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finally, Dr. Mantell brought to light the most | The depth of British strata investigated gigantic of them all--the Iguanodon—a her- and found to be fossiliferous, was estimated. bivorous reptile of nearly 100 feet in length. in 1840, at six and a half miles. Prof. RoThere are now at least eighty species of these gers, of Pennsylvania, estimated the Amerifossil reptiles known, many of them of in- can strata below the coal as of much greater mense size and some of extraordinary char- tbickness than the European. . acter. They have been divided by Dr. Buck- Many important questions, which have land into four groups,—the Marine, Terres- arisen during the course of these investigatrial, Amphibious, and Flying Reptiles. tions, bave been successfully solved. Among . The curiosity and wonder excited by such these no single one was attended with great
a series of discoveries, greatly stimulated the er difficulty than that of determining the ardor of inquirers, and a great number of ob- equivalence of the strata of different regions, servers now pursued investigations, which a work which required the most careful exhad proved so fruitful of povel and brilliant animation of the fossil remains of distant results. Many of the most acute and philo- formations. The identity of the compact sophical minds of the age have been, and still marbles of Italy and Greece, with the loose are, engaged in efforts to solve the problems limestones which form the Oolitic series of which geology offers to our examination.— England, was pointed out by Dr. Buckland, The investigations of Agassiz, upon the fos- in 1820, and his view has since been fully sil fish, publisbed in two separate works in confirmed. The determination of hundreds Neuchatel in 1834, and in England, in 1835, of shells by most skilful couchologists, was bave resulted in a new and admirable classi- requisite to decide the position of some of fication of that branch of physical science, the calcareous beds of Germany, as comparMore recently the observations of the same el with the formations of Great Britain.' gentleman upon the glaciers of Switzerland | More recently, however, this effort has and the erratic blocks, have opened a new been so far extended that the general system field of investigation in the ice period. lof the rocks is now universally agreed upon,
The fossil plants were first fully investiga- and is understood over the whole of Europe, ted by Brogniart. The number of species and of castern North America. In more which he had ascertained, 1836, amounted to distant countries, however, the equivalence 527, which have since increased to about two of strata with those already known, is more thousand. As a large proportion of plants doubtful, though investigation is rapidly enwould disappear during the process of fossil- larging our knowledge in cvery direction.ization, fungi, mosses, &c., the aggregate, it Humboldt has labored to extend the docis supposed, may have approached the exist. trine of geological equivaleuce, as shown in ing number. One-half of the whole are con- the rocks of Europe, to those of the Andes. tained in the caroniferous series, before the The equivalence of the strata of Newgreat herbivorous quadrupeds existed. York with those of Europe and northern
The earliest well-characterized plants Asia, was determined, in 1816, by M. de bitherto ascertained are coniferous trees at Verneuil, who determined the fact that no the base of the old red sandstone. Their country offers so complete and uninterrupted discovery is due to the protracted investiga- a development of the Devonian systein as tions of Hugh Miller, in a field, whose fruit- this State. fulness he had the merit of discovering. Geological science has been greatly in
The species of fossil fish number about debted for its progress to the accurate surtwo thousavd. They bave grown to this veys which various governments have ordernumber under the hand of Prof. Agassiz.- ed. The surveys of the European coast, unThe number which Cavier had distinguished dertaken for military and commercial pur amounted to only ninety-two.
poses, bave furnished opportunity of geolo
gical observation also. Extended geological raising the Scandinavian peninsula. Facts investigations have been accomplished of all at present are not sufficienty numerous te the more important European countries. authorize any confident conclusion.
