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Cutlers, Woollen-drapers, Grocers, Fruiterers, Cooks, and many more, which are very orderly distributed and placed in their several streets and places. They also drive a great trade in silk, and there are a great many that deal in nothing else but filk, which is convey'd thither from the adjacent places ; for mount Libanus is inhabited by a numberless people, that live by fpinning and working of filk, but chiefly they of Damascus, where is such plenty of filk, that a Merchant may quickly lay out in it many thousand ducats : Because of the great abundance of white Mulberry-trees (by the natives called Tut) which grow there so high and large, that they have plenty of leaves to feed their filk-worms: But the Mulberries thereof are white, and they carry them about in baskets to sell to ordinary people. So there is in the Batzars many filk-workers, which make all sorts of embrcidery, as purses, buttons, and girdles or salhes of several colours, which they tie about their loins; these are at work before their shops, that every

one may them. When they work, or tie two threads together, they hold their work oftener with their great toe, than pin it to any thing, and the fame do the Turners, (which fitting to it) hold their turning irons as well with their toes as with their fingers. Further, at a certain time of the year there is brought from Damascus and other adjacent places, to these Batzars, so great a quantity of large and well-tasted Cibebs, a kind of Raifins, having but one or no stone, that several ship loads are sent from thence to us. These and the like goods are daily brought and found in their Batzars, as rare tapestry and delicately wrought silks with flowers and roses of several colours, some of which look like pure gold. But of all the tradesmen there are not so many of one fort as of them that only deal in Soap and Potashes, for of these ashes (besides Soap) several ship-loads are yearly sent from thence to Venice, which they use for making of Glase as well as Soap. These ashes are made chiefly of a herb, called by the Arabians, Schivan, whereof there are two forts, which amongst others I have pasted' upon paper; one whereof is not unlike to our little Kali ; it is a thick and knotty plant, with feveral small sprigs growing out of it, which have se.

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veral full buttons at the top, and underneath small pointed leaves, just like the leffer Kali, as I said before, tasting somewhat sharp, the leaves thereof are underneath white, and on the other side of the colour of ashes. The other fort becometh also many stalks, which are full of knots like our Equisetum, and underneath them appears a woody and ash-coloured root.

Both these herbs grow thereabout in great quantities, and are burnt into ashes upon the high mountains, in burning thereof there settleth an oily matter underneath towards the bottom, which united with the ashes is almost as hard as a stone when it is cold : at the top thereof a part of the ashes remains unmix'd and loose, therefore it is not so good as the rest. These ashes are brought down from the mountains upon Camels backs by the Moors, to some Merchants that drive a great trade with them, for partly they fend away into foreign parts, and partly they make soap of them, some more, some less, according to every one's capacity and pleafure. The way they make their Soap in Syria, I am informed, is this, viz. They take commonly twelve hundred weight (or twelve centners) of these alhes, which in the summer they divide into eight, and in the winter into four parts, because the Soap is fooner boiled up in winter, for the heat being then included by the outward cold is more vehement than in summer. Of this they take first one part and make it into a good sharp Lye, which they pour into a very large kettle or caldron made of stone, with a large bottom made of a copper-plate, and very thick, wherein they have before put fixteen hundred weight of Sallet-oil, and let it fimper for twenty four hours, pouring daily in more Lye of another part. But before it is quite boild up (which in winter requireth perhaps five days, and in summer nine or ten) they take an hundred weight of quick-lime, and mixing it with the alhes, draw a Lye from it, which they put two days before it is quite enough into the caldron, more or less, according as they find it thick or thin. But if it should happen, that there should be too much of the Lye in the kettle, they have a cock coming out of the copper-plate, whereby they let out as much of the Lye as is convenient. When it is almost boild up, they take out, with a copper kettle that holds eight or ten pounds, the thicker part of the soap that swimmezh on the top, and pour it upon the floor, which is cover'd with lime or chalk beaten to powder; let it lie there for one day in winter, and two days in summer, and it grows so hard that they can walk over it; then they make it smooth, cut it into square pieces, and put their mark upon it.

venient fame

CH A P. III,

Of the Turks of high and low conditions, men and

women ; of their employments, offices, manners, customs, cloaths, as much as I could at Tripoli, during my abode, understand, see and learn thereof.

