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The birds they fly to distant climes
I move my ringlets, said the youth,
Hark! what tumult fills the crowd?
And when I speak in happy tones
They stopped their talk, for now the e un
T. D. W.
For the Miscellany. THE SURRENDER OF HUNGARY.
As brightly beamed on Hungary's plains,
Strange indeed the tumult there,
Flow proudly on majestic streams,
A slave! amid his native hills!
Midst the strange and troubled scene.
There is one unchanging mien, One proud eye looks coldly there,
in his country's deep despair; Yes, 'tis he the Leader!--see, Dictator proud, of Hungary! He, who should have been her guide, Through the war's dark troubled tides He, who should have foremost stood In each siene of strife and blood, And for Hung'ry proudly died, Were this blessed boon deniedLiberty, for man and mind, Freedom, birthright of mankind.
Who is this that proudly stands,
Hide thy head! O hide it deep! Traitor! Fame, thy name will keep From Oblivion's shadowing trace, Unto scorning and disgrace! Yes! while Kossuth's glorious name, Honor's lofciest meed shall cline; Thine, betrayer! thine will be Scorned by all the good and free. D- February 14th, 1852.
For the Miscellany. lightened judgment, and these passions are THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY.
essentially the same in every age and every clime. They may take different hues, and
| bave different modes and degrees of develBY REV. E. H. PILCUER, A. M.
opement, according to the surrounding cir
cumstances—they may be chameleon likeTuis is a wonderful age in which we live,
but they are resolvable in t, the same essenand an age of wonders. It would appear as
pear as tial elements. The same laws of excitement is all the forces of Pandemonium had been
and restraint exist and govern now, as forBet loose lo deceive “unstable souls,” and “to
comerly, and the motive power to actiou is the lead captive silly women” and foolish men.
same in every age. If at any given time, in "laden vith sing." Every one stands on tip
any one country, there appears to be a diftoe to see and hear some new and wonderful
ference in the characteristics of either phy
sical, mental, or moral developement, from What is the cause of all this? and where
any other period, it is attributable to the difwill it terminate? It cannot be attributed
ference of external circumstances alone. It to any one single cause, but is the result of
| is often said, that every age has something a combination of causes—all having their
peculiar to itself, to distinguish it from its foundation in the corruption and gullibility
predecessors. If this be true, (and we are of human nature. It would be most inter
pot disposed to controvert it at this time,) esting and profitable to trace out these causes, by the light of History-from its Philoso
it is what the preceding bas made it. phy to unravel that which otherwise is dark The spirit of liberty which burst forth and unintelligible.
with such vigor and activity, in '76, did not, A very wise man once said, “The thing like Jonah's gourd, spring up in a night, nor that hath been, is that which shall be; and like fabled Minerva spring out suddenly, in that which is done is that which shall be full growth from the head of Jupiter. Read done ; and there is no new thing under the the history of the preceding years—observe sun. Is there anything whereof it may be the growth of free principles, and you find said, See, this is new! It hath been already them germinating, rising--trampled down, of old time, which was before us." The to be sure, but only to acquire greater truthfulness of this saying has been,and even strength. In all this there is nothing new. now is called in question by some of the In all the new discoveries in the physical Ferdant philosophers of the world. That sciences, or even in the mental laws, there which is new to them, must be new under is nothing new created; they are only bringthe sun. Being, themselves, in their own ing to light that which was, but had been estimation, in the centre of all creation, they obscured from our view. cannot conceive how it is possible for any. The reader will have discovered by this thing to have been, which they have not be- time, probably, the sense in which we use fore known. It is supposed, by them, that the term placed at the head of this article, in the various mutations of this world some-l as also the application we would make of it thing new upust be evolved.
for practical purposes. How that in History By giving close attention to the lessons of we have certain known and recorded facts, wisdom taught by the history of human de- from which we are to ascertain other facts velopement and progress, we find the state- not yet known. We shall not any of us ment to be very accurate. That which is soon forget the astonishment occasioned by evolved is only a variation in the form and the circumstances connected with the dismole, and not in fact and nature. Huinancovery of a new planet, by Leverrier. But action has ever originated in human passion, why should we have been so astonished ?more than in the sober convictions of an en- The wonder rather is, that that method had
not been adopted before. It was novel, cer- being deceived," are accustomed to talk tainly, to see an astronomer sit down in his largely of the progress of the age, and to studio to find a planet, instead of sweeping boast of their superiority over their fathers, the heavens with his telescope. Still, it is and to vaunt themselves of the regenerative nothing more than the application of certain energy and perfectibility of human nature, known principles, to find that which was Their vision by this means, is very cireumconcealed. He had the motions, disturb- scribed, and their conclusions drawn from ances, and quantity of certain heavenly bod-insufficient evidence. In this age especialies, as a given problem from which to ascer- ly, Solomon's advice is entirely useless, to tain the locality of the disturbing causes.- wit, “ Say not thou what is the cause, that Having this given, he needed only to apply the former days were better than these?”— his mathematical philosophy, when, lo! the So much is said of progress and advance planet appeared.
