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That Mrs. Bostwick has at length consent I would not for a blest hereafter prayed to give to society such sources of refined A Heaven for which the troubled spirit longs
If, in its halls, I could not hear alway enjoyment as those which so justly claim the
Enchanting, thrilling music like thy songs. delight and admiration of all who listen to
Sing on, thou Bird of Melody, and fill the music of her voice, is a subject of con My heart with rapture, till its pulse is still. gratulation to the respectable and intelligent families of the country, as well as to
GEOLOGICAL AGENCIES. her numerous friends and admirers. We must not forget to state, with the soberness
BY PROF. HITCHCOCK. of truth, that there are circumstances associated with the position and character of this All correct reasoning in the natural scienlady, which tend greatly to enhance the ces is based upon the uniformity of nature's value of her professional celebrity. She is operations. Laws of nature are merely the emphatically of us, and with-us-a daughter modes in which the powers of nature act; of the great American family, no less dis. and our belief in the constancy of these laws tinguished for her eminent private worth, rests upon the observed fact, that under the than for her gifted acquirements in that Art | same conditions Nature always operates in which is the true and faithful exponent of the same way. We are hence led to seek the most sacred feeling. In this restless age for the causes of geological phenomena, in of speculation, charlatanism and ambiguous the agencies which we at present see in opnotoriety, which everywhere diversify the eration. Since the discussion of the Wernesurface of society, it is quite refreshing to rian and Huttonian views, and the general contemplate individuals eminent in intellec- reception of the latter, it has been an admittual acquirements, and adorning, by their ted principle in Geology, that existing rocks virtues, the calm, simple and secluded walks are, for the most part, the result of agencies of life. Of this description it would be diffi- still operating, and that the process of formcult to find a more perfect specimen than the ation of nearly every class, is still going on. subject of this sketch. Modest and unassum- This principle, we propose, in the present ing in her deportment, amiable and gentle article, briefly to illustrate. in her disposition, and constant in her char- Our winter frosts, our summer showers, ities to the poor, she is still more exalted in our mountain rivulets, we see all actively at the higher positions of Wife, Mother and wik, wearing away existing rocks, and conFriend, and in the faithful discharge of those verting them into the detritus which is borne obligations appertaining to that sphere in along by our larger rivers, and deposited, in which woman finds her purest enjoyments inundations, along their banks, or carried to and her highest duties
their mouths, there to form new deltas or We close this article with the following islands. As this detritus varies in quantity beautiful tribute, paid by the poet Hosmer, ) and mineral character at different times, ac. to the enchanting strains of Mrs. Bostwick, I cording to the activity of the agencies which which was published some time since in the have produced it, and the nature of the rocks Trbune:
of which it has been formed, so do the sucTO MRS. E. G. BOSTWICK.
cessive deposits vary in thickness and min
eral constitution. Sing on unrivalled warbler! never more Will mortal ear be blest by such a strain
In these deposits are also found enveloped Its sweet, enamored echo will remain
great numbers of shells and skeletons of land Until the fever of this life is o'er.
animals. The amount of detritus carried Such notes were heard in Eden, ere its bowers
down by different rivers, varies greatly, as is Were sullied by the clinging taint of sinWhen all was pure the human heart within.
strikingly seen on comparing the MississipAnd sunshine lay upon unfading flowers.
pi and Missouri rivers. The waters of the
former, above their junction, are compara- | lakes and seas where mineral springs abound, tively clear, while those of the latter are al- as is the case in many parts of Italy; also in most opaque, in consequence of the sand and successive layers of the shells of molluscous mud which they contain.