HE city of Tripoli is, as well as a great

many more of the adjacent towns and provinces, subject to the Turkish Emperor, wherein he hath his officers, as in all other places, that they may be ruled according to his pleasure, and protected froni all assaults and dangers. Such fuperiors are by them call’d, Sangiacks or Bashaws, which we may render State-holders, which have several hundred horse-men under their command, more or less according to the revenues of the provinces that are committed to their care.

These are brave and experienced soldiers, that lead their men out into the fields several times in the week to exercise them, the horse-men in riding, and the foot in shooting with bows and arrows, which have their several marks done upon high poles, to fhoot at in their running ; that if there should be occasion they may be ready to take the field prefently to fight their enemies.

These Sangiachi have other captains and commanders under them, of which the Soubashaws or Judges are the chief ; these are placed by him round about in the adjacent places, to officiate for him where he cannot be present. To fuch places are commonly call’d the Burghers or Citizens of the same places, and they continue no longer than half a year. By them are examined all criminal matters, and they have power to examine and put to the torture all malefactors, to make them confess their crimes. They also accompany the malefactors, that are sentenced and condemn’d by the Cadi, to the place of execution, to see the sentence duly executed ; fo I have seen them often to ride along, but chiefly at one time with a poor malefactor condemn’d to die, who was carry'd on a camel's back, ty'd with his back to a cross, with his arms extended, to the place of execution ; and between the cross and his shoulders were put two burna ing torches, prepared with bacon, so that the grease run all over his body, and burnt it severely. The Turks have also for several crimes, whereof there are a great many, their several punishments; as for thieves and murderers, the gallows; for traytors, impaling ; and for them that kill a man, beheading, &c. and so they keep a great many servants, which they send out every where to bring to them any that are suspected to have transgressed the laws, by beating or wounding one another, which happens very feldom, by stealing, or murdering, or adultery.

For any other transgressions besides these, the Turks are brought before other magistrates, calld Cadi, which are to understand the laws, and to judge, and to pronounce sentence after they have examin’d the witnesses : If it be for debt, they are immediately cast into prison ' until they pay, or find out any other means to make up the debt. But if it be for tranfgrefling the laws, they are severely fined or else punish'd with blows. Wherefore also their Cadi keep several men and spies, which they daily send out, to find out any that transgressed the laws in drinking of wine ; in not going to prayers frequently ; in not strictly observing their fasts, or in transgressing the laws any other ways. If they find any, they fummon them before their Cadi, who punishes them according to their default, with a pecuniary mulet; or if they have no money to give, he sentences them to receive a certain number of blows upon the foals of their feet, and besides pay half a penny for each blow, Being that a great many of such transgressors are daily

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brought before him, whereof the greatest part receive blows, it causeth so miserable a howling and crying, that we might plainly hear it in the French Fondique, which is just over-against it ; and although the Cadi is

very much troubled with such transgreffors, yet matrimonial causes take him up a great deal more time, because all that will marry, must come to him, and make their agreements and contracts, which are consign'd into his books ; partly that they may have them to shew, if any differences should arise between them, (seeing that the Turks and Moors have several wives, and are divorced again for a small matter) and partly that they may give them copies of their contracts upon their marriages, which they write for ordinary people upon smooth and plain paper ; but for others that are rich, upon a piece of white fattin, about a yard long. These their contracts they comprehend in a few words, and draw them up so short, that they scarce contain above eight or ten lines a piece, at least two inches distant from one another. For this purpose they keep several clerks, which oftener write upon their knees, than on desks or tables. These Sangiacks, Soubashaws and Cadi's, of which I have made mention before, and also their wives go very richly cloathed with fine Aower'd filks, artificially made and mix'd of several colours. But these cloathes are commonly given them by those that have causes depending before them, (for they do not love to part with their own money) to promote their cause, and to be favourable to them ; for they are so very covetous that, where there is nothing given them, there they do but little ; for the Bashaws and San giachi, which under the Grand Signior, rule kingdoms and principalities, know very well that they must rule but three years in the same place ; for as soon as their Sultan commands them, they must go to another place, perhaps far distant from that place. Wherefore they always strive after honour and riches, that they may either by gift or favour be by the court promoted to greater authority and office; or else if that cannot be obtain'd, they may at least lay up in the mean time such riches, that they may be able to maintain themselves, after the same greatness as they did before,

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