are of fine filk, and some of horse-hair, which the poorer fort wear; and over their head they put some white fearfs made of cotton, which are so broad that they not only cover their heads but their arms and shoulders, they look in them almost like our maids, when, to keep themselves from the wet, they put a table-cloth or sheet over their heads. But because the Turks are very jealous, therefore their wives seldom meet in the streets or markets, but only in the hot-houses, or when they go to visit the tombs of their deceased parents or relations, which generally are out of town near the highways. When they go thither, they take along with them bread, chcefe, eggs, and the like to eat there, which was callid Parentalia by the Latins, just as the Heathens used to do in former ages ; and fometimes they leave fome of their cheer behind them, that the beasts and birds may eat it after they are gone ; for they believe, that such good bestow'd upon the beasts is as acceptable to God as if it were beftow'd on men. Their graves are commonly hollow cover'd at the top with great stones, which are like unto children's bed-steads in our country, which are high at the head and feet, but hollow'd in the middle; they fill them up with earth, wherein they commonly plant fine herbs, but chiefly flags; they also put some green myrtles in little air-holes that are round the tombs ; and they are of opinion, that their relations are the happier, the longer these remain green and retain their colour : And for the sake of this superstition there are in several places of the town myrtles to be fold that stand in water, that they may remain fresh, which the women buy to stick up at the graves of their relations. Their burying-places are always out of town near the highways, that any body that goeth by may be put in mind of them, and pray to God for them, which is the reason that so many chapels are built about their burying-places, that people that go, by, chiefly the relatians of the deceased, may go into them to pray to God in their behalf. When any of them dieth, they wash him, and put on his best cloaths ; then they lay him on a bar or board, and strow him with sweet smelling herbs and Aowers, leaving only

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his face bare, that every body may look upon him that knoweth him, as he is carry'd out. If it be a Tschelebii, that is, a noble person, they put his helmet and his other ornaments at his head ; his friends and acquaintance, which go before and follow the corps, keep no order, but hang upon one another, as if they were fudled, and go merrily and shouting along to the grave ; as also do the women, who come behind and hollow so loud that you may hear them a great way off.


A description of the plants I gather'd at Tripoli. CONS

ONSIDERING that I undertook this journey

into the eastern countries, not only to see these people, and to observe their manners, &c. but also, and that principally , diligently to enquire and to search out the plants that were growing there ; I cannot but shortly describe those I found about Tripoli, during my stay there, and will begin with fuch as grew on the seafhores, which were Medica marina, Gnaphalium marinum, Leucoium marinum, Juncus maritimus, Peplis, Scammonium Monspeliense, which the natives call Meudheuds ; but Rhafis in his book ad Almans. call'd it Coriziala, Brassica marina, which spreads it's roots above the fand for some cubits round, and has instead of round leaves rather square ones. A kind of wild white lillies by the Latins and Greeks calld Hemerocallis, which did not only grow on the fea-fhore, but also in iflands thereabouts in great plenty, with a great many others, which I forbear to mention here, being common.

Bes hind the custom-house, near the harbour, I found in the ruins of the old walls that are left of that city, Hyoscyamus, and hard by it in the sand an herb not une like unto Cantabrica secunda Caroli Clufii, saving only the stalks and leaves which are woolly. But the Ricinus groweth there above all in fo great plenty, that you can hardly make your way through it; the inhabitants call it still by it's old Arabian name Kerva.

If you turn from thence to the high-way towards your right hand, you see the Tythimalus Paralius, and also a kind of Conyza Diofc. out of one root there spring up several stalks, whereof some grow upright, but the greater part of them lie down upon the ground, and so shoot new roots, which afterwards sprout out into new stalks ; it beareth long olive-leaves, which are thick, fattish, and somewhat woolly, and have a strong and equally sweet smell; for the rest, as the flowers, it is very like unto the great one.

You find there also the greater and lesser Medica, which the Moors to this day call Fasa. Likewise so great and many Squills that the inhabitants weed them up, chiefly those that grow near their gardens, and Aling them up in high heaps like stones. There also groweth Securidaca minor, Tribulus terreftris, by the inhabitants call'd Hafeck, and a kind of Echium, which groweth by the way as you go to St James's church, which from thence is situated upon an at ascent a mile's distance. Hereabouts, and in other adjacent places, groweth a great quantity of sugar-canes, so that there is yearly fold a great many sugar-loaves that are made thereof. These are as high and big as our canes, and not much differing from them, but within and down towards the root, where they are best, they are full of this pleasant juice, wherefore the Turks and Moors buy a great many of them, being very pleasant to them to chew and eat, for they are mightily pleased with sweet-meats, whereof they have variety. Before they begin to eat or chew them, they stript off the long leaves and cut away what is tasteless, so that only the juicy and good remaineth, which is hardly two foot. Of the thus prepared canes they carry many along with them through the streets, and cut off one piece after another, skale them, and fo chew and eat them openly every where in the street without shame ; for they are, principally near the root, very tender, and feel as mellow between your teeth as if it were sugar itfelf. So the Turks use themselves to gluttony, and are no more. fo free and courageous, to go against their enemies to fight, as they have been in former ages. The sugar canes do not grow there from secds, neither are they propagated by the root, but by the canes themselves,


