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prompt steps to put an end to the spread of ple was imitated in several other cities in the heresy. He cited Luther to appear at Germany. Rome within sixty days, before a tribunal The Reformation was progressing ripidly whom be appointed to examine and decide during all this time. Besides Luther, sevupon his doctrines; but by the interposi-eral other men of learning and ability had tion of the Elector of Saxony, a warna friend become open advocates of the new docof the reformer's doctrines, the hearing and tripes, among the most prominent of wbom, determining of the cause was referred to the in Germany, were Melancthon and Carlos Pope's legate in Germany, Cardinal Cajetan. tadius. Luther accordingly appeared before him,and! In the year 1521, the celebrated Charles was commanded to retract the doctrines he V., who had succeeded to the imperial crown had advanced. This he refused to do, and of Germany upon the death of Maximilian made an earuest appeal to the Pope. This I., in 1519, convoked a diet of the empird appeal, however, was of no avail; Luther at Worms. At this diet, the Pope was repvas stigmatized as a heretic, and a child of resented by two nuncios, Martin Carracioli sin, and his writings were condemned to be and Jerome Aleander. Luther, under a safe burnt. He then appealed to a general couu- conduct, was summoned to appear before cil, whom he considered superior to the the diet, which he did; but neither threats Pope, whose infallibility he then denied.- nor entrenties produced any change in his At this time also, le published several trea- views, or induced him to retract any of the tises, reprobating the doctrines of purgato- doctrines advanced by him. He was allow. ry, auricular confession, and absolution; and ed to retire from the city in safety ; but, afadvanced the opinion, that “Scripture is ter his departure, he was placed under the the only rule of faith and manners, and that ban of the Empire. Difficulties with other this rule is to be interpreted by the exercise states, however, prevented the edict's being of private judgment.” Upon this, the Pope carried into effect, and the Elector of Saxoissued a bull, "condemning as heretical, for-ny, always a devoted friend to Luther, sucty-one propositions extracted from Luther's ceeded in concealing him in the castle of works; all persons were forbidden to read Wartburg. his works on pain of excommunication ;-| At the diet of the Empire held at Spires those who possessed a copy of them were in 1521, it was agreed to call a general councommanded to commit them to the flames;cil without delay, and in the meantime, each and he himself, if he did not within sixty prince or elector was to have supreme condays publicly recant his errors, and burn his trol over all religio's matters in his own doworks, pronounced a heretic, excommunica- minions. At a diet, however, held at the ted, and delivered unto Satan; and all secu- same place in 1529, this privilege was relar princes required, under pain of incurring voked. After remonstrating to no effect, six the same censure, to seize his person, that princes of the Empire, and thirteen imperial he might be punished as his crimes de- cities "protested” against this decision :served."
from which arose the designation of “ProtThis bull had a contrary effect to what it estant” now so common to all who have was intended, and gave a great increase to separated from the Church of Rome. the spread of the reforming principles. A diet was held at Augsburg, in 1530, at Luther, emboldened by the state of popular which was presented the confession of faith opinion, not only became more zealous and of the reformers, drawn up by Lnther and unremitting in the promulgation and advo- Melancthon, now generally called the “Con. cacy of his opinions, but burnt the Pope's fession of Augsburg.” The Confession was bull at Wittemberg, in the presence of a not only rejected by the diet, but a decres vast concourse of spectators; and this exam. I was promulgated, condemning all the pecu
liar tenets of the reformers, and prohibiting, tor Pala
ting, /tor Palatine. Ferdinand, in revenge, turned under heavy penalties, any deviation from his arms against him, and deprived him of the established religion. But the Protestants both his crown and palatinate, at the celewere too numerous aud powerful to be dis- / brated battle of Prague, in 1620. Thus mayed. “They assembled at Smalcalde,
commenced the “Thirty Years' War." The where they concluded a treaty of mutual
German Protestant princes, though banded defence, both religious and political, against together, were not able to stand before the all aggressors, and formed the Protestant Emperor, and everything seemed favorable states of the Empire into one regular com- to the extinction of the Protestant cause in bination."
