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ing the advanceroent of Commerce in Por- I the first called Santa Maria, which he comtagal, we must not forget to notice the ef manded in person, the second named the srts of Columbus, patronized by Spain, Pinta, commanded by Martin Alonzo Pinwhich resulted in the discovery of America. zon, and the third, the Nina, by Vincent

Christopher Columbus or Colombo, as the Yanez Pinzon, two rich and hardy mariners same was originally spelled, was born in / of Palos. With these vessels and with a Genoa in the year 1-133. His father, though crew in all about one hundred men, he emonly a bamble wool-dyer, wishing his son barked from the port of Palos on the third to bare a good education, sent him to the uni- of August 1492, and after a long and tedious tesity of Paria, where his chief studies and voyage, during which his crew mutipiod buse in which he most delighted, were. once, being disheartened, but which was Geography, Astronomy, Mathematics and calmed by the firmness of Columbus, he Savigation. After remaining several years reached Guanihan::i or Cat Island, one of the in the university be made many voyages in Bahamas on the evening of October 9, 1492. tie Meliterranean, among which was a war- The natives of whom there were but few, fled

keexpedition to Naples, in which he greatly at his approach, but afterwards meeting with distinguished bimself. By some means he them, and supposing that he had landed on tas induced to settle at Lisbon, where he the coast of India, he gave them the varne paid great attention to the accounts of the of Indians, which they yet retain. Colummuiners, who returned from the voyages of bus made three other voyages, vainly searchdiscorery, then being prosecuted, and upon ing for the kingdom of the great Khan, base he first began to found his theory, that but in which he discovered the Islands of there was land across the ocean, which had Cuba, St. Domingo, and others, and iu his ust yet been discoverel, and that by sailing fourth and last one he touched at the main na vesterly direction from Portugal, he land, about the mouth of the river Oronoco Tyıl) rench those rich and powerful lands The prosperous result of the voyage of Coof the Great Khan, so vividly described by lumbus, awakened a feeling of adventure Marco Polo in his travels. (Gama had not over all Europe, and many ardent spirits yet mile his voyage.) Wishing to carry were ready to embark in hope of becoming sut his theory, and being too poor to fit out rich in the newly discovereil lands of the I fleet himself, he presented his petition to west. To relate all the adventures of these Jobo Il king of Portugal, who, though in romantic navigators would not only be tirefaror of it himself, submitted it to a coun- some, but also would occupy more space than al of bishops, who after deliberating on it is alloted to us; therefore we can but mencame to the conclusion that the proposal of tion some of the most prominent commerCuiambus could not be the cause of any cial events connected with the early settlegood in Portugal. The refused Columbus ment of America. Spain by this new and left Lisbon and went into Spain, which was immense acquisition became very wealthy then carrying on a great war with the Moors and powerful and the soon after discovered of Granada. Columbus' plan although pre- countries of Mexico and Peru added greatly sented was delayed for a long time, but Isa- to her store. She in fact was in possession bella of Cast le, arge l by her confessor, who of all South and the greater and best part and become a friend of Columbus, at last of North America. Americus Vespucius appointel him high admiral and governor of made a voyage to the no wly discovered lands all the lands he should discover. She became and on his return to Spain, published a work so interested in his project that she was heard from which the continents were called after to say " rather than the plan of Columbushim, America. In 1497, John Cabot, a nashould fail, she would sell her private jew. tive of Venice under the patronage of Henry els to procure the necessary funds.” Colum- VII of England, made a voyage to America bas was furnished with three small caravels, and explored the country from Newfound

land to Florida, mbich afterwards wal Before concluding this article, I wish to claimed by the English. Other voyages were say a few words on the benefit of Commerce made for discovery, by mariners of various to a nation ; every nation that has encournations among whom were Verrizauni Car. aged it on right principles, bas become, tier, Sir Walter Raleigh, Captains Amidas powerful and wealthy, many have been and Barlow, Ponce De Leon, and some years raised from a weak and powerless condition after, Magellan, who, sailing from Spain to the suminit of riches and elegance. For made the first circumnavigation of the example, cast your eye over history-see globe.

Tyre raise itself by Commerce. Behold We now have to consider the rise of the

how Carthage flourished. See Venice and malftime power of England to the height Holland convert countries unfavorable to agshe las now attained as the first commercial /riculture into rich and powerful nations. power on the euth. The early inhabitants Spain, Portugal, Genoa, Britain, and Amerof Britain knew nothing of commerce, only

ica afford you instances of the benefits of sailin; about the channel or on their rivers

| Commerce. It too encourages a spirit of or sometimes venturing over to Gaul. The

Freedom wherever it exists-it subdues desSaxon invasion altered it but little, until we potism and gives to

potism and gives to man his rights. “ Fetfind Alfred the Great equipping armed boats

ter not Commerce,'' —said Patrick Henryto contend with tho Danes on the sea, and

"invite foreigners to your shores, and let

them till your land,and convert it into a rich in this way to protect his shores. This was the first but rude formation of the English

and powerful nation.”