animals in which the ocean abounds; but It is estimated that the Rhine, a compara- | especially in the extensive coral formations tively small stream, carries dowu four hun. of the Pacific and Indian oceans. The midred and fifty tops daily. By this means, croscope has revealed the wonderful fact, in process of time, have the Netherlands that chalk and many other limestone rocks, been formed. The amount carried down by are alıpost exclusively composed of innumerBuch streams as the Ganges and Amazon, is able shells of minute infusoria. These rocks immensely greater. The latter is said to need only to be subjected to certain degrees muddy the sea water three hundred miles of heat to be converted into pure granular from its mouth, and it is well known that marble. the mouth of the Nile is several miles from If then, our present rocks have been furmwhere it was two thousand years ago. An- ed at the bottom of the ocean, as would apother active agent in forming aqueous de pear from what has been stated, how have posits, is seen in the tides and waves of the they become dry land? What forces are at ocean, which are constantly making iproads present in operation. at all adequate to upa upon our coasts, wearing away even the heave them from their ocean bed and form most rocky portions, and spreading them them into continents?. The subterranean in the form of sand, pebbles and mud over forces which can produce such earthquakes the ocean's bed. The numerous ripple and volcanoes as bave occurred within his. marks discovered in our hardest sandstones, toric times, and are even yet occurring, need show that they were once the sandy beach scarcely to be increased in intensity to be of the ocean. All these deposits mentioned, able to raise not only the bottom of the bed only to be solidified, to form rocks re- ocean to a level with existing continents, but sembling, in mineral characteristics, the va- even to elevate it to the heighth of our rivus sandstones found in the earth's crust. highest mountains. We have, too, decisive Strata may be solidified in various ways.- evidence that this elevating process is going Water often holds corbojate of lime and ox- forward at the present time. It has been ide of iron in cheinical solution, which it observed for centuries, that the northern por deposits when passing through layers Ition of Sweden has been gradually rising, sand and gravel, cementing them firmly to- while the southern portion has been sinking gether. It has also been proved by experi. In one part the sea has been receding, in ment, that pressure alone is capable of mak- the other it has been encroaching upon the ing particles of dry sand adhere with consid-land. There have also been successive eleerable tenacity. When, therefore, strata of vations of the western coast of South Amerigreat thickness have been piled upon each ca, some of which have taken place since other, the immense pressure to which the that region was peopled. Several distinct lower strata would be subjected, would be sea beaches are observable above each other. fufficient to form the most compact sand. The forces which have produced such disstones. Internal heat, whose existence is turbances, would also account for the listing evinced by earthquakes and volcanoes, is up, bending and dislocating of many of the probably the most important agent in the stratified rocks seen especially in mountain solidification of strata.
• ranges. Examples of the formation of limestone These few illustrations must suffice to rocks, which constitute so large a portion of show that most of the phenomena of the the earth's crust, may be seen in the depu- stratified rocks, may be seen to be the resition of carbonate of lime at the bottoms of sult of causes now in operation, and that
these causes are still producing like results.
HUNTING AN ALLIGATOR. With respect to the unstratified crystalline formations, which are admitted to be of ig
In the course of the year 1831, the proneous origin, it cannot of course be proved
I prietor of Halahala at Manilla, in the Island by actual examination, that they are still
Luconia, informed me that he frequently forming. But of the action of powerful ig- lic
lost horses and cows on a remote part of neous forces, we have abundant evidence in his plantation, and that the natives assured earthquakes and volcanoes; and we have him that they were taken by an enormous clear proof that both trap and granite have alligator who frequented on