| Germany, when a new aspect was given to During the next twenty-five years, vari- affairs by the intervention of the great Gusous diets of the Empire, and councils of the
tavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, who placchurch, among which was the famous Coun
ed himself at the head of the Protestant cil of Trent, were held; but they produced
armies, and led them triumphantly through no change in the views of either party—the
Germany. He was on the point of restorProtestants denying the authority of the
the ling the Elector Palatine to his thrope, when
he was slain in the battle of Lutzen, in councils. At last, a war broke out between
1632. The war, after his death was carried the emperor and the Protestants, which was
on vigoronsly and successfully by the Sweterminated, however, by the peace of Augsburg. The following are the leading articles
dish generals; and France also interposed
in behalf of the Protestants. The Emperor of that peace : “That the Protestants who followed the
was finally compelled to conclude the treaty Confession of Augsburg, should in future
of Westphalia, in 1648; and Sweden and
France dictated the terms. . By this treaty, be free from the jurisdiction of the Pope, in
* the conditions of the treaty of Augsburg and from the authority and superintendence
were confirmed, and an equal establishment of the bishops ; that all the inhabitants of of o
of Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinthe German empire should be at perfect lib.lism. ( which last had at this time made conerty to judge for themselves in all religious
siderable progress in Germany,) was dematters ; that all persons, whatever be their religious opinions, should enjoy equal civil While the Reformation was thus successrights and privileges; in other words, that ful in Germany, Switzerland was making a complete toleration in religious matters rapid progress towards the same end. Zushould obtain ; and that all those who should inglius, a man of great talent and energy. persecute any person under religious pre- preached the reforming opinions with such tences, should be declared and treated as effect, that the whole of his native canton of public enemies of the Empire, invaders of Zurich was soon converted, and the cantons its liberties, and disturbers of its peace."- of Berne and Basle soon followed. The Thus was the Reformation finally establish- Protestant and Catholic cantons armed aed on a firm basis in Germany,
gainst each other; and in a bloody battle, in The conditions of this treaty, however, which the Protestaats experience a defeat, were violated, many years after, in the Zuinglius was slain, A. D. 1531. “Thirty Years' War," 1619–48. Ferdinand John Calvin, of Geneva, became a convert II., who ascended the imperial throne, in to the new doctrines, and was the first who 1619, was a devoted Catholic, and determin- gave them a systematic form, which was ed upon the annihilation, if possible, of adopted by six of the Swiss cantons, by the Protestantism. When he ascended the Protestants of France, and by the Presbythrone, the Protestant states of Bohemia, terians of England and Scotland. His who had suffered under his predecessor, views, however, differed in some respects Matthias, conferred their crown on thc Elec- from those of Luther; and even in the ear
ly stages of Protestantism, the opinions of who sent an army and fleet to their assistthe Lutherans and Calvinists often came ance. The death of the queen-mother was into collision.
followed by a capitulation on the part of the The immediate cause of the Reforipation Romish party, shortly after which the Proin England was the refusal of the Pope to testant religion, under Calvinistic forms, was savction the annulment of Henry the substituted in place of the Catholic, as the Eighth's marriage with Catharine of Spain, / religion of the State. and his espousal of Anne Boleyn. Before Denmark and Norway were converted to then, Henry had been a warm Catholic, the Protestant faith in a very short time and had even written a book on the seven from the commencement of the Reformation, acraments, against the views of Luther, and Lutheranism was established in both as for which he was rewarded by the Pope the State religion, in 1556. with the title of “ Defender of the Faith". The reforming doctrines wero propagated a title which his successors bave ever since in Sweden, soon after their origination, by retained.
