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b. Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980 1
Partial text of Public Law 96–494 [H.R. 3765], 94 Stat. 2570 at 2578, approved December 3, 1980; as amended by Public Law 99-198 [Food Security Act of 1985, H.R. 2100], 99 Stat. 1354, approved December 23, 1985; and by Public Law 101624 [Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990; S. 2830], 104 Stat. 3359, approved November 28, 1990
TITLE III—FOOD SECURITY WHEAT RESERVE ACT OF 1980
Sec. 301. This title may be cited as the "Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980".
FOOD SECURITY WHEAT RESERVE
Sec. 302.2 (a) To provide for a wheat reserve solely for emergency humanitarian food needs in developing countries, the President shall establish a reserve stock of wheat of up to four million metric tons for use for the purposes specified in subsection (c) of this section.
(b)(1) The reserve stock of wheat under this section shall be established initially by designation for that purpose by the Secretary of Agriculture of wheat owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation.
1 Sec. 202 of the Temporary Emergency Food Assistance Act of 1983 (title II of Public Law 988; 97 Stat. 35), as amended by sec. 2 of Public Law 98-92 (97 Stat. 609), included the following provision concerning utilization of wheat designated under this Act:
"AVAILABILITY OF CCC COMMODITIES
"Sec. 202. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in order to complement the domestic nutrition programs, make maximum use of the Nation's agricultural abundance, and expand and improve the domestic distribution of price-supported commodities, commodities acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation that the Secretary of Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as the 'Secretary') determines, in his discretion, are in excess of quantities needed to
"(1) carry out other domestic donation programs,
"(2) meet other domestic obligations (including quantities needed to carry out a payment-inkind acreage diversion program),
"(3) meet international market development and food aid commitments, and
"(4) carry out the farm price and income stabilization purposes of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, the Agricultural Act of 1949, and the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, shall be made available by the Secretary, without charge or credit for such commodities, for use by eligible recipient agencies for food assistance.
"(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if wheat stocks acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation are not available for the purposes of this Act, up to 300,000 metric tons of wheat designated under section 302(b)(1) of the Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980 may be used for the purposes of this Act. Any amount of wheat used from the Food Security Wheat Reserve under this Act shall be replenished by an equivalent quantity of wheat under the provisions of section 302(b) of the Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980 as soon as practicable, but before October 1, 1985.".
27 U.S.C. 1736f-1.
(2)(A) Subject to the provisions of subsection (i) of this section, stocks of wheat to replenish the reserve may be acquired
(i) through purchases from producers or in the market if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that such purchases will not unduly disrupt the market, and
(ii) by designation by the Secretary of stocks of wheat otherwise acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation. Any use of funds to acquire wheat through purchases from producers or in the market to replenish the reserve must be authorized in appropriation Acts.
(B) Not later than 18 months after the release of stocks from the reserve, the Secretary of Agriculture shall replenish the re
(i) through purchases under subparagraph (A)(i) to the extent of available appropriations; or
(ii) by designating an equivalent quantity of wheat from uncommitted stocks of the Commodity Credit Corporation, to the extent sufficient appropriations are not available under subparagraph (A)(i), except to the extent that the Secretary reports to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate that there are not sufficient uncommitted stocks of the Commodity Credit Corporation available. (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, stocks of wheat designated or acquired for the reserve under this section may be released by the President to provide, on a donation or sale basis, emergency food assistance to developing countries at any time that the domestic supply of wheat is so limited that quantities of wheat cannot be made available for disposition under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, except for urgent humanitarian purposes, under the criteria of section 401 of that Act.5 Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding sentence, up to three hundred thousand metric tons of wheat may be released from the reserve under this section in any fiscal year, without regard to the domestic supply situation, for use under title II of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 in providing urgent humanitarian relief in any developing country suffering a major disaster, as determined by the President, whenever the wheat needed for relief cannot be programmed for such pur
3 Sec. 1143(b) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101624; 104 Stat. 3515) amended sec. 302(b)(2) by redesignating subpar. (A) and (B) as (i) and (i) under new subpar. designation (A), and by adding a new subpar. (B) with and clauses (i) and (11)
Sec. 1515(c) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101624; 104 Stat. 3663), struck out "401(a)" and inserted in lieu thereof "401".