ment, that the former times are forgotten, or The Philosophy of History, furnishes the only rem
ishoe the only remembered to be despised. principles or known quantities, and the prac- ! While the stern and laborious habits of tical use of it is to find out what lies before life remained to the Athenians, the arms of and concealed, in relation to the prospects Philip of Macedon, were unsuccessful ; but and destinies of goverments and nations. when the desires for mere pleasure and selfThe saying is often uttered, that men are gratification were infused into them, the ass fitted for the times in which they live. It laden with gold effected what power could should rather be, that they are formed by not befor. But this is only what has been, the occasions with which they are surround- is now, and will be hereafter. Men love to ed. The sturdy, fierce, and warlike Goth, bask in the sunshine of present pleasure, as while living in his own native wilds, and call- the lamb in spring-time, regardless of the ed to grapple with the perpetual difficulties indicated storm. They sing, they dance, Attendant on every step, retained and per- they sport, they eat, they drink, they talk of petuated to his race, the same bold and fear- long years of pleasure here," and hope less manifestations. But when transferred to much of future, better days, even though they the warmer climate of Italy, and lead to stand on the heaving, swelling sides of the luxuriate in the gorgeous profusion and en-volcanoe. “As it was in the days of Noe," ervating pursuits and associations of an ef. so is it now, and “so will it be at the comfeminate and decaying empire, partook of ing of the son of man.” the occasions and passed through a great It is said with truth, “that coming events, metamorphosis of character. Behold the cast their shadows before," and by the apfierce and terrific race of warriors, now the plication of the rules of our historic philosoweak, timid, fawning, and sycophanting phy, by following the shadows we shall arcourtiers. Is this anything new or wonder- rive at the substance. The nearer the apful? It is only what has been, and must be proach, the more distinct the image in the again. True, the change comes not in a wo- shadow. At first, they may appear only ment, nevertheless it is certain, and the more "as trees walking”-confused and uncertain. dangerous as it is stealthy in its approach. But look again—long and steadily-accus
By attending to the same lessons of wis- tom the eye to the conteniplation, and all dom, "speaking from the voice of age and will be clear. experience”—the history of the past, and You see that gallant vessel floating on the having the accompaniments and occupations bosom of the deep, as a thing of life, carried of any nations given, the problem of their forward by the gentle wind-to you the sky destiny is of easy solution. This, however, is clear and beautiful, and everything looks is not the usual mode of investigation. Men, prosperous ; when suddenly, and to your self-pleased, self-adulatory, "deceiving and ' astonishment, you hear the voice of the com
mander giving directions to take in all sail, a great amount of close and accurate thought and make all things ready. Why is this or- The absence of a very minute factor in der given? Wait a few moments and all is the operation may make a very great error revealed. Now the dark and lowering clou's in the conclusion. The other method, is to appear, and the moaning winds show you take the existing state of facts in connection that the storm is here. The secret of all is, with all the known acting and counteractthat the practiced eye of the mariner saw in ing forces, and apply to them the well asthe distance,what you saw not, and he knew certained results, in other similar facts, which what was coming ; so by familiarizing your- brings you at once at the true anstver. By selves with the laws of storm and calm, in this means, we have a short and satisfactory the social heavens, you may as clearly des- method of determining with a good degree cry the rising storm, and indicate as clearly of precision, the future position of any nathe necessary preparations to meet it. Totion. Let no one conclude, that he c: n be arrive at such a result, the observer must re-prepared for this final process at one leap.gard all, even the minutest indications, such Years of close and accurate study of the anas would escape the notice of the casual nals of the past are necessary to settle satisreader of passing events. Happy is that factorily, the laws of the philosophy of sopeople who can see these shadowy indica- | ciety, unless we take on trust what others tions, and prepare to meet them. In a dili- have ascertained. Fatal errors in both phygent and careful study of the faithful records sical and mental science have been foisted of the past, we have clearly marked before upon the world for sober truth, for the want us the history of the present. In the phi
the present. In the phic of a little more patient investigation. A few losophy of human society, the proposition
facts may have been collected and from these that like causes produced like results, in like few a law has been inferred, while, if the circumstances, holds as true as in natural, investigation had been carried a little further philosophy. Ascertain the existing, opera
| a different conclusion would have been formtive causes in society, and the accelerating
Jerating ed. In this view I confess there are diffiand counteracting forces, and you have this
culties connected with the question, in either proposition with the means of its solution,
method of solution. These arise mainly wbat will be the end or future condition of
in of from not apprehending or fully appreciating that society or nation?