Olaus Petri, a disciple of Luther, and she
Protestant On learning of the Pope's refusal to favor soon took her stand a his views, he immediately abolished the
States of Europe. papal jurisdiction in England, suppressed
Both Lutheranism and Calvinism were the monasteries and convents; made some
some soon established upon an extensive footing alterations in the doctrines and forms of re- in Poland, Hungary and Transylvania, ligion, and declared himself the supreme which they still retain. Even in Spain and head of the Englisa Church. During the Italy, always so zealously Catholic, the reshort reign of his son, Edward VI., the forming doctrines made some slight inroads ause of the Reformation was promoted, and upon the ancient faith, the English liturgy was formed; yet a great In the Netherlands the progress of the part of the people were still attached to Reformation was rapid. Philip II, king of their ancient faith. Edward was succeeded Spain, succeeded Charles V. on the imperial by his elder sister, Mary, a woman whose throne of Germany, and was also master, bigotry and cruelty has procured for her the under difficulties, of all the Netherlandish unenviable title of “Bloody” Mary, was a States. Intensely bigoted and intoler:int in zealous Catholic, and in order to put down his uature, he determined to extirpate every the rising spirit of reform, lighted the form of heresy from his dominions; and flames of persecution, and consigned to the the Netherlands being the most obnoxious stake, men the most eminent for virtue and in this respect, he directed the violence of talent. These proceedings, however, tended his religious fury more especially against in a directly opposite manner to her inten- them. He established in their midst the tions, and gave a new impetus to the progress Inquisition, that most demoniacal of the inof the Reformation. Upon her death, her ventions of man, and endowed it with plenyounger sister, Elizabeth, succeeded to the ary powers; and not satisfied with coercing crown, under whose reign, the Church of the religious opinions of his Netherlandish England was established in its present form. subjects, he prepared also to abrogate their
During the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, ancient laws, and substitute others of his the Reformation was progressing with great own formation in their stead. These tyran. rapidity in Scotland, having at its head a nical measures naturally gave rise to great disciple of Calvin, John Knox, and beiug dissatisfaction and popular tumult. Detersupported by several of the most powerful mined to enforce his measures, Philip sent nobles. The queen-mother, Mary of Guise, the Duke of Alva to compel implicit obediattempted to put them down by force, and ence to them, and he executed the trust rethey applied for aid to Elizabeth, of England, posed in him by his royal master, with most
infernal fidelity. Many of the most eminent engrossed. What we want of the voice is men were soon immolated upon the bloody chiefly to direct in keeping the order of bataltar of the Inquisition ; and during the ad. tle good, and sustaining the loud shout upon ministratior of the Duke of Alva, which last- the air that victory is lowering her fight to ed five years, it is computed that eighteen perch upon our standards. thousand persons fell by the hands of the The real improvement upon which the executioner. William, Prince of Orange, operators of our Reform have at last hit is who governed several of the States by power indicated by those words of big, inspiring delegated from the King, fell under the ban import, Confiscation and Destruction. We of the Inquisition, and was sentenced to said in our Resolution, already passed, that death. Not being particularly desirous of the time has come when our State demands, meeting the fate thus allotted to him, he and will sustain, a law totally inhibiting the raised a large army, set up the battle-cry of sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Independence," and proved successful a- Sir, that time has come and gone by. We gainst all the endeavors of Pbilip. The are passed on beyond inhibitions merely, provinces of the Netherlands were seventeen and are laying violent hands upon the creain number, but a union of them all was pre- ture we have found ourselves unable to tame vented by particular jealousies, and but seven or chair, to strangle out its very life. I of them asserted their independence. These would that the Resolution had proclaimed seven were Holland, Zealand, Friesland, this, as explicitly as I know it meant it. InUtrecht, Overyssel, Guelderland and Gron-deed, for myself, I would rather have used ingen. William was appointed to the office the popular watch-words, and said tbat the of chief magistrate, under the title of Stadt- Maine Law is the demand of our State. It holder, and Calvinism was established as the may be jealousy for the honor of my native religion of the State. All the attempts of State, but I feel that our friends in Maine, Philip to bring the seven United Provinces after long and laborious application, have again under his sway proved abortive ; and brought out and patented this simple but in order to prevent the other ten provinces admirable improvemen: in Temperance leg. from following in their footsteps, he adopt-islation, and that their right, and po-sibly ed conciliatory measures towards them, their necessity, calls for explicit acknowwhich, he found by experience, infinitely ledgement. For their encouragement as a more efficacious than coercion.
noble vanguard bearing before our hosts this ( To be concluded in our next.)
standard, which has caused the whole rank and file to take heart again, and for the in
timidation of their enemies, I would that the THE MAINE LAW.