Detroit, June, 1852. navy. Under the Normans sailing vessels of a larger size were introduced, but no commerce of any extent was carried on, or po

For the Miscellany. regular navy formed until the reign of Queen

NATURE'S TEACHINGS.
Elizabeth, who collected a fleet which met Thou art our Teacher in the things of God,
and defeated the great Spanish Armada.- Oh wondrous Nature!
This was the first triumph of the English

There is not a flower davy, and in that same reign, Commerce was

That decks the bosom of the blossomed earth,

Or ope's its petals to the summer ray, in reality, first begun in England.

But, ere it breathes its transient life away, During the administration of Crom Doth speak to man, of wisdom, and of God.

Behold! the brooklet murmuring on its way, well, the navy had frequent trials of their

Lifteth its tiny voicc to speak of Him prowess with the Dutch, whom at length Who marks its pebbly pa: hway to the seathey overcame. From that time since, the And yonder mighty river, rushing on English have been the greatest commercial In power and grandeur to its ocean home, nation in the world, and till lately ere Up from its restless bosom sends a voice, the supreme masters of the seas. AMERICA,

Stern, solemn, ceaseless, which doth ever speak

The glory and the majesty of God! however, rises to claim her part in the com

And thou, 0 Ocean ! boundless, uncontrolled, mercial glory of the earth. Yankee inge- Sweeping in grandeur round the peopled earth, nuity has penetrated everywhere, it has been And sprend abroad immense; whether thou chim'st east, north, south, and west. Its vessels Sweet music round some tropic island's shore, have visited every clime, and “wooden nut

Where the bright palm-tree waves in summer air,

Or, wildly roarest round the sterile coast megg” have become a staple commodity

ly of icy Greenland-or, by mighty winds over the whole world. In the War of 1812, |

Lashed into fury till thy tossing waves the United States had a trial of her Naval Near the black bosom of the o'er hanging cloud power with England, and by ber bravery Or, sleeping calm hepeath the sunny ray came off victorious, and is now ranked sec

Dost mirror the pure azure of the sky,

Thou dost bespeak the wondrous power of Hiin ond, if not first among the commercial pa

| Whu doth, within the hollow of His haud tions of the earth.

Measure thy mighty depths, and to whose mind

All thy unfathomed fountains seem to be
But as a tiny drop:—from thee doth rise
Earth's loftiest anthem to Jehovah's praise,
Thou art our Teacher in the things of God
O wondrous Nature!

Lol thy mountains lift
High in mid-heaven their everlasting brows
To manifest the grentness of His power-
Himalaya lifts o'er Asia's fertile plains
His solemo brow, and from his lotty heights,
And awful solitudes, to man unknown,
Proclaims abroad the grandeur of his God.
"Alps piled on Alps," o'er Europe's blooming vales
Soar boldly up, and to a purer air
Lift the green valleys where the mountaineer
Leads forth bis flock securely-while above,
Mid the clear skies the dazzling glacier rests
In frowning grandeur-but the lore they teach,
Unto the mountaineer who fearless trends
Their rocky lieights, and unto him who roams
Mid the bright sineyards of the sunny plain,
Is all of God!

Lo! Andes, from his home,
Above the clouds, mid heaven's serenest blue,
Gezes al road o'er calm Pacific's brenst,
Where sleep like gems the islands of the sea,
And in a lore, not urtered, but expressed,
Tells of Jehovah !

Mid his frowning cliffs,
And chasms vast, and caverns unexplored,
And yawning depths from which adven'trous man
Shrinks back appalled, or timidly explores,
His name is written-with a pen of fire
Volcano writes it, and the earthquake's roar,
Amid the caverns of the hoary hills,
Proclaims the Judgments and the power of God.
Thou art our Teacher in the things of God,
O wondrous Nature !

On the western skies
Yon heavy cloud expands its inky folds-
The light of day grows dim--the lightning's flash
Gleams with strange vividness along its brow-
And now the rains descend, and mighty winds
Rush from the gloomy cnverns of the storm,
Forth o'er the world the dreary pall to spread
Of gloom and desolation.

But, anon,
The wild wind sinks to rest! The parted cloud
Rolls heavily away. the thunder's roar
Dies in the distance, and the lightning flash
Quivers along the borders of the cloud,
In harmless play!