all the facts and forces, which must enter
into the consideration of the problem, which, This proposition is susceptible of two
though they may be very minute in themmethods of solution. One of them is long
selves, will nevertheless greatly affect the and laborious, and so much so that most
result. There is one element in this calcumen would abandon the effort-gire it up
Plation, very generally overlooked, which still in despair, or else jump at a conclusion,
contains a controlling power in the problem. which would be as likely to be false as true
From this element or factor, if you please, The process is this: take the known laws of
which will be introduced in a moment, havhuman nature and apply them to certain
ing the starting point, you can see the end, hypothetical occurrences, and reduce from in the material course of things, settled and them the results, which must follow; having fixed according to both methods of solution, done this, you must apply them to the as suggested above. When once the ball is known state of facts, and by another process put in motion on the inclined plane it goes of reasoning arrive at a final conclusion.- on with accelerated velocity till it reaches This when done may not be very satisfacto- the terminus. Again having been moved ry, for the reason there may be a variety in that direction, the force requisite to arrest of disturbing forces thrown in the strength it, is greater than what was necessary at first of which we may not be prepared fully to to have given it a different direction. This estimate. Hence, arises also, the necessity of' must be considered and weighed well. It is
a proposition stated and demonstrated in ple, or even by those who stand behind the natural philosophy, that descending bodies screen and work the wires of society, the acquire velocity with distance. A like law philosophic historian, must and will both holds good in the social body as demonstra- see and admit the fact. The next difficulty ted by the Philosophy of History. This is, in determining how far this remedial Philosophy of History, by the way, is not agency may be brought to bear on the afthe mere reading or study of History; neith- fected body of society. This too, I think is er is it a heaping together of a heterogeneous more in appearance than in fact. If we sit mass of facts without, form or order ; but it down and philosophise, we might be led to is taking the mass of facts as furnished by very erroneous conclusions, because the truth the histories of different nations in their ori- | appearing very plainly to us, we would supgin, progress, ascent, and decline, and from pose, that all others would see it equally so these facts recorded, ascertain the cause of Herein we are mistaken. Galileo thought their various states, and then after collating he could satisfy the savans of his day, that a sufficient number of these facts, to deduce the earth rolled over from west to east, but the law governing in like cases. This, by be found chains and threatened death, were the way, in my estimation, is one of the harder arguments than he could offer, and most interesting and profitable studies that he renounced, though adbering to his opincan engage the attention, of the scholar and ion still. especially the statesman of this country. Let us, however, get away from the phi.
losoplıy of hypothesis, and turn to the phiThe element of calculation to which I re
losophy of fact or of History. What is the ferred above is this, that there is in human
answer here given? The restless ambition nature, when left to itself, a downward ten | dency-a strong aptitude to take on the in
of man is never satisfied. Some there are, jurious forms of influence—a stronger affini- |
who are ready to make any sacrifice for their ty for evil than for good. Downward, I say,
country, but these are so few as not to ma
ter ially change the result, though they may because its tendency is to destruction and ruin. Add to this, that there is no recupera
postpone the catastrophe for a time. With tive energy in human society, so that when
the controlling spirits, the boasted “amor
patriæ” is an empty sound, and the much once it has taken a direction toward ruin, of
decried love of self is the moving power. itself, it cannot stop. But society is made
These, being so also bed with self, submit up of individuals, and these individually
not to any correcting influence. The same affect and operate upon each other, and as
restless ambition, leads to a resort to every these have universally taken the direction
kind of effort, which offers any prospect of to evil, and are evil, so the whole mass is
attaining the desired end. affected. This corrupt state of society must As an illustration of the foregoing principrogress, as the consuming cancer on the ples, we may refer to almost any ancient pa. human frame, until the whole frame-work of tion, or even to any modern nation of sufsociety is involved and the vital parts are ficiently long standing to have performed its waste l, unless a corrective power is brought to cycle. What was the cause of the downfall bear upou it from without. Without this lost of the great Roman Empire? The cause element thrown into society,the history would was one, and only one ; though it developed be short-easily written and certainly deter- itself in a variety of forms. That cause was mined before hand. The difficulties which the corruption of the controlling authority. suggest themselves here are two, to wit:- Mr. Gibbon bas labored to show, that the the constant disinclination to consider or ad- introduction of Christianity, had a strong mit the downward tendency. This difficul- | influence to bring about that event. But bad ty, however, is only an appearance; for it in fact, any tendency in that direction at though it be denied by the body of the peo- ! ? He, himself, has shown in his History