History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon, in 1852, Volume 3

Voorkant
W. Blackwood and sons, 1854
 

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Inhoudsopgave

Universal spread of the insurrection in Greece
28
Mutual recriminations of the Russians and Turks 263 29 Mutual recriminations of the Russians and Turks
29
Small revenue derived from Turkey
31
Naval successes of the Greeks
34
Vast influence of Constantinople on the fortunes of mankind
37
Description of the city as seen from the sea 41 Defects of its interior
39
Progress of the siege
40
Population of Constantinople and equality of the sexes
42
Maritime forces of Turkey and Greece 44 The Janizaries
43
Turkish cavalry
45
The advantages of the Turks in this respect are now lost
46
In what the strength of the Turks now consists
47
Where are the Turks now strongest in war?
48
Turkish fortifications and mode of defending them
49
Their mode of defending them
50
Causes of the obstinate defence of fortified cities by the Turks
51
Russian mode of fighting the Turks
52
Triple barrier which defends Constantinople
53
The Danube as a frontier stream
54
The Balkan
55
Country between the Balkan and Constantinople
56
The command of the sea or the support of Austria is essential to the suc cess of Russia
57
its description
58
Asiatic defence of Turkey The Caucasus
59
Its value as a military barrier
60
Description of the passes through the Caucasus
61
Description of Asia Minor
62
Military resources of Asia Minor
63
Mountainous nature of the country and want of roads
64
The Caucasian tribes
65
Russian policy of intervention
66
Examples of the application of this principle
67
Intervention of Peter the Great in the affairs of neighbouring states 69 Establishment of the Russians in the Caucasus and on the Caspian 70 Acceptan...
68
Further successes of the Greeks
73
Affairs of Wallachia and Moldavia
74
Russian system of intervention regarding them
75
Repeated insurrections of the Greeks
76
Mutual exasperation of the Greeks and Turks
77
Insurrection of Ali Pacha
78
Statistics of Greece
79
Defensible nature of the country
80
Clarkes description of Greece
81
Dreadful fire at Constantinople in spring 1823
86
Victory of the Greeks on Mount Helicon
92
ce
130
56
133
57
134
65
142
Ibrahims war of extermination in the Morea
158
Ibrahims proceedings after the battle
164
Operations in Candia during 1823
170
Contraction of the Greek Loan
176
Reflections on this subject
178
Commencement of the sortie
208
Vigorous measures of Sultan Mahmoud
246
The Russian demands are acceded to without reservation
252
Battle of the Abbarane
258
Fresh rupture with Persia and conclusion of the peace at Tourkmantchai
262
Forces of the Russians
264
Passage of the Pruth and commencement of the campaign
265
Preparations of the Turks ib 33 Forces they had collected in Europe and Asia
266
Russian plan of the campaign and its dangers
267
Which was mainly based on the command of the sea
268
Passage of the Danube by the Russians
270
First operations Fall of Kustendji
271
Further successes of the Russians and Turkish system of defence
274
Capture of Anapa by the Russians
276
Combat of Bazardjik
277
Farther cavalry actions ib 46 General cavalry action before Schumla
278
Blockade of Schumla and plans of the Russians
279
Journey of the Emperor to Odessa and measures adopted there
280
Position of the Russians
281
Defensive measures of the Turks ib 51 Operations before Schumla
282
Surprise of a Russian redoubt
283
Attack on Prince Eugene and EskiStamboul
284
Retreat of the Russians from the south of Schumla
285
Operations before Varna ib 56 Attack on Wittgenstein
286
Advance of the Turks to raise the siege ib 59 Bloody defeat of the Russians
289
The siege is not interrupted ib 61 Fall of Varna
290
Reflections on this surrender
291
Operations before Widdin
292
Abandonment of the siege of Silistria and retreat of the Russians beyond the Danube
293
Disastrous retreat of Wittgenstein
294
Commencement of the campaign in Asia
295
Description of the theatre of war
296
Siege of Kars
297
Siege of Kars and its description
298
Appearance of the plague in the Russian army
299
Capture of Akhalzikh
301
Paskewitchs plan of attack and its chances
302
Nocturnal attack on the Turkish camp
303
Its perilous chances 77 Desperate conflict on the heights
304
Total defeat of the Turks
305
Assault of the town
306
Frightful assault of the town ib 81 Reduction of Alskhur and Ardagan
308
Operations on the Russian flanks and results of the campaign ib 83 Paskewitchs plans and formation of Mahommedan corps 309 83 Paskewitchs plan...
