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sistance Authorization, H.R. 4995], 93 Stat. 843, approved November 13, 1979; Public Law 96-257 [Special Central American Assistance Act of 1979], 94 Stat. 422, approved May 31, 1980; Public Law 96–327 [S. 1916], 94 Stat. 1026, approved August 8, 1980; Public Law 96-450 [Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1981, S. 2597], 94 Stat. 1975 at 1981, approved October 14, 1980; Public Law 96-465 [Foreign Service Act of 1980, H.R. 6790], 94 Stat. 2071 at 2158; Public Law 96-525 [H.R. 8388], 94 Stat. 3043, approved December 12, 1980; Public Law 96-533 [International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1980, H.R. 6942], 94 Stat. 3131, approved December 16, 1980; Public Law 97-65 [OPIC Amendments Act of 1981, H.R. 3136], 95 Stat. 1021, approved October 16, 1981; Public Law 97-113 [International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981, S. 1196], 95 Stat. 1519, approved December 29, 1981; Public Law 97-164 [Federal Courts Improvement Act, H.R. 4482], 96 Stat. 25 at 48, approved April 2, 1982; Public Law 97-208 [Humanitarian Assistance for the People of Lebanon, H.R. 6631], 96 Stat. 138, approved June 30, 1982; Public Law 97-377 [Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 1983; H.J. Res. 631], 96 Stat. 1830 at 1831, approved December 21, 1982; Public Law 97-438 [H.R. 7143], 96 Stat. 2286, approved January 8, 1983; Public Law 98-151 [Further Continuing Appropriations, 1984; H.J. Res. 413], 97 Stat. 964, approved November 14, 1983; Public Law 98164 [Department of State Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1984 and 1985; H.R. 2915], 97 Stat. 1017, approved November 22, 1983; Public Law 98-473 [Continuing Appropriations, 1985; H.J. Res. 648], 98 Stat. 1837 at 1884, approved October 12, 1984; Public Law 99-8 [African Famine Relief and Recovery Act of 1985, S. 689], 99 Stat. 21, approved April 2, 1985; Public Law 99-64 [Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985, S. 883], 99 Stat. 156, approved July 12, 1985, Public Law 99-83 [International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, S. 960], 99 Stat. 190, approved August 8, 1985; Public Law 99-93 [Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1986 and 1987; H.R. 2068], 99 Stat. 405 at 442, approved August 16, 1985; Public Law 99-204 [Overseas Private Investment Corporation Amendments Act of 1985, S. 947], 99 Stat. 1669 approved December 23, 1985; Public Law 99-399 [Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986, H.R. 4151], 100 Stat. 853, approved August 27, 1986; Public Law 99-440 [Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986, H.R. 4868], 100 Stat. 1086, approved October 2, 1986; Public Law 99-529 [Special Foreign Assistance Act of 1986, S. 1917], 100 Stat. 3010, approved October 24, 1986; Public Law 99-570 [Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, H.R. 5484], 100 Stat. 3207, approved October 27, 1986; Public Law 99-661 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987, S. 2368], 100 Stat. 3816, approved November 14, 1986; Public Law 100-202 [Continuing Appropriations Act, 1988; H.J. Res. 395], 101 Stat. 1329, approved December 22, 1987; Public Law 100-204 [Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989; H.R. 1777], 101 Stat. 1331, approved December 22, 1987; Public Law 100-418 [Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988; H.R. 4848], 102 Stat. 1107, approved August 23, 1988; Public Law 100-461 [Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 1989; H.R. 4637], 102 Stat. 2268, approved October 1, 1988; Public Law 100-690 (International Narcotics Control Act of 1988; H.R. 5210], 102 Stat. 4181, approved November 18, 1988; Public Law 101-165 [Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1990; H.R. 3072], 103 Stat. 1112, approved November 21, 1989; Public Law 101-167 [Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1990; H.R. 3743], 103 Stat. 1195, approved November 21, 1989; Public Law 101-179 [Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989, H.R. 3402], 103 Stat. 1298, approved November 28, 1989; Public Law 101189 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991, H.R. 2461], 103 Stat. 1352, approved November 29, 1989; Public Law 101-218 [Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989, S. 488], 103 Stat. 1868, approved December 11, 1989; Public Law 101-222 [Anti-Terrorism and Arms Export Amendments Act of 1989, H.R. 91], 103 Stat. 1892, approved December 12, 1989; Public Law 101-231 [International Narcotics Control Act of 1989, H.R. 3611], 103 Stat. 1954, approved December 13, 1989; Public Law 101-240 [International Development and Finance Act of 1989, H.R. 2494], 103 Stat. 2492, approved December 19, 1989; Public Law 101-302 [Dire Emergency Supplemental Appropriation for Disaster Assistance, Food Stamps, Unemployment Compensation Administration, and Other Urgent Needs, and Transfers, and Reducing Funds Budgeted for Military Spending Act of 1990; H.R. 4404], 104 Stat. 213, approved May 25, 1990; Public Law 101-510 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, H.R. 4739], 104 Stat. 1485, approved November 5, 1990; Public Law 101-513 [Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related