American geology has been greatly indebted to the same aid. The several States have alınost universally instituted surveys
ENGLISH LUXURIOUSNESS. for economical as well as scientific purposes. Among the most distinguished of these, are
| Few of us whose lives are passed in rethose of Massachusetts, which were made, P
de publican simplicity, have any definite idea in 1833, by Prof. Hitchcock, and New-York,
New York of the amount of wealth and splendor that which were undertaken, in 1836, by several
he several surrounds many of the English nobles in gentlemen of seientitic distinction, and con
their princely residences. An intelligent templated a general survey of the Natural
American, writing from England, describes History of the State,
some of these things :
"The Earl of Spencer's homestead, about The United States Governinent bas bad geological surveys made of some extended
sixty miles from London, comprises ten regions of the interior of the country; and
thousand acres, tastefully divided into parks,
meadows, pastures, woods, and gardens.the Expedition, under Captain Wilkes, has made a most valuable contribution to science
IIis library, called the finest private library in this branch, in the work of Professor
in the world, containing fifty thousand vol
umes. Extensive and elegant stables, greenDana. There are in every department of geology
houses and conservatories, game-keepers' questions of great interest awaiting their so- houses without number--go to complete the lution. M. de Beaumont has suggested a establishment. Hundreds of shcep and cattheory of the contemporaneous elevation of tle graze in the parks about the house. parallel mountain-chains, which has attract- The Duke of Richmond's bome farm at ed much attention. More recently, a differ- 1 Goodward, sixty miles from London, conent view has been taken, which attributes
n which attributes / sists of twenty-three thousand acres, or over them to the contraction of the earth's crust. I thirty-five square miles. Avd this is in
Among the more interesting points which crowded England, which has a population of are regarded as settled, may be mentioned 16,000,000, and an area of only 50,000 the very recent appearance of man upon the square, or just 32.000,000 of acres, giving globe, and the termination of creation with were the land divided, but two acres to each the formation of man, as no single species inhabitant. The residence of the Duke is a can be shown to have originated since this complete palace. One extensive hall is coymodern period.
ered with yellow silk and pictures in the The highest authorities agree in deuying riches and most costly tapestry. The dishthe possibility of the trausmutation of lower es and plates upon the table are all of porinto higher forms of organic life, and gene celain, silver and gold. Twenty-five raco rally in affirming the diffusion of each spe- horses stand in the stable, each being concies from a single point through its while signed to the care of a special groom. A range.
grotto near the house, the ladies spent six Tivo theories at present divide the geologi- vears in adorning. An aviary is supplied cal world, in respect to the method and the with every variety of rare and beautiful agencies hy which the earth's changes have birds. Large herds of cattle, sheep and been pro luced. One view attributes thi Jeer, are spread over the immense lawns. phenomena to the violent action of causes The Duke of Devonhire's palace at Chatsnot now equally influential; the other, repre-worth, is said to excel in magnificence, any sented by Lyell, to the long-continued ac- ther in the kingdom. The income of the tion of causes such as those wbich are now Duke is one million dollars per year, and be is said to spend it all. In the ground the Holy Spirit has opened the heart, and about the house, are kept four hundred head the light of the knowledge of God, in the of cattle, and fourteen hundred deer. The face of Jesus Christ, shines into it, the ice kitchen garden contains twelve acres, and is melts, the enmity dies, and faith, love and filled with almost every species of fruit and hope spring up. There are peace and joy vegetables. A vast aboretum connected with then, joy which sorrows render more intense the establishment, is designed to contain a and precious. To an individual who has sample of every tree that grows. There is such views and affections, how can the conalso a glass conservatory 387 feet in length, dition of him who is without God and with112 feet in breadth, 66 in height, covered by out hope in the world, be otherwise than 76,000 square feet of glass, and warmed by pitiable in the extreme? How can we help seven miles of pipes containing hot water.-taking the impenitent by the band, saying, One plant was obtained from India, by a I am distressed for thee, my brother, my sis. special messenger, and is valued at $10,000. ter? Of the thoughts which fill the soul One of the fountains near the house, plays with glory and blessedness, thou art alto276 feet high, and is said to be the highest gether ignorant. For the purest and mosó jet in the world. Chatsworth contains 3500 lasting joys thou hast no heart. Would I acres, but the Duke owns ninety-six thou could help thee. But all I can do, is earnestsand acres in the county of Derbyshire.- ly to commend thee to Him who can give Within, the entire palace is one vast scene of eyes to the blind and ears to the deaf. paintings sculpture, mosaic work, carved wainscoting, and all the elegance and luxury
THE WONDERFUL REPUBLIC. within the reach of almost boundless wealth and highly refined taste.”