310
Assassination of the Russian minister at Teheran and siege of Akbalzikh by the Turks
311
Siege of the fortress by the Turks
312
Extreme danger of the besieged
313
Their deliverance ib 89 Measures of Paskewitch against the Persians
314
Opening of the campaign with the Turks
315
Defeat of Hadgi Hassan
316
Paskewitchs dispositions and position of the Turks
317
Paskewitchs plan of attack
318
Subsequent movements of Paskewitch
319
Advance upon Kainly and dispositions of attack
320
Battle of Kainly ib 97 Success of the Russians in the centre and on the left
321
Defeat of the Seraskier
322
Storming of the intrenched camp at MilliDuz
323
Results of these conflicts
324
Advance of Paskewitch against HassanKale and its fall
325
Fall of Erzeroum
326
Further movements
327
Submission of the Pacha of Mush and of Baibout ib 105 Disaster before Khart
328
Retreat of Paskewitch to Erzeroum
329
Defeat of the Turks in Guriel and subsequent checks of the Russians ib 108 Advance of Paskewitch against Baibout
330
Total defeat of the Turks and termination of the campaign
331
Conclusion of an armistice and summary of the campaign
332
Preparations of the Turks for the campaign in Turkey in Europe ib 112 Preparations of the Russians
334
Operations during the winter
335
Retirement of Wittgenstein and appointment of Diebitch to the com mandinchief
336
Naval forces of the Russians and Turks
337
Russian plan of the campaign and Turkish and repulse of the latter at Sizepolis
338
Commencement of the campaign on both sides
339
Bloody combats at EskiArnautlar
340
Commencement of the siege of Silistria and its description
341
First operations of the siege and Redschid Pachas movement against Pra vadi
342
Diebitch throws himself on the Turkish communications
343
Description of the country and movements of the armies ib 123 Turkish movements
344
Battle of Kouleftscha
345
Fresh dispositions of Diebitch
346
Measures of Diebitch after the battle
348
Progress of the siege of Silistria and its fall
349
Description of the passes of the Balkan
350
Diebitchs preparations for passing the Balkan
351
Victory of the Russians
352
Subsequent movements of the Turks and Russians
353
Successful attack on the Turks at Sliwno
354
Advance upon Adrianople and its capture 135 Extended positions of the Russians
356
Unbounded alarm at Constantinople London and Vienna
357
Treaty of Adrianople
358
Convention regarding Wallachia and Moldavia
359
Irruption of the Pacha of Scodra ib 140 Affairs of Greece in 1828
360
Progress of the Greeks in 1829
361
Convention of March 22 1829 regarding the limits of Greece
363
Reflections on this convention
364
Remarkable words of the Emperor Nicholas on this subject
366
What of the alleged regeneration of Turkey
367
Astute policy of Russia in the treaty of Adrianople
368
Difficulty of the conquest of Turkey evinced in this war
369
Great strength of Russia in force and of Turkey in situation
370
Dangers of the Russian position in regard to Turkey
371
Increase of the Jesuits influence at the court and their efforts in the country
381
Strength of the Jesuit party in the legislature and the administration
383
Their opponents in the Chambers and the press
384
General prosperity in France ib 13 Injudicious measure regarding the army
385
comparative strength of parties 886
387
1822 Argument of M de Martignac in favour of the measure 389393
389
Embarrassment of the Government from other claims
393
2430 Argument against the project by the Liberals 394398
394
Measures of the Jesuits
404
Preceptor to the Duke of Bordeaux
418
Riot at the funeral of the Duke de la Rochefoucauld
424
Treaty of 6th July on Greece and convention regarding the slavetrade
430
Reproaches addressed to him from both parties
436
New law regarding the press
442
86 State of parties in the Assembly
447
CHAPTER XIV
453
Lafayettes triumphant journey in the south
459
Vast influence of the press in France
468
Vote on the subject
477
Indirect taxes and general revenue
483
Landing at SidiFeruch near Algiers
489
Commencement of the attack on Algiers and fall of the Emperors Fort
491
428
492
Resolution of the Cabinet on a coup détat
499
Reflections on the ordonnances
505
Attitude and extraordinary security of the Court
511
Measures of the Government and Marshal Marmont
517
State of affairs at St Cloud and firmness of the King
523
The Louvre is carried by the insurgents
530
Ineffectual attempt to make a Ministry under M de Montemart
537
Falsehoods told the King by Marshal Maison
543
His embarkation at Cherbourg
550
Charless error in the conflict
551
Difference between the situation of France and England in this respect ib 102 Secret objects of the Liberal Opposition in France at this period
552
Great error of the King in the ground he took for resistance