regiments and companies of every State in Remarks, in substance, of Rev. S. HASKELL, the Union would send rolling up into these
at a meeting in Detroit on the 11th March, brightened Northern skies the same shouted prepared for publication by request of the monotones, LIVE THE MAINE LAW! meeting:
The principles of this Law, Sir, are those
to which progress in the Temperance ReI dwell with delight, Mr. Chairman, upon form must bring us. If we would not see the reflection that the days of speech-making our wheels clog and come to a stand, we in our cause are being followed by days of have no other resort. I know something of determined hard working. We are past the the necessities of the case in Maine, out of formal haranguing of our forces, and the which this measure has sprung. I know lighter skirmishing of the battle, and find some of the shops and bar-rooms there, ourselves where we have work enough for whose streams of devastation it was found the strong right arm, to keep the attention limpossible to dam up, and the only escape from which was to drain the reservoir. Pro- Sir, I never read or think of this righteous hibition upon prohibition had been piled judgment which the people of my native before their doors: womanly and orphanly State have meted out to the traffic which has tears had fallen as rain upon their filthy so long been crushing its thousands of helpfloors, as wives and cbildren had stood be- less victims there, without exclaiming, in fore the flint-faced and steel-hearted dealer, mental parapbrase of a sublime exultation and entreated him to withhold from hus-l of the Bible, “Rejoice over her, thou Heaven, bands and fathers his maddening poisons; and ye wasted circles of domestic joy and but he stayed not his cruel hand. What hope, for God bath avenged you on her.”_ shall be done? Shall friends of suffering, and my hope re-kindles, that wrongs as outraged innocence and helplessness stand cruel shall elsewhere be avenged, just in prostill and see a work go on that bruises off portion as I am encouraged to expect that every starting sympathy that has roots the Law of Maine shall be elsewhere enae within them, and keeps their hearts smittented and executed. and sick unceasingly? No Sir; it is not in The same necessity drives to this resort in men, who have the hearts of men, to keep i Michigan as in Maine. The same character their hands off from such a destroyer and in the dealer compels us here, as there.either scourge of their kind. What wonder that to stand quietly by and see work go on that the heart of humanity wrought anxiously cuts our hearts to the quick, or else enter the and earnestly at the problem, whose solu- haunts of the traffic, and take out and des tion was to bring relief to these sufferers. It troy the implements of its terrible work. is said that while the friends of Temperance What sort of men are they who are engaged in Maine thus wrought and writhed under in this traffic among us? Let me show you the clinging curse that was upon the State, a specimen. We have in Detroit a citizen they were assembled on one occasion by by the name of Isaac Truckey, if I do not thousands in the city of Portlanıl. They mistake the Christian part of his name. He marched the streets in procession, and the is in the employ of our Board of Aldermen, flowers of summer were showered in bles- turning out work for their Overseer of the sing upon their ranks, many of them doubt- Poor, City Physician, Marsball and Constaless from hands blanched with wiping the bles, Police Courts, Jail, Almshouse and hot tears which intemperance causes to flow. Sexton. For the privilege of furnishing In the evening, before a vast concourse, one these supplies to the city, he paysits governwho was participating in that celebration, ment, and is an honorable man. He has a arose and exhibited in his hand a slip of neighbor who has fallen fatally under the paper, which some little girl had wrapped power of the appetite for drink. Friends of around a bunch of flowers and thrown into the fallen man have tried every means to his carriage, as the procession was moving. restore him to himself, his family and society. Upon it was written the affecting plea, "Re- He seems to have tried every means to remember the inebriate's daughter.” As it store himself, except the effectual means. was read, the vast audience instinctly and To his ruinous appetite, our Mr. Truckey is solemnly raised their hands, as the hand of found to be most willing to minister. one man to Heaven, and swore that they While the uphappy man can reel to his would “Remember the inebriate's daughter.” counter, he is liberally supplied there.They meant that they would stand between When he can no longer leave bis home, Mr! her and her ruthless oppressor, till they had T. finds means of eluding the closest vigi. broken his arm. Thanks to God, that arm lance, and insinuating his maddening poiDow bangs broken before them, and the in- sons into the dwelling, which they are filling ebriate's child has bounded from the clutch- with heart-crushing sorrows. In one in. es of the trafficker in the inebriate's drink.stance, a benevolent friend who had vainly