whereof they lay into the ground some green pieces of two or three joints long, and that they may grow the sooner, they bore pretty large holes in between the joints; when they begin to grow, they sprout out in the joints, and grow up into great canes, and so bring in good profit.

There also by the rivers are found Anthilis Marina, Visnaga, the first Apocymum, and Oleander with purple flowers, by the inhabitants call?d Defle, and a delicate kind of Scabiosa Melisra Maluca, and if you go to the gardens, you see Heliotropium inajus, Convolvulus folio acuto, Vitis nigra, Phaseolus Turcicus, with yellow flowers, which still retain the ancient name of Lubie, Lyfimachia lutea, and wild vines calld Labruscæ, whereon nothing groweth but only the flowers, callid 0:nanthe ; and also a shrub like unto the Polygonus of Carol Clufius , which climbs up into high trees, and hang down again from the twigs ; and I verily believe they are the same with Ephedra, whereof Pliny maketh mention in the seventh chapter of his twenty fixth book,

When I went farther, with an intention to consider the plants that grew in the country, first came before. me some Sycomores, whereof chiefly Diofcorides and Theophrastus make mention, and tell us of two forts; and when I call’d these things to mind, I light of one of the second sort of Sycomores, whereof abundance grow in Cyprus, wherefore these wild figg-trees might be call'd, the one the Cyprijh Sycomore-tree, and the other the Egyptian Sycomore-tree, according to the places where they are most frequent and fruitful. I found a great many of them : the Moors and Arabians call them Mua meitz, they are as great and as high as the white Mulberry, trees, and have almost the same leaves, but they are only somewhat rounder, and are also whole at or about the sides ;' they bear fruit not unlike to our figg-trees, only they are sweeter, and have no little feeds within, and are not so good; wherefore they are not esteem’d, and are commonly fold only to the poorer fort of pecple; they grow in all fields and grounds, as you may see by the words of the second book of the Chronicles ix. 27. And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones, and

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Cedar-trees made he as the Sycomore-trees that are in the low plains in abundance. Zacheus did climb upon such a one when he had a great mind to see our Saviour. Esaias also maketh mention of them in his ninth chap. verf. Io, and Amos in his feventh chap. vers. 14, where he faith of himself: I was a herds-man, and a gatherer of Sycomore-fruit. These two forts are very like one another, in ftem, leaves, and fruit, only as the fruit of the one comes more out of the great stems and great twigs, so that of the other does the same, but not out of the stems and twigs immediately, but out of twigs or sprouts without leaves of the length of five or fix inches, whereon they grow sometimes very thick, and in a bunch together. These trees bear fruit three or four times yearly, which are small, of an afh-colour, oblong, round, like Prunes, and are found upon the trees almost all the year long,

Hereabouts also grow many thorns, whereof is made mention in Scripture, by the inhabitants call’d Hauseit, and by the Arabians Hausegi, but the Latins call them Ahamnus; and also white Poplars, ftill to this day call'd Haur by the Arabians. There also groweth a great and high tree which beareth delicate leaves and flowers, pleasant to look upon, by the inhabitants call?d Zensetacht, but by Rhafis and Avia cenna, Astirgar, & Aftergir, and Azadaracht, whereof you see here and there several planted in the streets, to make a pleasant shade in the summer, the fruit thereof remaineth upon them all the year long, until they put out again a-new, for they are hurtful, and kill the dogs if the eat thereof.

Near the town upon the highlands, (where you see abundance of corn-fields, and abundance of pleasant Olive-trees, that reach quite up to mount Libanus) are found Polium montarum, Petten veneris, ferrum equinum, Chamæleon niger, with it's sharp pointed and black roots and leaves, very like unto the leaves of Carlina, whereof the stalks are of a reddish colour, a span long, and of the thickness of a finger ; whereon are small prickly heads, of a blewish colour, not unlike to those of the little Eryngium. Another fine plant grows thereabouts, callid Sathar in their language, but when I consider it's beautifu! purple-colour'd flowers, and it's small leaves which


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