553
Extraordinary want of preparation on the part of the Government
554
Great fault of Government in not at once arresting the leaders of the Liberals
556
Ruinous effects of the treachery of the troops
557
Ruinous effects of this military treachery on the cause of freedom in France ib 108 Great error of the military commanders on this occasion
559
Cause of this in the composition of the French army ib
560
Mode of combating an urban insurrection
561
Dangerous influence of the Partiprêtre on the Government
562
Strange vehemence of the opposition which the Restoration experienced in France
563
GREEK REVOLUTIONBATTLE OF NAVARINOESTABLISHMENT OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE
564
Obloquy thrown on the Bourbons from their having succeeded after the national disasters
565
Which was the reason why the expeditions to Spain and Algiers were undertaken
567
Political reasons on which these projects were founded
568
Ruinous effects of the destruction of the aristocracy in France
569
General absence of the restraint of religion in the towns
570
Number of natural children in the great towns
571
214
572
It produced 80000 bastard combatants in Paris
573
Curious circumstance which mitigated these evils
574
Decline in the material comforts of the working classes
575
Causes of this miserable state of the working classes
577
Way in which the division of land affected the industry of the country
578
Immense burdens on the land in France
580
Crowding of the inhabitants of towns from these causes
581
Effect of the destruction of commercial capital during the Revolution
582
Excessive general competition and wretched state of the working classes
583
Want of any representation of the working classes
584
Were the ordonnances illegal?
585
Previous instances of royal ordonnances not objected to
586
Reasons why coups détat are necessary in France
587
Conduct of the King
588
CHAPTER XVIII
590
Its distinguishing features
591
Violent antagonism between the opposite schools
592
Character of the romantic school
593
Pernicious character of their works of imagination
594
Page
598
Madame de Staël as a political writer
605
His defects as a historian
612
Auguste and Amadée Thierry
620
Military histories and memoirs
626
Baron Fain
632
Chateaubriand and Lamartine as writers of memoirs
642
Causes of the decline of the drama in France
648
69 Romance writers
649
7072 Victor Hugo George SandEugene Sue 650652
650
Periodical literature of France since the Revolution
653
Different class of writers in the daily press in France and England
654
Causes of this difference Destruction of the influence of property
655
Owing also to facility of Revolution in France
656
His indefatigable energy
657
7981 Madlle GeorgesMadlle MarsMadlle Rachel 658660
658
82 Architecture of Paris
660
Modern French school of painting
662
Conclusion
663
CHAPTER XIX
665
Light which experience has thrown on this subject
666
Effect of the South American Revolution on the currency of Great Britain
667
Causes which augmented the currency in 1823
668
The change of prices through extension of currency is not immediate but gradual
670
618619
671
Notice of the general prosperity in the royal speeches in 1823 and 1824
672
Budget of 1823
676
Conversion of the Dead Weight
677
Reduction of the 4 per cents to 3
678
Simplifying of the National Debt accounts and provision for the perma nent reduction of the National Debt
679
Grants for new churches Windsor Castle and the National Gallery
681
Ministerial changes from 1822 to 1825
682
Liberal measures of the Cabinet
684
Character of Mr Huskisson ib 20 Sketch of the Navigation Laws
686
Retaliatory measures of other nations
687
Mr Wallaces five Freetrade bills in 1822
688
Menaces of retaliatory measures by Prussia
689
2426 Mr Huskissons argument in favour of the Reciprocity System 690692
690
2728 Answer by the shipowners 693694
693
Effect of these acts
694
Effect of the Reciprocity System on British and foreign shipping
695
535
696
128
698
Great increase of the colonial trade has compensated reciprocity decline
700
3435 Cause of the failure of the Reciprocity System in this respect 702703
702
Commencement of the Freetrade system
704
Reflections on this petition
706
Indication this afforded of the growth of the commercial class
707
4246 Argument of the Protectionists 708711
708
Results of the system of Freetrade as proved by experience
712
222
713
First introduction of Free Trade in reference to it
714
Reflections on these changes
716
Repeal of laws against emigration of artisans and combinations among workmen
718
Disastrous effects of the change ib 54 Argument in favour of the repeal of the Combination Laws
720
Reflections on this subject
722
Causes of the frequency of strikes
723