At the present time, republics and repub
licanism are very exciting topics. A large THE MUSIC OF A PEACEFUL portion of the people of Europe doubt HEART.
whether nations are capable of self-govern
ment. Most of the glorious old republics of What is all music, compared with what Europe have gone down, and some of them the child of God kvows? He beholds im- are now under shameful despotism. The measurably more than all the bandiworks of eyes of the world are turned towards our the Infinite One-he beholds the peculiar | Union; and it is hoped we shall prove that glory of the Great Fatber, sbining with sin- education, virtue, and industry will fit any gular grace in the face of Jesus Christ. He people to govern themselves. beholds the harmonious union of compassion for these reasons people are deeply interand holiness. Their separate crowns are ce ested in the history of all republics that have mented by the blood of the cross into one ever existed, that they may ascertain the doubly radiant diadem. A voice from the merids by which they rose to prosperity, and midst of the throne comes in the gentlest the misfortunes or faults which hastened whispers to his soul, bidding him to be of their downfall. good cheer, because he who was dead, and is Ancient Greece and Rome fell by their alive again, is his friend. When the venal luxury and vice; and those splendid States sun smiles on the snow-clad earth, the floods of Northern Italy, Venice, Verona, Genoa descend and the winds blow. But at length &c., wbich became republics just after the the silent and gentle influence of the sky dark ages, hare all disappeared but oxe, the prevails. The earth returns the smile to most ancient of them all, which still retains the heavens. She walks around the throne the freedom it has held for fifteen hundred of her God in robes of the loveliest hue, be- years. spangled with flowers of every color. Whend You may suppose that this wonderful re
public, called SAN MARINO, must be a very length of time, are worth looking into.powerful and populous state, to be able to Many persons have sneeringly said, that the hold out so long among empires and king- Republic of San Marino was too small for doms. Let us look on a large map of Italy, the neighboring tyrants to care about deand near the enslaved state of Venice, about stroying it. It is true, that this may be one eleven miles south of the city of Rimini, is reason why it has so long survived the prouda rude, craggy mountain, with a few smaller est nations; but even this fact teaches us bills scattered around it. This is the whole the important lesson, that humility and conextent of the ancient republic of San Mari- I tentinent in nations, as well as individuals, no. From the highest hill, on which stands La Citta, the capital-one may look over power. the whole of its territory, which is no where But there are other reasons why it stood six miles across. It contains twenty-two so long. It was founded upon principles of square miles, and not quite 8000 inhabi- Christianity, which have been strictly adhertants.
ed to. Education has been universally givThe history of such a minute common-len to the inhabitants. The English writer, Tealth is exceedingly curious and interest- Addison, says that when he visited the Reing. Near the close of the third century public, he could not find any one who did after Christ, the Roman Emperor Docletian, not read and write-Schootmate commenced a terrible persecution of the Christians. This is called in history "the
ROME. tenth persecution.” At Rimini the slaughter became so horrible that the people at
THE VATICAX. length rose against the Emperor's proconsal, and defeated him in battle. They were
Our visit to the Vatican occupied two led on by a Dalmatian stone-cutter, named | dave and
en days, and then it was but a hurried glanco Marino; but when the conflict had ended, at this
", at this great repertory of art, learning, he did not think it right that Christians
wealth, and power. We democrats from
es should continue fighting except in self de- the land of home-bred simplicity, and brick fence, and so he went, with a number of and mortar unadorned, were completely confamilies, to the rude mountain which now founded by the constant succession of splenbears his name.
