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deep-rooted antipathy entertained towards usual penalties attached to crime. When tanners and curriers, and all workers in sentence of death is pronounced, the confis. leather. In that nation, these are a most cation of property always follows; and if the unfortunate class. They are regarded as the family does not share in the punishment refuse as the very dregs of society. So they are disgraced. exceedingly vile are they considered, that The natural effect, arising from the existhey are prohibited from dwelliug among tence of sanguinary enactments—wherein any others but those of their own class, and death is indiscriminately attached to the they consequently form distinct communi-perpetration of almost any offence, is to ties of themselves. Wherever they are, weaken the attachment to life; for the genwherever they go, or whatever may be their eral insecurity is such, as to assure the gove personal worth, the same odium is attached erned, that they hold their existence by a to them. In a word what the lepers are in tenure too precarious for them to place much otherlands, the workers in leather are in value upon their existence. Thus it is in this. If they are on a journey they are pro- Japan. There suicide, by ripping open the hibited from entering any inn, and the food abdomen, called the happy despatch, is of they desire is handed to them outside of common occurrence. And in their schools the house. Their entrance into it would be the boys are instructed in this mode of selfits pollution. When the census is taken destruction; which embraces not merely the these are left unnumbered. And in the manner of performing it, but also under measuring of distances the length taken up what circumstances it is necessary to comby their villages is deducted from the meas- mit it, and what ceremonies are to be perurement, so that the inhabitants and their formed in connection with the perpetration villages are reckoned as beings and things of the act. which have really no existence. Surely this This nation groans under a' system of class, owing to the anathema under which espionage, or employed spies, which in its they lie, entertain as deeply rooted an aver-character, is altogether original. This sys sion towards the others. The cause of this tem it is, which most effectually eradicates absurd antipathy is undoubtedly to be the least remaining vestige of liberty, and traced to the doctrine of defilement by con- renders the national fabric an insupportable tact with the dead carcasses of beasts. structure. These spies are selected from all
If there is one country where, above classes; from the nobles to the day laborers, others, the name of liberty is unknown, that And so far are they from possessing any aucountry is Japan. There it is an utter stran- thority, which may or may not be exercised ger. The despotism which haunts that land by them, that they are imperatively bound is not however a lawless despotism, for all to observe all that comes under their notice, are alike the subjects of law, and it is de- and to make faithful report of it. And signed to administer justice with an impar- these spies are again overlooked by other tial hand. The despotism affects all classes, spies, who are likewise compelled to report the rich and the poor, the high and the low. all delinquencies. All places are infested It is a despotism wherein law and arbitrary with these government agents; they surround custom become the despots. The laws are all classes; and nobles and governors, as sanguinary and cruel. There is not that well as those in humble sphere, are the obdistinction made between guilt which is al-jects of their close and jealous scrutiny. So ways recognized in the more enlightened extensively is this system carried on, that it nations, and which strict justice requires is supposed that in one way or another, half should be made. Imprisonment, banish- the nation is a gpy upon the other half. ment, and death, frequently extending to Some of the European governments bave, the entire family of the offender, are the in times of political danger, called to their
aid, a ssytem corresponding to this. But beyond the walls of their palaces, only at when Napoleon had it in operation in such times as are expressly named; and the France, Frenchmen were first surprised, but hours for their retirement and rising are also surprise soon gave way to heavy denuncia- specified, and are to be explicitly observed. tions. When the British government, not Upon these, are also fixed the eyes of vigifar from the same time, brought it in as a laot spies, who are ready to report any devishield for their protection, Englishmen, ination from, or omission of these injunctions. the spirit of their ancestors, declared they But this, after all, is only one particular would endure it no longer. Such a system portion of the ills to which the higher no. has been felt to be painfully oppressive even bility are subjected. In order that no fears for a few months; but when it becomes a may arise to the chief ruler from them, it is permanent element in a government, the ex- the settled policy of the heads of departtent of its oppression can be known only to ment to keep them impoverished. This is those who endure it. It is not unlikely that effected by making them bear the expenses the Japanese are so habituated to it as to of the army; and if its numbers are reduced, feel its real weight but slightly.
