturbed Saxou coins; the weight of the pemy very soon after their removal by the was fixed at 221 grains Troy, twenty fierce and warlike Saxons, to whom of thein being equal to the Saxon or Britain proved an easy prey, and our Tower ounce, and two huudred and ancestors again bowed their necks be- forly to the pound; so that the terin neath a foreign yoke. On the set- penny originally signified a penuje tlement of the Saxons in this country, weight; how cousiderable is the rethey divided it into seven small prin- duction which the weight of this cuin cipalities or kingdoms, each of which has since sustained! The silver peony had its distinct ruler, who exercised of George the Third weighs ouly the power of coinage and the various eight grains. other functions of regal authority. Yours, &c. T. CLARK, Jun. The most ancient of the coins struck by the Anglo-Saxon priuces, of which

Mr. URBAN, Newcastle, Feb. 10. et ethelbright, who began his Hight an account of the city reign A. D. 561.

I will now conclude by stating the of Florence, in which is given a splenvarious coias, both nominal and real, did description of the Grand Chapel which were introduced amongst us or Mausoleum erected to ihe, uieby the Saxons ; of these, the first mory of the Medici family, it struck which claims our gotice is the Pound, me as a good time to propose some

* What may

1820.] Monument proposed for our late Most Gracious King. 217 thing of the same sort to be erected to Nurse of Morulity, and Protectress the remembrance of our late good old of Religion ;*" which appellation it King, the venerable father of his peo can scarcely be said to deserve, whilst ple, George III.

duelling and many other crimes are We have seen, Mr. Urban, by the couotenanced in the manner they are, loyal and patriotic suggestions of Mr. In your Magazine for July last, you Wyatt, what can be raised on an oc have noticed the Academy at Dijon casion of this sort, by his endeavours baring offered a premium, for an to erect a Cenotaph to the Memory Essay on the means for preventing of her Royal Highoess the Princess Duelling. I believe the following are Charlotte of Wales. If then such the terms in which the question for success attended bis endeavours, what the Prize are offered t. may not be expected from a well be the most effectual means of extir. worded address of this kind laid be- pating from the hearts of Frenchfore the opulence of this great and men that moral disease, a remnant mighty empire.

of the barbarism of the middle ages, When I reflect on the enormous that false point of honour which leads fortunes made by individuals from them to shed blood in duels, in defithe humbler walks of Life * during ance of the precep!s of religion and the reign of his late Majesty, I trust the laws of the state?"? the very idea alone would call forth AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT. a sum more than sufficient to build the largest Church in the City of London, to be dedicated to his me

Newcastle upon-Tyne, Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 4. mory.

THE remarks of G.C. B. in vol. Miscellany let the suggestion come to offer a few observations to your forth in such manner as you in your

police.--I agree with him, that “ judgment may deem meet. With the assurance of the highest person has a Coat of Arms;” but at

general opinion prevails that every consideration and respect, I remain,

the same time I can only conceive G. A


such an opinion to have arisen from

the total want of knowledge on the Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 18.

subject,-as it is a rule in Heraldry,


yours, &c.

I surely can never been reconciled that no man has a right to bear a

, rality, that instruments for committing himself a lineal descendant of one to murder, should be publicly put up whom that distinction was originally to sale by auction, or sold in trades.

granted, or of one whose claim theremen's shops. I am led to this remark

to has been recognized by the Heby seeing in a Catalogue of Philo- ralds. I certainly conceive the bearsophical and other Instruments to be

ing of another Coat of Arms without sold this day in London, “ A Pair

right or title to be actionable ; but of Duelling Pistols,” &c. and by hav.

whether, in the present vitiated state ing lately observed painted on the

of the public mind on Genealogical outside of a shop window“ Duelling, rights, a Jury would award damages Pistols.” If such open violations of

for the injury, is, I am afraid, very Morality are permitted, we must not

doubtful. be surprized, however we may la At the moment I write this, it ocment it, that the endeavours to in.