| dors. Here are the spoils of Time as well Here he founded the little republic, and as its trophies, arranged amid the museums it has never been much enlarged either in and libraries, and long-long galleries. Here population or territory; though once or twice learning and taste have added building some of its more ambitious citizens have en- after building, so that the appearance of the deavored to add portions of land to their whole from St. Peter's cupola, is that of a State. The consequence was that their ava- long parallelogram of stony fabrics, with ricious neighbors seized on their growing squares between, wherein are gardens of rare wealth, depriving them of liberty for a short exotics in great urns, together with fountime. When restored to freedom, they tho't|tains of clear water. Long arbors of boxbest to keep within their ancient bounds, wood, and high impenetrable hedges of livand so strictly have they adhered to this ing green, spread around the palaces, upon principle, that when Napoleon Bonaparte which we may look, as we stroll through offered to extend their country and increase the long corridors, filled with busts, statues their power, they declined his offer with sarcophagi, and old inscriptions inserted in many thanks.
| the walls. To compute the extent of these The principles which have combined to halls, miles might be used. The number of preserve this singular people for such a apartments may give some idea of its ex
tent. It has eight grand stair cases, 2010 are starting a new race for immortality in smaller ones, 20 courts, and 4,422 apart. the pan
the panels of St. Paul. There, the richest ments.
tapestry of Gobelins, with the Bible illustraThe wonders from Etrusca and Egypt |
ted by a strange order of art. Every where form separate museums,and speak an earlier
the same impression is produced, of endless civilization than that of the elder Romans.
variety, in the mazes of which the mind is In the cabinet, relieved by porticos, were
almost lost, like a child amid a wilderness of the choice statues of antiquity, soine greatly
foliage and beauty. Yet out of all these mutilated. We had many opportunities of
endless varieties and “brotherly dissimiliapplying the principle "expede Herculem.”—
tudes, arises the goodly and graceful symHere were statnes of every animal, as well
wool metry," that speaks the common reason as every variety of men and divinities.
and nature which we all wear under God,
our Maker. Through manifold phases and Separate and apart from all others stood
turnings the mind ascends to that apex of the great group of the Laocoon. The great
generalization, where Unity kisses heaven est offspring of the chisel stood before us, in
and is embathed in its pure light: where the his torture dignifying pain,
greatest as well as the least obey that com“With an immortal's patience blending." mon law, whose seat is in the bosom of God.
-S.S. Cox. Oh! what a clench was that old man’s; what| expiring sadness upon that young brow, and what speechless, anxious ayony
PRACTICAL HINTS. upon that other! For two thousand years that "long en venomed chain of living.
Dress has much influence in the preserlinks" has wound about the father and his
& vatiou of the health. A garment that consons, awakening the deepest sympathy of ed. Tight cravats, closely girted strapped
fines any part is an evil always to be avoidthe soul, while it illustrates the power of pants, exquisitely arranged vests, as well as the Rhodian sculptors over the passions of
some appliances and forms of dress that man.
foolish custom requires the better sex to wear What a contrast to this is the Apollo Bel.
are all injurious, and should be avoided. videre, which is near. Light enshrined;
Water-proof raiment should, as far as posevery dignity personified; Love deised;!
sible, be avoided. Even rubber shoes, that Beauty. Manliness, and Genius, encased
operate upon so small a part of the surface, gracefully in the white marble; all that I
| do more or less injury, and in general should rivets admiration in the fair, or awakens awe
not be worn. When the feet become damp in the supernal, stand
or wet, a change merely of the ordinary ap"Starlike around until they gather to a God!" parel for the feet is best. Raphael's "Transfiguration, which we afterwards saw, could not compete for the DISCOVERY OF SPANISH WHITING. guerdon beside these waarble marvels of antiquity. The stone has no peer in the cane A MINE of Spanish Whiting has recently vass, in the highest heaven of art.
been discovered on the farm of Jr, Wiliams, It would only weary, to tell our visions of in the southwestern part of Alto, Fond du beauty and uniqneness, which every where Lac county, which is said to embrace an area gleam from niche, ceiling wall, and floor; of near twenty acres. The Whiiing is found throughout library, portico, museum, and wit'in eighteen inches of the surface, and is cabinet. Here were the maps of all Italy. coniprised in a layer of from 18 inches to 2% worked in the wall. There, the mosaic feet in thickness. It has been pronounced manufactory, where all the saints and popes I by competent judges, to be a superior arti