we alligator who frequented one of the streams been formed at successive epochs. Since which run into the lake. Their descriptions then the agency which has produced them were so highly wrouybt, that they were atis still operating, we should conclude from tributed to the fondness for exaggeration to analogy that they are to some extent, yet which the inhabitants of that country are forming, though their formation is concealed peculiarly addicted, and very little credit from our view, trap rocks being the product was given to their repeated relations. All of submarine volcanoes, while granite has doubts as to the existence of the animal its origin deep within the earth. This con- were at last dispelled by the destruction of clusion is confirmed by the fact that many an Indian, who attempted to ford the river volcanoes have long periods of quiet, others on horseback, although entreated to desist have altogether ceased action, while in other by his companions, who crossed at a shallow places new ones are breaking out, showing, place higher up. He reached the centre of that in some places the cooling, at others the the stream and was laughing at the others melting process is going on at the same for their prudence, when the alligator came
i upon him. His teeth encountered the sadLet it not he inferred, from what has been dle, which he tore from the horse, while the said to prove the identity of the past and rider tumbled the other side into the water present geological agencies, that they are be- and made for the shore. The horse, tov terlieved to have operated at all times with rified to move, stood trembling where the equal intensity. As the intensity of their attack was made. The alligator, disregardaction even now varies from year to year, so ing him, pursued the man, who safely reachdoubtless has it varied from period to period|ed the bank which he could easily have a3of the earth's history. During the carbonif- cended, but, rendered foolhardy by his exerous period, the climate of the earth must cape, le placed bimself behind a tree which have been very much warmer than it is at had fallen partly into the water, and draw. present, as is proved by tropical plants having his heavy knife leaned over the tree, and ing then flourished in very high latituiles on the approach of his enemy struck him
At that time, therefore, geological agencies on the nose. The animal repeated his asmust have operated with greater intensity. saults and the Indian his blows, until the As a general thing, long periods of repose former exasperated at the resistauce, rushed seem to have alternated with short periods on the man and seizing him by the middle of disturbance. The causes of these irregu- of the body, which was at once inclosed and larities, and whether, on the whole, intensity crushed in his capacious jaws, swam into of action has been greater in former periods the lake. His friends hastened to the rese than it is at present, are still matters of de cue, but the alligator slowly left the shore, bate aniong geologists, and are points which while the poor wreteh, writhing and shriekwill probably remain unsettled.
ling in agony, with his knife uplifted in his
clasped hands, seemed, as the others expressA punctual man is rarely a poor map, and ed it, held out as a man would carry a torch Dever a man of doubtful credit.
His sufferings were not long continued, for the monster sank to the bottom, and soon ter were willing to do whatever example after reappearing alone on the surface, and should dictate to them. Having reason to basking in the sun,gave to the horror-strick- believe that the alligator was in the river, en spectators the fullest confirmation of the we commenced operations by sinking nets death and burial of their comrade. upright across its mouth, three deep, at in.
A short time after this event I made a tervals of several feet. The nets which were visit to Halahala, and expressing a strong of great strength, and intended for the capdesire to capture or destroy the alligator, my ture of the buffalo were fastened to trees on Lost readily offered his assistance. The ani- the banks, making a complete fence to the mal had been seen a few days before, with communication with the lake. his head and one of his fore feet, resting on My companion and myself placed our. the bank, and his eyes following the motions selves with our guns on either side of the of some cows which were grazing near.
stream, while the Indians with long bamOur informer likened his appearance to that boos
boos felt for the animal. For some time he of a cat watching a mouse, and in the atti- refused to be disturbed, and we began to tude to spring upon his prey when it should fear that he was not within our limits, when come within his reach. I may here mention a spiral motion of the water under the spot as a curious fact that the domestic buffalo where I was standing, led me to direct the which is almost continually in the water, natives to it, and the creature slowly moved and in the heat of day remains for hours on the bottom towards the nets, which he no with only his nose above the surface, is nev- sooner touched than he quietly turned back er molested by the alligator. All other ani- and proceeded up the stream. This movemals become his victims when they incau- ment was several times repeated, till, having tiously approach him, and their knowledge no rest in the inclosure, he attempted to of the danger most usually prompts them climb up the bank. On receiving a ball in his to resort to shallow places to quench their body, he uttered a growl like that of an anthirst.