Look! what a cheering ray
Of sunlight bursts upon the weeping woods!
Chancing the rain drops to a flood of gem !
While brightly glowing on the eastern sky,
Behold the bow of promise!

Jus ice rode,
Clad in his robe of terrors, on the cloud-

And in the voice of thunderg-in the flash
Of lurid lightnings- in the roar intense
Of mighty winds-proclaimed to sinful man,
Jehovah's Judgments, and His soy'reign power
But, the sweet bow that spans the eastern sk)
Another langnage speaks.

'Tis Mercy's voice,
In gentle acceuts brenthing to the world
Of happiness and peace. "Good will to man !"
Is the sweet language of the heavenly bow-
“Peace to the world, Jehovah rules the stor id,
And every element his voice obeys !"
Thou art our Teacher in the things of God
O wondrous Nature !

Not a forest tree
Waves its green foliage in the air of spring-
No harvest spreads its treasures to the sun;
No ripened fruitage decks the pendent bough
When yellow Autumn with his golden hues
The earth adorns, but teoches us of God-
His love, His bounty, His protecting care.
The rising sun His glory dath proclaim,
And ling'ring at the portals of the west
He seems to pause amidst the fleecy clouds
More deeply to impress the sacred lore.
Night cometh on, yet she, too, hath a voice
Nor one alone, but in ten thousand ways
She speaks of God!

Behold! the full-orbed moon
Walks forth in majesty across the henvens,
Mid countless suns, which from afar display
The bandiwork of Him whose Wisdom framed
And garnished all the heavens

We meet
Thy teachings, Nature, wheresoe'er we roam;
The insect sporting in the summer ray,
The bird that soars mid heaven's unclouded blue,
The young lamb bounding at its mother's side
And all that sport in air, or cleave the wave,
Or lowly creep, or stately tread the earth,
Bear witness to the kind protecting crre,
The gentle guidance, and the fustering love
Of the All-seeing, All-directing One.
Oh I then let me in simple-heartedness
List to thy blessed teachings!

Let me hear
Jehovah's voice in every whispering breeze,
In every blast, and every murmuring galo,
Let me behold His hand in every tint
Of summer; in the Autumnal glories
and in winter's snow8.

Let me adore
His power and glory, when majestic night
Leads torth her starry train, when countless orbs
From the far realms of space their twinkling raya
Diffuse abroad, while eah, oledient, wheels
His stated revolutions round the Throue
Of iho supreme.

Oh I let me ever feel

His presence near me, when I walk abroad the top of our old gate post, and liable to In the still night, that time for solemn thought, constant shocks when the wind blew from When contemplation feeds on higher themes the river, but they were not nervous, did not Than restless day can yield;--and when I stray

care for trifles. The home was soon comAmid the dewy bearties of the morn,

plete, in and out; 'twas indeed “a labor of When laughing day awakes to joyous life All animated nature;--when I gaze

love," and Mrs. Blue bird, forgetting preriUpon the glories of the sunset sky,

ous habits, forgot to sing, and worked unreAnd feel the calmness of the twilight hour

mittingly in all weather. Then, when the Come gently o'er my spirit ;--when the hum

last straw was nearly placed, the young Of nature's " Good Night voices” meets th: ear With an entrancing sweetness : let me feel,

couple moved in. Their furniture was plain, In all theke scenes of beauty or repose,

but it answered all needful purposes. They A nearness to my God !

| had no luxuries, save plenty of sweet air, Thus let me be

and blessed sun-light. It must be confessed A studious scholar in thy blessed scliool,

too, they had to work for a living, instead of O wondrous Teacher! till at last I rise To closer fellowship with Nature's God.

having a portion from Mr. aud Mrs. Bloe May 8th, 18 ,2.

EMILLIA. bird, senior, but they had the fields and for

ests to furnish them food, and the dev on OUR BLUE BIRD'S SECOND WIFE. (the leaves, or the bright sparkling waters,

slaked their thirst and saved bills for coffee, I do not think our little neighbor was so tea and champagne. much to blame as some inight think he was,

May passed with its hudding, springing even if he did take another mate so soon hoontu and the little family in the cate post after his first love bad been cruelly cut off.

were still Lappy. June came with roses, It could not be for want of attachment to

and all its wealth of fruit and flowers, but her, or want of respect to her memory, that

in an evil hour, came disaster and distresswithin six weeks, he brought back from his long journey another but not lovelier or