curs to me, that there is an Act of calcate Morality and Religion by pre- Parliament, or a Proclamation of the cept have not their due effect. There

Sovereigo, now in force (though obis a very true adage, that example is

solete) which provides a punishment better than precept; and well would for the offence in the shape of a peit be if it was more attended to thau

nally of ten pounds, for the purpose it is.

of supporting the authority of the Britain has, it appears, been called lately in the House of Commons the * New Times, (House of Commons,

Debates,) Nov. 24, 1819. * Such names will readily occur to + See Tilloch's Philosophical Magaevery person's recollection.

zine, Nov. 1819. GENT. MAG, March 1820.


218 Armerial Bearings.--Miscellaneous Remarks. [March, Heralds, which was so much impaired valry. Of the celebrated Thomas by the abolition of the Earl Marshal's Cromwell, Earl of Essex, it is obCourt, in which it will be remembered served :-" He was a nobleman, bemany important trials took place rela cause he refused another man's coat tive to the right of bearing the same of arms, who was of his name, sayiog, arms, several of which are on record. • What shall I do with it ; for he (See Dallawayøg Heraldry). Then it may pull it off my back at pleawas considered a high crime and misde

sure ." meanour, but these good old days (at In Dr. Radcliffe's Life (p. 3, fourth least so far as rights of this nature were dit.) is the following passage-"Notconcerned) are goneby; and we may withstandiog the Heralds, as appears now see every man who has risen to any by their books, thought fit to disrespectability in society, assume a Coat claim his father's pretensions to bear of 'Arms which he thinks proper to arms as a descendant from the Rad. say beloog to his family, merely be cliffe's of Dilston, co. Northumbercause his name happens to be spelt land; yet the late Earl of Derwente the same as that of a gentleman water, Sir Francis Radcliffe, acknowwhose property they are.

ledged him for a kinsman, and sufThe same Correspondent, in p. 2, fered the son to wear a Bend engrailrequests to be informed « whether ed Sable, field Argent, on his coach, all persons have Crests and Mottos; which none of the college belonging and, if they have, can they change to the Earl Marshal thought fit to anithem to any other, without giving madvert upon during his life; though notice, or receiving a grant from the they have admonished the University Heralds' College?” To this I answer, of Oxford not to erect any such esthat the various Writers on Heraldry cutcheon over, or upon his monuacknowledge the right, although the ment, since his decease." custom of granting Crests bas long The arms born by Sir Henry Blunt, prevailed, as I find in my own family baronet (Barry nebule of six, Or and a grant of Crest and confirmation of Sable,) were the same as those of the Arms in 1581. I believe it is the antient family of Blount; but the legeneral practice in the present day gality of Sir Henry's rigbt to bear to grant a Crest along with the Arms ; then was controverted, and after a and I should certainly think that all long trial in the High Court of Chigentlemen who do not inberit this valry, sentence was given against bim distinction would rather possess it in that Court by the Deputy Earl through the regular channel, than Marshal of England. Sir Heory aptake advantage of a doubtful right. pealed to the Court of Delegates ; NICHOLAS John PAILIPSON. but how the cause was determined I

know not. Possibly Sir Henry estabMr. URBAN,

March 8.

lished his right to bear the arms 'N answer to your Correspondent


R. U. IN

“ G. C. B.” (p. 609, of your last Supplement), who asks, whether


Feb. 1. persons cau assume arms, “ with. IN

N looking over your Volomes for out incurring some disgrace, blame,

the last

Year, your Readers have or cognizance from the rightful much to regret in the loss of your owners;" I beg to inform him that very agreeable Correspondent, the though upstarts frequently assume

“ Leicestershire Clerical Traveller.p" arms to which they are not en

But they have to congratulate you titled *, yet they are liable to under on the acquisition of such excellent go a trial in the High Court of Chi- papers as have been communicated

by “ E. P.” which they hope to see * Blazoners call Assumptive Arms such very often in your future Numbers. as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of P. 580. I agree with much of what upstarts, though of never so mean ex O. P. Q.” says of the manner of traction, who being advanced to a degree building New Churches ; but be does of fortune, either assume some without having deserved them, or appropriate to * “ State Worthies," p. 67, 2d edit. themselves' those of any family, whose 1670. name they happen to bear."- Pournay's + The Rev. Aulay Macaulay: see our Heraldry, p. 11. 4to. edit.

last Volume, i. 276.