still to demand of them a sum epuivalent From what has already been said, it must to what the expenses would have been if appear that the nobility are not the privi- the complement was full. If this exorbitant leged class in this, that they are in other drain does not exhaust the means, other rulands. But we bave yet to consider to what inous drainages are resorted to, which never extent they are in thraldom. Of the prov- fail. inces over which the princes may be placed, The supreme head of Japan is the Mikathey are understood to be absolute sover- do, or according to some, the Dairi. He is, eigns; and accordingly maintain their own however, strictly a spiritual ruler; and the arties. Yet the wary and distrustful gov-temporal rule is held by the Ziogoon, who is emment continuc so to deprive them of their the deputy of the other. But the power power, as to leave them absolute only in vested in him, which has frequently been bame. For in order that no danger may be described as absolute, is found, on close obapprehended from the power they possess, servation, to be merely an ideal -a visioneach province, or principality, is governed by ary power. two secretaries, and not by the prince, or by It is understood, that though he is paraany of his officers. In order that no mutual mount temporal ruler, yet that the matters interest may exist between these secretaries pertaining to the government are unworthy and the prince, they receive their appoint- his consideration. His time is consequently ment from the supreme council, from whom taken up with the observances of official they receive orders, and to whom they must ceremonies and etiquette; together with the render an account.
reception of those who are permitted to apAs an additional safeguard against the as- proach him, either to make presents, or to piration of the princes, their families are re- offer homage. By these means all his time quired to live at the capitol of the nation, is completely monopolized. and to remain as hostages for their good be- Strange as it may appear to the reader, havior, and half of their time, is also to be his majesty is not beyond the reach of the spent at the capitol. Nor are these nobles, scrutinizing spies. There they are, hauntwhen in their dominions, allowed that free-ing him as they haunt the less notable perdom which might be supposed. The pain- sonages of the realm, and ready to report fulness of their condition, arising from the his deviations, or misdeeds, to the before severance of their families, is to find no al- mentioned council. In former years it was leviation. This is strictly guarded against. enjoined upon the ziogoon to make periodi.
At home they are not permitted to appear cal visits to the spiritual head, to pay compliments to his reverence; now, however, ties, it is an uncommon occurrence for the that duty is performed by deputy, and he Ziogoon to urge any objection. The risk at but very rarely passes beyond the enclos- tending his so doing being too ominous. But ure of his palace.
| this honorable body is not exempted from As we have had occasion to allude to the the annoyances to which all others are subsupreme council, or as it may be more prop-jected. The spies are there; surrounding erly styled, the council of state; it will be them in all their doings; ready to make renecessary to make more particular reference port of all the words they utter, as well as to it. It is constituted of some thirteen of all the acts they perform. persons of rank, one of whom is appointed Such then is a brief outline of the governpresident, taking the title of governor of the ment of the Empire. And certainly those Empire. This council it is, which transacts who gave existence to such a complex sysall the business appertaining to the govern- tem, deserve commendation. It is indeed ment. It acts upon all measures, it appoints unique-nothing under the sun being like it. to all prominent and important offices. And | But what a despotism! How ponderous the before any step can be taken by the higher iron wheel! May the weight of the whole government officers, which is not clearly de- system prove its very destruction. fined by law or pregedent, the council must be consulted, and must pronounce its decree.
From Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. Every sentence of death is either to be sanc- VAGARIES
VAGARIES OF THE IMAGINATION. tioned or reversed by it. And what is still more, it may depose a Ziogoon, who proves “Fancy it burgundy,” said Boniface of his himself unworthy his position, and place ale, "only fancy it, and it is worth a guinea the legal heir upon the throne.