In a May 31, 1991, memorandum to the Secretary of Agriculture, the President determined the following:
"By virtue of the authority vested in me as President by the Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980 (the 'Act') (7 U.S.C. 1736f-1), I hereby authorize the release in fiscal year 1991 of up to 300,000 metric tons of wheat from the reserve established under the Act (the 'reserve') for use under Title II of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.), to meet relief needs that exist in developing countries of the Middle East. Africa, and Asia, which I hereby determine are suffering major disasters. The wheat will be used to provide urgent humanitarian relief to the peoples in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia who are suffering widespread hunger and malnutrition.
"This action is take because wheat needed for relief in these regions cannot be programmed for such purpose in a timely manner under the normal means of obtaining commodities for food assistance due to circumstances of unanticipated and exceptional need." (Presidential Determination No. 91-38 of May 31, 1991; 56 F.R. 28683; June 24, 1991).
pose in a timely manner under the normal means of obtaining commodities for food assistance due to circumstances of unanticipated and exceptional need. Wheat released from the reserve may be processed in the United States and shipped to a developing country in the form of flour when conditions in the recipient country require such processing in the United States.
(d) Wheat released from the reserve for the purposes of subsection (c) of this section shall be made available under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 to meet famine or other urgent or extraordinary relief requirements, except that section 401 of that Act, with respect to determinations of availability, shall not be applicable thereto.
(e) The Secretary of Agriculture shall provide for the management of stocks of wheat in the reserve as to location and class of wheat needed to meet emergency situations and for the periodic rotation of stocks of wheat in the reserve to avoid spoilage and deterioration of such stocks, using programs authorized by the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and any other provision of law, but any quantity of wheat removed from the reserve for the purposes of this subsection shall be promptly replaced with an equivalent quantity of wheat.
(f) Stocks of wheat in the reserve shall not be considered a part of the total domestic supply (including carryover) for the purposes of subsection (c) of this section or for the purposes of administering the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and shall not be subject to any quantitative limitations on exports that may be imposed under section 7 of the Export Administration Act of 1979.
(g)(1) The funds, facilities, and authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation shall be used by the Secretary of Agriculture in carrying out this section, except that any restriction applicable to the acquisition, storage, or disposition of Commodity Credit Corporation owned or controlled commodities shall not apply with respect to the acquisition, storage, or disposal of wheat for or in the
(2) Effective beginning October 1, 1981, the Commodity Credit Corporation shall be reimbursed from funds made available for carrying out the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 for wheat released from the reserve that is made available under such Act, such reimbursement to be made on the basis of actual costs incurred by the Commodity Credit Corporation with respect to such wheat or the export market price of wheat (as determined by the Secretary) as of the time the wheat is released from the reserve for such purpose, whichever is lower. Such reimbursement may be made from funds appropriated for that purpose in subsequent years.
(h) Any determination by the President or the Secretary of Agriculture under this section shall be final.
(i) 6 The authority to replace stocks of wheat to maintain the reserve under this section shall expire September 30, 1995 after
Sec. 1143(a) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101624; 104 Stat. 3515) extended the date from 1990 to 1995. Previously, sec. 1013 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-198; 99 Stat. 1456), extended the date from 1985 to 1990.
which stocks released from the reserve may not be replenished. Stocks of wheat remaining in the reserve after September 30, 1995, shall be disposed of by release for use in providing for emergency food needs in developing countries as provided in this section.
Sec. 303. Except as otherwise provided herein, this title shall become effective October 1, 1980, or the date of enactment, whichever is later.
c. Food Security Wheat Reserve
Executive Order 12266, January 15, 1981, 46 F.R. 4667
By the authority vested in me as President of the United States of America by Section 302(a) of the Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980 (Title III of the Agricultural Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-494)), it is hereby ordered as follows:
1-101. There is hereby established a Food Security Wheat Reserve composed of a reserve stock of wheat, which shall not exceed four million metric tons.
1-102. The Secretary of Agriculture is responsible for designating, in accordance with Section 302 of the Food Security Wheat Reserve Act of 1980, the specific reserve stocks of wheat which shall comprise the Food Security Wheat Reserve.