gry dog, and plunging into the water crossHaving heard that the alligator had killed ed to the other side, where he was received a horse, we proceeded to the place, about with a similar salutation, discharged directly five miles from the house ; it was a tranquil into his mouth. Finding himself attacked spot, and one of singular beauty even in on every side, he renewed his attempts to that land. The stream, which a few hun- ascend the banks; but whatever part of him dred feet from the lake narrowed to a brook, appeared was bored with bullets, and find. with its green bank fringed with the grace-ing that he was hunted, he forgot his own ful bamboo, and the alternate glory of glade formidable means of attack, and sought only and forest spreading far and wide, seemed safety from the troubles which surrounded fitted for other purposes than the familiar him. A low spot which separated the river haunt of the huge creature that had appro- from the lake, a little above the nets, was priated it to himself. A few cane huts were unguarded, and we feared, that he would situated at a short distance from the river succeed in escaping over it. It was here and we procured from them what men they / very necessary to stand firmly against him, contained, who were ready to assist in free- and in several attempts which he made to ing themselves from their dangerous neigh- cross it, we turned him back with spears, bor. The terror which he had inspired, es- bamboos, or whatever first came to hand.pecially since the death of their companion, He once seemed determined to force bis had hither to prevented them from making way, and foaming with rage, he rushed with an effort to get rid of him, but they gladly open jaws and gnashing his teeth with a availed themselves of our preparations, and sound too ominous to be despised, appeared with the usual dependence of their charac- I to have his full energies aroused, when his
career' tyas stopped by a large bamboo thrust him directly through the middle of the back, violently into his mouth, which he ground which an Indian, with a heavy piece of wood to pieces, and the fingers of the holder were hammered into him as he could catch an op50 paralyzed that for some minutes he was portunity. My companion on the other incapable of resaming his gun.
side, now tried to haul him to the shore by The natives bad now become so excited as the nets to which he had fastened himself, to forget all prudence, and the women and but had not sufficient assistance with him. children of the little hamlet had come down As I had more force with me, I managed, to the shore to share in the general enthusi- with the assistance of the women and chilasm. They crowded to the opening, and dren, to drag his head and part of his body were so unmindful of their danger; that it on to the little beach, and giving him the was necessary to drive them back with some coup de grace, left him to gasp out the re
lence. Had the monster known his own mainder of his life. strength and dared to have used it, he would This monster was nearly thirty feet in bave gone over that spot with a force which | length, and thirteen feet in circumference, do human power could have withstood, and and the head alone weighed three hundred Fould have crushed or carried with him in- pounds. On opening him there were found, to the lake, about the whole population of with other parts of the horse, three legs enthe place. It was not strange that personal | tire, torn off at the haunch and shoulder, besafety was forgotten in the excitement of the sides a large quantity of stones, some of SCEDE. The tremendous brute, galled with them of several pounds' weight.—Har. Mag. wounds and repeated defeat, tore his way through the foaming water, glancing from side to side, in the vain attempt to avoid his INFLUENCE OF WOMAN. foes; then rapidly plowing up the stream he stvunded on the shallows, and turned back! It is by the promulgation of sound morfrantic and bewildered at his circumscribed als in the community, and more especially position. At length, maddened from suffer- | by the training and instruction of the young ing and desperate from continued persecu- that woman performs her part toward the tion, he rushed furiously to the mouth of the preservation of a free government. It is stream, burst through two of the nets, and I generally admitted that the public liberty. threy down my gun in despair, for it looked the perpetuity of a free constitution, rests as though his way at last was cloar to the on the virtue and intelligence of the comvide lake; but the third net stopped munity which enjoys it. How is that virtue Lim, and his teeth and legs had got entangto be inspired, and how is that intelligence led in all. This gave us a chance of closer to be communicated? Bonaparte once askvarfare with lances, such as are used against ed Madame de Stael in what manner he could the wild buffalo. We had sent for this wea- most promote the happiness of France.Don at the commencement of the attack, and Her reply is full of political wisdom. She foand it much more effectoal than guns. En- said, “Instruct the mothers of the French tering the canoe, we plunged lance after People.” Mothers are, indeed, the affectionlance into the alligator, as he was struggling / ate and effective teachers of the human race. onder the water, till a wood seemned growing The mother begins her process of training from him, which moved violently above with the infant in her arms. It is she who while his body was concealed below. His directs, so to speak, its first mental and spirendeavors to extricate himself lashed the wa- litual pulsations. She conducts it along the ters into foain mingled with blood, and impressible years of childhood and youth there seemed to be no end to his vitality, or and hopes to deliver it to the rough contests decrease to his resistance till a lance struck I and tumultuous scenes of life, armed by