Our cat had no eye for beauty, no ear for

melody, he had no foudness for birds, and sweeter comparion ; for the Robin family,

often set looking with envious, wicked eyes, who had lodgings in the fir tree near by, say

at the gate family. One day, when our he was ever the most tender and indulgent

faithful Blue bird had left his home for food of wedded lords, to the first Mrs. Blue bird,

to nourish bis other dearer half, this sleek. and the Orioles, who occasionally honored the lilac tree with their presence, and who

coated, soft-stepping velvet-footed enemy,

caught poor dear Mrs. Blue bird, and before are rather inclined to be shy of other bird

qaid could be afforded, the breath of life had people, assert that he mourned her loss in a

Igone, the little warm heart was stilled. becoming manner, and for a suitable and

Oh how sadly looked her loving mate, fashionable period. The cause of this second marriage was when he saw

arriage was when he saw the desolate home! yet what enough to startle the most calm and quiet of could be do but

Giet ofcould he do but mourn? his enemy Fas the bird kingdom. no republic, from their powerful, he was weak. We tried the gravity. Our Blue bird was young, when

wretch for premeditated murder, malice prehe courted and wed his first love. She too

| pense, talked of confinement in solitude, but had been indulged by tender parents, and there we must feed him, perhaps a long lifeknew very little about how a home should time. be managed, on small means; but the young “Then capital punishment was serving pair knew a home must be provided, one of him right,” said nearly all, when with such their own too; they had no idea of boarding a look as only cats can bestow, she drew our out a year or two, sharing other people's attention or thoughts to the lordly creature homes. So a site was selected for the bird man, who goes with powder and shot, and but me. It was rather unromantic, being in kills at one charge more than he had in a

month. We bad no excuse to offer, the cul. hump, and the long fall of hair by which the prit was dismissed.

| anterior parts of the body are covered. This Two or three weeks wore away, the woolly hair is remarkable not less for its mourning occupant was absent; had he died fineness than its length. of grief, or fallen a victim to cats, or powder | The difference between the winter and the and shot? Another three weeks rolled by summer coat of the bison, consists rather in One summer afternoon, in the lilac sal our the length than in the other qualities of the Blue bird, and shall I say it? A new com- hair. In summer, from the shoulders back. panion! Like many another hasty choice, ward, the surface is covered with very short, it seemed rather unfortunate ; the new Mrs. fine hair, smooth and soft as velvet. ExBlue bird had a will and way of her own.- cept the long hair on the fore parts, which How he coaxed, in his wheedling bird is to a certain extent of a rust colur, or yeltongue, the new mate to occupy the old | lowish tinge, the color is a uniform dun. homc, "he liked it, would she not live there Varieties of color are so rare among the spewith bim?" "No!" she looked at it in cold cies, that the hunters and Indians always redisdain, "her home must be higher, better, yard any apparent difference with great surshe would not enter it.” The grieved and prise. fexed Blue bird could only submit, for the The fleece or hair of a full grown bison, Robins and Orioles were looking on, and is found to weigh about eight pounds. The what was the use of a strife so soon ? ' So horus are shorter than in any other species, the father lilae was chosen for the new nearly straight, sharp-pointed, exceedingly home. I verily believe that meddling old strong, and planted widely asunder at the Mrs. Robin made the last match.--The Upal. base, as in the common bull. The tail is al

most a foot long, and terminates in a tuft, TIE BISON.

which is black in the males, and red in

l in the females. The eyes are large and There are few animals that present a more fierce, and the limbs of great strength ; and terrific appearance than the North American the appearance of the animal is altogether bison. In size it exceeds every other speeies grim, savage, and formidable. The female of ox, sometimes weighing twenty-four is much smaller than the male ; she has not bundred pounds. There is great dispropor- so much of the long hair in front, and her tion between its fore and hind quarters, oc- horns are not so large or so much covered casioned partly by the great hump on its by the hair. The calves seldom leave the shoulders. This hump is oblong, diminish- mother until they are a year old, and someing in beight as it extends backward, and times the females are seen followed by the giving a considerable slope to the outline of young of three seasons, the back.

The bisons generally seck their food in The hair over the head, neck and fore part the morning and evening, and retire during of the body, is long and shaggy, forming a the day to marshy places. They rarely rebeard beneath the lower jaw, and descend- sort to the woods, preferring the open praiing below the knee in a tuft. The hair on ries, where the herbage is long and thick. the summit of the head rises in a dense mass They also associate in vast troops, led by nearly to the tip of the horns, and directly the fiercest and most powerful of the bulls. on the front is curled and strongly matted. These lerds are frequently of astonishing The ponderous head, rendered terrific by its density and extent. Mr. James says that, in thick shaggy bair and streaming beard is one place at least, ten thousand of these supported upon a massive neck and should- fine animals burst upon the sight in an iners, the apparent strength of which is more stant. He adds :-“In the morning we inposing from the increase produced by the again sought the living picture, but upon

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