Programs Appropriations Act, 1991; H.R. 5114], 104 Stat. 1979, approved November 5, 1990; Public Law 101-604 [Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, H.R. 5732], 104 Stat. 3066, approved November 16, 1990; Public Law 101-623 [International Narcotics Control Act of 1990, H.R. 5567], 104 Stat. 3350, approved November 21, 1990; Public Law 102-88 [Intelligence Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991; H.R. 1455], 105 Stat. 429, approved August 14, 1991; Public Law 102-190 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993; H.R. 2100], 105 Stat. 1290, approved December 5, 1991; and by H.R. 2621 as passed by the House on June 19, 1991 [parts of which were enacted by reference in Public Law 102-145, as amended by Public Law 102-266, 106 Stat. 92, approved April 1, 1992]

AN ACT To promote the foreign policy, security, and general welfare of the United States by assisting peoples of the world in their efforts toward economic development and internal and external security, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as "The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961." 1


Chapter 1-Policy; Development Assistance Authorizations 2

Sec. 101.3 General Policy. (a) The Congress finds that fundamental political, economic, and technological changes have resulted in the interdependence of nations. The Congress declares that the individual liberties, economic prosperity, and security of the people of the United States are best sustained and enhanced in a community of nations which respect individual civil and economic rights and freedoms and which work together to use wisely the world's limited resources in an open and equitable international economic system. Furthermore, the Congress reaffirms the traditional humanitarian ideals of the American people and renews its commitment to assist people in developing countries to eliminate hunger, poverty, illness, and ignorance.

Therefore, the Congress declares that a principal objective of the foreign policy of the United States is the encouragement and sustained support of the people of developing countries in their efforts to acquire the knowledge and resources essential to development and to build the economic, political, and social institutions which will improve the quality of their lives.

United States development cooperation policy should emphasize four principal goals:

(1) the alleviation of the worst physical manifestations of poverty among the world's poor majority;

(2) the promotion of conditions enabling developing countries to achieve self-sustaining economic growth with equitable distribution of benefits;

1 The short title was added by sec. 111 of the FA Appropriation Act, 1962.

2 Sec. 101(a) of the FA Act of 1963 struck out the words "SHort Title and" in the chapter heading, which formerly read "Short Title aND POLICY". Sec. 2(1) of the FA Act of 1973 added the following words to the chapter heading: "Development Assistance Authorizations".

322 U.S.C. 2151. Sec. 101 was added by sec. 101 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 937). Previously, sec. 101 had related to the short title before being repealed by the FA Act of 1963. This general policy statement was formerly contained in sec. 102 before 1978.

(3) the encouragement of development processes in which individual civil and economic rights are respected and enhanced; and

(4) the integration of the developing countries into an open and equitable international economic system.

The Congress declares that pursuit of these goals requires that development concerns be fully reflected in United States foreign policy and that United States development resources be effectively and efficiently utilized.

(b) Under the policy guidance of the Secretary of State, the agency primarily responsible for administering this part should have the responsibility for coordinating all United States development-related activities.4

NOTE. Prior to fiscal year 1992, Congress appropriated funds for each of the Development Assistance functional accounts authorized in sections 103 through 106 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. For fiscal year 1992, however, Congress made appropriations in one lump sum for all programs within sections 103 through 106, with the exception of "Population, Development Assistance". For "Population, Development Assistance", Congress continued fiscal year 1991 appropriations ($250,000,000) as contained in Public Law 101-513 for fiscal year 1992.

For fiscal year 1992, for all Development Assistance accounts, including "Population, Development Assistance", Congress appropriated $1,313,683,000 (before 1.4781 per cent reduction required pursuant to sec. 126 of Public Law 102-145, as amended).

Sec. 102.5 Development Assistance Policy. (a) The Congress finds that the efforts of developing countries to build and maintain the social and economic institutions necessary to achieve self-sustaining growth and to provide opportunities to improve the quality of life for their people depend primarily upon successfully marshalling their own economic and human resources. The Congress recognizes that the magnitude of these efforts exceeds the resources of developing countries and therefore accepts that there will be a long-term need for wealthy countries to contribute additional resources for development purposes. The United States should take the lead in concert with other nations to mobilize such resources from public and private sources.