a quart.” Boniface was a philosopher; fanHere then would appear to be a favored
cy can do much more than that. Those who
vi few:a few from whom the despotism of the fancy themselves laboring under an affection Empire derives its existence, and its com- of the hcart are not slow in verifying the applexion. But by looking more closely to prehension; the uneasy and constant watchthe organism of the council, we shall seeing of its pulsations soon disturbs the circuthat its members hold no very desirable po-lation, and malady may ensue beyond the sition after all. The subjects which may power of medicine. Some physicians believe have been investigated and determined up that inflammation can be induced in any part on by this body, must afterwards be brought of the body by a fearful attention being conbefore the Ziogoon for his final sanction.
tinually directed towards it; indeed it has Should he see proper to object, the whole
been a question with some whether the stigsubject is then submitted to the arbitration
mata (the marks of the wounds of our Saof three princes of the royal line. Their
viour) may not have been produced on the decision is final. But the consequences devotee by the influences of an excited imagarising from that decision are striking; of ination. The hypochondriac has been known if they decide in accordance with the opin- to expire when forced to pass through a door ion of the council, the Ziogoon may not reo which he fancied too narrow to admit his verse his decision, nor in any way retract person. The story of the criminal who, unfrom the ground he has taken; his only al
conscious of the arrival of the reprieve, diod ternative is to abdicate in favor of the next under the stroke of a wet handkerchief, beheir. But if they decide against the council lieving it to be the axe, is well known. Pathen the member who proposed the measure racelsus held, "that there is in man an imagin the first instance, must commit suicide. ination which really affects and brings to Sometimes this is also committed by all the pass the things that did not before exist; for members. Fortunately, however, for all par-la man by imagination willing to move his
body, moves it in fact, and by his imagina- ing of medical books which accurately destion and the commerce of invisible powers cribe the symptoms of various complaints :18 be may also move another body.” Paracel likely to have an injurious effect, not only sus would not have been surprised at the on the delicate, but on persons in full health; feats of electro-biology. He exhorts his pa- and they are conscious how many died dutients to have “a good faith, a strong imag-ring the time of the plague and the cholera, ination, and they shall find the effects.”- not only from these diseases, but from the *All doubt,” he says, "destroys work, and dread of them, which brought on all the faleaves it imperfect in the wise designs of tal symptoms. So evident was the effect nature ; it is from faith that imagination produced by the detailed accounts of the draws its strength, it is by faith that it be- cholera in the public papers in the year 1849, comes complete and realized; he who be that it was found absolutely necessary to relieveth in nature will obtain from nature to strain the publications on the subject. The the extent of his faith, and let the object of illusions under which vast numbers acted this faith be real or imaginary, he neverthe- and suffered have gone, indeed, to the most less reaps similar results-and hence the extravagant extent; individuals, not merely cause of superstition."
single, but in communities, have actually beSo early as 1462, Pomponatus of Mantua lieved in their own transformation. came to the conclusion, in his work on in- A nobleman of the court of Louis XIV. cantation, that all the arts of sorcery and fancied himself a dog, and would pop his Fitchcraft were the result of natural opera- head out of the window to bark at the pastions. He conceived that it was not improl)- sengers; while the barking disease at the able that external means, called into action camp-meetings of the Methodists of Northbr the soul, might relieve our sufferings, and America has been described as “extravagant that there did, moreover, exist individuals beyond belief.” Rollin and Hecquet have endowed with salutary properties; so it recorded a malady by which the inmates of might, therefore, be easily conceived that an extensive convent near Paris were attack marvellous effects should be produced by ed simultaneously every day at the same the imagination and by confidence, more es- hour, when they believed themselves tranepecially when these are reciprocal between formed into cats, and a universal mewing the patient and the person who assists his was kept up throughout the convent for recovery. Two years after the same opinion some hours. But of all dreadful forms Fas advanced by Agrippa in Cologne. "The which this strange hallucination took, none soul," he said, "if inflamed by a fervent im- was so terrible as that of the lycanthropy, agination, could dispense health and disease which at one period spread through Europe; not only in the individual himself, but in in which the unhappy sufferers, believing other bodies.” However absurd these opin- themselves wolves, went prowling round ions may have been considered, or looked the forests uttering the most terrific howl. on as enthusiastic, the time has come when ings, carrying off lambs from the flocks, and they will be gravely examined.