System which must be adopted on the subject
724
Its advantages
725
Gloomy aspect of affairs in the West Indies and Ireland
726
Lord Dudleys picture of the Empire in the opening of 1825
727
Picture of the country from the Annual Register
728
Picture of the times from the Quarterly Review
729
Sound condition of trade and manufactures to the end of 1824
730
120
731
Causes of danger which were now impending
733
Excess of imports over exports
735
Drain of specie produced by the South American speculations
736
The Chancellor of the Exchequers budget
737
Reduction of taxation introduced and public accounts of the year
739
Mr Robinsons argument in favour of the reduction of the duty on spirits
740
Vast increase of crime which has arisen in consequence
741
258
742
Temperance Leagues
744
Renewed measures in favour of Free Trade
745
Great and wise change in the laws regarding our colonial shipping
746
Reflections on this decay
747
Approach of the monetary crisis
748
Dreadful severity of the crash
749
Increased circulation forced upon the Government
750
The crash was not owing to the instability of the banks but to the mone tary laws
752
Conclusions to be drawn from this catastrophe
753

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Populaire passages

Pagina 54 - Above me are the Alps, The palaces of Nature, whose vast walls Have pinnacled in clouds their snowy scalps, And throned Eternity in icy halls Of cold sublimity, where forms and falls The avalanche — the thunderbolt of snow ! All that expands the spirit, yet appals, Gather around these summits, as to show How Earth may pierce to Heaven, yet leave vain man below.
Pagina 79 - The isles of Greece ! the isles of Greece ! "Where burning Sappho loved and sung, — Where grew the arts of war and peace, Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung ! Eternal summer gilds them yet, But all, except their sun, is set. The Scian and the Teian muse, The hero's harp, the lover's lute, Have found the fame your shores refuse ; Their place of birth alone is mute To sounds which echo further west Than your sires'
Pagina 59 - Where rougher climes a nobler race display, Where the bleak Swiss their stormy mansion tread, And force a churlish soil for scanty bread ; No product here the barren hills afford, But man and steel, the soldier and his sword.
Pagina 702 - That the maxim of buying in the cheapest market, and selling in the dearest, which regulates every merchant in his individual dealings, is strictly applicable, as the best rule for the trade of the whole nation.
Pagina 704 - But it is against every restrictive regulation of trade not essential to the revenue— against all duties merely protective from foreign competition — and against the excess of such duties as are partly for the purpose of revenue, and partly for that of protection — that the prayer of the present petition is respectfully submitted to the wisdom of parliament.
Pagina 50 - The blue-eyed myriads from the Baltic coast The prostrate South to the destroyer yields Her boasted titles and her golden fields • With grim delight the brood of winter view A brighter day, and heavens of azure hue, Scent the new fragrance of the breathing rose, And quaff the pendent vintage as it grows.
Pagina 702 - That, unfortunately, a policy, the very reverse of this, has been, and is more or less adopted and acted upon by the government of this and...
Pagina 743 - ... per cent. If the article be not manufactured much cheaper or much better abroad than at home, such a duty is ample for protection. If it be manufactured so much cheaper or so much better abroad as to render 30 per cent, insufficient, my answer is, first, that a greater protection is only a premium to the smuggler ; and, secondly, that there is no wisdom in attempting to bolster up a competition which this degree of protection will not sustain.
Pagina 745 - ... ships of those countries, allowing the latter to import all articles, the growth, produce, or manufacture of the country to which the ship belongs, and to export from such Colonies all articles whatever of their growth, produce, or manufacture, either to the country from which such ship came, or to any other part of the world, the United Kingdom, and all its dependencies, excepted. All intercourse between the Mother Country and the Colonies, whether direct or circuitous, and all intercourse of...
Pagina 685 - The act of navigation is not favourable to foreign commerce, or to the growth of that opulence which can arise from it. The interest of a nation in its commercial relations to foreign nations is, like that of a merchant with regard to the different people with whom he deals, to buy as cheap and to sell as dear as possible.

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