Provision of development resources must be adapted to the needs and capabilities of specific developing countries. United States assistance to countries with low per capita incomes which have limit

The responsibilities of the Agency mentioned in this subsection were transferred to the Director of IDCA, pursuant to sec. 6 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1979 (establishing IDCA). The responsibilities of the Secretary of State, insofar as they relate to policy guidance other than foreign policy guidance, were also transferred to the Director.

5 22 U.S.C. 2151-1. Sec. 101 of the International Development and Food Assistance Act of 1978 (92 Stat. 927) struck out sec. 102, which concerned a statement of policy, and added a new sec.

ed access to private external resources should primarily be provided on concessional terms. Assistance to other developing countries should generally consist of programs which facilitate their access to private capital markets, investment, and technical skills, whether directly through guarantee or reimbursable programs by the United States Government or indirectly through callable capital provided to the international financial institutions.

Bilateral assistance and United States participation in multilateral institutions shall emphasize programs in support of countries which pursue development strategies designed to meet basic human needs and achieve self-sustaining growth with equity.

The Congress declares that the principal purpose of United States bilateral development assistance is to help the poor majority of people in developing countries to participate in a process of equitable growth through productive work and to influence decisions that shape their lives, with the goal of increasing their incomes and their access to public services which will enable them to satisfy their basic needs and lead lives of decency, dignity, and hope. Activities shall be emphasized that effectively involve the poor in development by expanding their access to the economy through services and institutions at the local level, increasing their participation in the making of decisions that affect their lives, increasing labor-intensive production and the use of appropriate technology, expanding productive investment and services out from major cities to small towns and rural areas, and otherwise providing opportunities for the poor to improve their lives through their own efforts. Participation of the United States in multilateral institutions shall also place appropriate emphasis on these principles.

(b) Assistance under this chapter should be used not only for the purpose of transferring financial resources to developing countries, but also to help countries solve development problems in accordance with a strategy that aims to insure wide participation of the poor in the benefits of development on a sustained basis. Moreover, assistance shall be provided in a prompt and effective manner, using appropriate United States institutions for carrying out this strategy. In order to achieve these objectives and the broad objectives set forth in section 101 and in subsection (a) of this section, bilateral development assistance authorized by this Act shall be carried out in accordance with the following principles:

(1) Development is primarily the responsibility of the people of the developing countries themselves. Assistance from the United States shall be used in support of, rather than substitution for, the self-help efforts that are essential to successful development programs and shall be concentrated in those countries that take positive steps to help themselves. Maximum effort shall be made, in the administration of this part, to stimulate the involvement of the people in the development process through the encouragement of democratic participation in private and local governmental activities and institution building appropriate to the requirements of the recipient countries.

(2) Development planning must be the responsibility of each sovereign country. United States assistance should be administered in a collaborative style to support the development goals chosen by each country receiving assistance.

(3) United States bilateral development assistance should give high priority to undertakings submitted by host governments which directly improve the lives of the poorest of their people and their capacity to participate in the development of their countries, while also helping such governments enhance their planning, technical, and administrative capabilities needed to insure the success of such undertakings.

(4) Development assistance provided under this chapter shall be concentrated in countries which will make the most effective use of such assistance to help satisfy basic human needs of poor people through equitable growth, especially in those countries having the greatest need for outside assistance. In order to make possible consistent and informed judgments in this respect, the President shall assess the commitment and progress of countries in moving toward the objectives and purposes of this chapter by utilizing criteria, including but not limited to the following:

(A) increase in agricultural productivity per unit of land through small- farm, labor-intensive agriculture;

(B) reduction of infant mortality;

(C) control of population growth;

(D) promotion of greater equality of income distribution, including measures such as more progressive taxation and more equitable returns to small farmers;

(E) reduction of rates of unemployment and underemployment; and

(F) increase in literacy.

(5) United States development assistance should focus on critical problems in those functional sectors which affect the lives of the majority of the people in the developing countries; food production and nutrition; rural development and generation of gainful employment; population planning and health; environment and natural resources; education, development administration, and human resources development; and energy development and production."

(6) United States assistance shall encourage and promote the participation of women in the national economies of developing countries and the improvement of women's status as an important means of promoting the total development effort.

(7) United States bilateral assistance shall recognize that the prosperity of developing countries and effective development efforts require the adoption of an overall strategy that promotes the development, production, and efficient utilization of energy and, therefore, consideration shall be given to the full implications of such assistance on the price, availability, and consumption of energy in recipient countries.


(8) United States cooperation in development should be carried out to the maximum extent possible through the private sector, including those institutions which already have ties in the developing areas, such as educational institutions, coopera

The reference to energy development and production was added by sec. 104(a) of the International Development Cooperation Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-53; 93 Stat. 360).

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