gnawing dead bodies in their graves. That medical professors have at all times While every day's experience adds some believed the imagination to possess a strange new proof of the influence possessed by the and powerful influence over mind and body, imagination over the body, the supposed efis proved by their writings, by some of their fect of contagion has become a question of prescriptions, and by their oft-repeated di-doubt. Lately, at a meeting in Edinburgh, rection in the sick-chamber, to divert the Professor Dick gave it as his opinion that patient's mind from dwelling on his own there was no such thing as hydrophobia in state, and from attending to the symptoms the lower animals : "what went properly by
his coroplaint. They consider the read- that name was simply an infiammatiou of
the brain ; and the disease, in the case of the means of defraying their expenses, and human beings, was caused by an over-exci- were at a loss to know what they should do ted imagination, worked upon by the popu- in such an emergency. Holt, however, perlar delusion on the effects of a bite by rabid ceived that the innkeeper's daughter looked animals.” The following paragraph from very ill, and on inquiring what was the matthe “Curiosities of Medicine," appears to ter, learned that she had the ague, when, justify this now common enough opinion: passing himself off for a medical student,
“ Several persons had been bitten by a he said that he had an infallible cure for rabid dog in the Faubourg St. Antoine, and the complaint. He then collected a number three of them had died in our hospital. A of plants, mixed them up with various cerereport, however, was prevalent, that we kept monies, and inclosed them in parchment, on a mixture which would effectually prevent which he scrawled divers cabalistic charactheir fatal termination, and no less than six ters. When all was completed, he suspendapplicants who had been bitten, were serv-led the amulet around the neck of the young ed with a draught of colored water, and in woman, and strange to say, the ague left her no one instance did hydrophobia ensue." and never returned. The landlord, grateful
A remarkable cure through a similar aid for the restoration of his daughter, not only of the imagination took place in a patient of declined receiving any payment from the Dr. Bedidoes, who was at that time very | youths, but pressed them to remain as long sanguine about the effect of nitrous acid gas as they pleased. Many years after, when in paralytic cases. Anxious that it should Holt was on the bench, a woman was brought be imbibed by one of his patients, he sent an before him charged with witchcraft; she invalid to Sir Humphrey Davy, with a re- was accused of curing the ague by charms. quest that he would administer the gas. Sir All she said in defence was, that she did Humphrey put the bulb of the thermometer possess a ball which was a sovereign remedy under the tongue of the paralytic to ascer in the complaint. The charm was produced tain the temperature of the body, that he and handed to the judge, who recognized might be sure whether it would be affected the very ball which he had himself compounat all by the inhalation of the gas. The pa-ded in his boyish days, when, out of mere tient, full of faith from what the enthusias- fun, he had assumed the character of a medtic physician had assured him would be the ical practitioner. resuit, and believing that the thermometer Many distinguished physicians have canwas what was to effect the cure, exclaimed at didly confessed that they preferred confionce that he felt better. Sir Humphrey, dence to art Faith in the remedy is often anxious to see what imagination would do not only half the cure, but the whole cure. in such a case, did not attempt to undeceive Madame de Genlis tells of a girl who had the man, but saying that he had done e- lost the use of her leg for five years, and nough for him that day, desired him to be could only move with the help of crutches, with him the next morning. The thermome- while her back had to be supported. She ter was then applied as it had been the day was in such a pitiable state of weakness, before, and for every day during a fortnight the physician prouounced her case incura-at the end of which time the patient was ble. She, however, took it into her head perfectly cured.
that if she was taken to Notre Dame de Perhaps there is nothing on record more Liesse she would certainly recover. It was curious of this kind than the cures unwitting-fifteen miles from Carlepont, where she liv. ly performed by Chief-Justice Holt. It ed. She was placed in the cart, which her seems that for a youthful frolic he and his father drove, while her sister sat by her supcompanions had put up at a country inn ; porting her back. The moment the steeple they, however, found themselves without of Notre Dame de Liesse was in sight, she