1820.) Miscellaneous Observations.-Nugæ Curiosæ et Antiquæ.219 not notice the enormous expenditure there was an attempt to obtain such of money on the New Church in Ma.. meetings, an outcry would be imme. rylebone; by some said to be 60,0001.3 diately raised against Methodists or by others, much more ; an expense Fanatics. An Archdeacon is supposed at which two extensive Churches to be the link in the chain which might have been built. Wbat Pan- unites the Bishop and his Clergy s but

cras is to cost I have not heard, but if there should be an Archdeacon of : a few years ago it was said that the

a very extensive circle, who has nethen intended New Church was to ver visited a single parish (and such have had a Steeple at the cost of there is) how should he know any 15,0001. Surely, when New Churches thing of a poor Curate!

A respecare so much wanted, frugality in table Curate, however, seldom has building is a great ohject.

this cause of complaint against bis P. 593. “S. P." is perfectly right neighbouriog Rectors or Vicars. about the uonecessary expence of P. 599. The detection of Turpin witnesses ; but an Aitoroey of re. I have always heard attributed to his putation never refuses to admit such stealing, not shooting, a game-cock. things as the execution of deeds, and P. 600. Two large cedar trees were many other things which he knows blown down at Hillingdon a few years to be capable of proof, and the ad- ago in a gentleman's garden on the mission of which will not affect the right hand just before coming into merit of the case. Another cause of Hillingdoo-street. I wish I could complaint as to the expence of wit find their admeasurements, of which I nesses is, that the party who succeeds have a memorandum. is not allowed a sufficient remunera. P. 602. The ruinous scheme of tion for his witnesses-much of what impowering vestries, or some set of he must pay them is struck off from men, to buy ground, build houses, what the losing party is to pay, and &c. was lately attempted, and I beremains to be paid by him who gains lieve something like it was introhis cause. Another serious complaint duced into an Act; but happily 80 arises from the great expence of ob. clogged as to give little expectation taining a Special Jury, and their non- of any parish adopting it. Accordattendance. If a poor farmor sum. ing to my idea, a more mischievous moned on a cominon jury does not ate power could hardly be given. The tend, though in the middle of harvest, objections are too many to enter into and in a critical season of the weather, a detail of them. he is fined—but a special jury man is P. 609. It is very true that'any not fined (I beliere never, or so sel- taylor or shoe-maker, &c. who sees dom as to justify the term,) though a coat of arms belongiòg to one of perhaps the cause is deferred to the his name, assumes it as his own, and next assizes for want of his attend- he does it with iinpunity, for the

This subject deserves to be power of the Heralds College to much enlarged upon.

prosecute is lost.

S.I. : P. 596. No one need be surprized at the increase of Sectaries, who recollects the number of non-resident


TROM complaint a few years ago, or the conduct of many who were resident nerations ;- from the birth of Christ indeed, but who shut up their to that of the present King, were Churches on Sunday afternoons, p. 1756. years: if every one of his pro608; and the very frequent discon. genitors was born when his father was tinuance of Catechism in the Churches. 25 years of age, one with another, Happily, the Clergy of the Estab- and there were four such generations lishment are awakened, we will hope in every century, that is 70 generanot too late ; though to fetch up the tions, which being added to the above lost ground will require no small 74, it will yield not more than 144 exertion. It is to be feared that generations between Adam and the “ C. E. A.” speaks with too much present King and many, from the reason of the want of social com distance of time, would guess them munion amongst the Clergy ; but, if at thousands.



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