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Ant. This is not Brutus, friend: but, I assure Than tarry till they push us. Good Volumnius, you,

Thou know' st that we two went to school toA prize no less in worth. Keep this man safe ;

gether : Give him all kindness : I had rather have Even for that our love of old, I pray thee Such men my friends than enemies. Go on, Hold thou my sword-hilts, whilst I run on it. And see whe'r Brutus be alive or dead :

Vol. That's not an office for a friend, my lord. And bring us word unto Octavius' tent

[Alarum still. How everything is chanced.

[Exeunt. Cli. Fly, fly, my lord ! there is no tarrying here.

Bru. Farewell to you; — and you; — and you,

Volumnius. —
SCENE V. - Another part of the Field. Strato, thou hast been all this while asleep:

Farewell to thee too, Strato. - Countrymen, Enter Brutus, DARDANIUS, CLITUS, STRATO,

My heart doth joy that yet, in all my life, and VOLUMNIUS.

I found no man but he was true to me. Bru. Come, poor remains of friends, rest on this I shall have glory by this losing day, rock.

More than Octavius and Marc Antony Cli. Statilius shewed the torch-light; but, my By this vile conquest shall attain unto. lord,

So, fare you well at once ; for Brutus' tongue He came not back: he is or ta'en or slain. Hath almost ended his life's history: Bru. Sit thee down, Citus. Slaying is the Night hangs upon mine eyes; my bones would word :

rest, It is a deed in fashion. Hark thee, Citus :- That have but labored to attain this hour.

[Whispering. 1 [Alarum. Cry within; Fly, fly, Ay!Cli. What, I, my lord ! No, not for all the Cli. Fly, my lord, fly! world.

Bru. Hence: I will follow. Bru. Peace, then; no words.

[Exeunt CLITUS, DARDANIUS, and VOLUMNIUS. Cli. I'd rather kill myself.

I pr’y thee, Strato, stay thou by thy lord.
Bru. Hark thee, Dardanius :-[Whispers him. Thou art a fellow of a good respect;
Dar. Shall I do such a deed !

Thy life hath had some smatch of honor in it: Cli. O, Dardanius!

Hold then my sword, and turn away thy face, Dar. O, Clitus!

While I do run upon it. Wilt thou, Strato ? Cli.. What ill request did Brutus make to Stra. Give me your hand first : fare you well, thee?

my lord. Dar. To kill him, Clitus. Look, he meditates. Bru. Farewell, good Strato. — Cæsar, now be Cli. Now is that noble vessel full of grief,

still : That it runs over even at his eyes.

I killed not thee with half so good a will! Bru. Come hither, good Volumnius : list a word.

[He runs on his sword, and dies. Vol. What says my lord ? Bru. Why this, Volumnius :

Alarum. Retreat. Enter OCTAVIUS, ANTONY, The ghost of Cæsar hath appeared to me

MESSALA, LUCILIUS, and their Army. Two several times by night : at Sardis once ; Oct. What man is that? And this last night, here in Philippi' fields. Mes. My master's man. — Strato, where is thy I know my hour is come.

master ? Vol. Not so, my lord.

Stra. Free from the bondage you are in, MesBru. Nay, I am sure it is, Volumnius.

sala : Thou seest the world, Volumnius, how it goes; The conquerors can but make a fire of him : Our enemies have beat us to the pit :

For Brutus only overcame himself, It is more worthy to leap in ourselves,

And no man else hath honor by his death.

Luc. So Brutus should be found. — I thank All the conspirators, save only he, thee, Brutus,

Did that they did in envy of great Cæsar : That thou hast proved Lucilius' saying true. He, only, in a general honest thought, Oct. All that served Brutus, I will entertain And common good to all, made one of them. them. —

His life was gentle; and the elements Fellow, wilt thou bestow thy time with me? So mixed in him, that Nature might stand up

Stra. Ay, if Messala will prefer me to you. And say to all the world, “This was a man!” Oct. Do so, good Messala.

Oct. According to his virtue let us use him; Mes. How died my master, Strato?

With all respect and rites of burial.
Stra. I held the sword, and he did run on it. Within my tent his bones to-night shall lie,

Most like a soldier, ordered honorably. -
That did the latest service to my master.

So call the field to rest : and let's away, Ant. This was the noblest Roman of them all. To part the glories of this happy day. [Excunt.

NOTES.

Hare you not made an universal shout,

| his own mind, when the genius (or power that watches for his That Tiber trembled underneath her banks." — Act I., Scene 1. protection), and the mortal instruments (the passions) which excite Drayton, in his “ POLYOLBION,” frequently describes the rivers of him to a deed of honor and danger, are in council and debate : when England as females, even when he speaks of the presiding power of the desire of action, and the care of safety, keep the mind in continthe stream. Spenser, more classically, represents them as males.

ual fluctuation and disturbance. -JOHNSON. Of the address to the plebeians in which the quoted passage oc

Sir,'t is your brother Cassius at the door." — Act II., Scene 1. curs, Mr. Campbell eloquently remarks, “ It can be no great exaggeration to say, that these lines in the speech of Marullus are among Junia, the sister of Brutus was married to Cassius. the most magnificent in the English language. They roll over my mind's ear like tho lordliest notes of a cathedral organ."

I can o'ersway him; for he loves to hear .

That unicorns may be betrayed with trees,
"Let no images

And bears with glasses, elephants with holes."
Be hung with Cæsar's trophies.” — Act I., Scene 1.

Act II., Seene 1. There were set up images of Cæsar in the city, with diadems on Unicorns are said to have been taken by one who, running behind their heads like kings. Those the two tribunes went and pulled a tree, eluded the violent push the animal was making at him; so down.- PLUTARCH (North's Translation).

that the unicorn's horn spent its force on the trunk, and stuck fast,

detaining the animal till he was despatched by the hunter. There is Let me have men about me that are fat;

| a similar allusion in Spencer's “ FAERY QUEEN," (b. ii., c. 5). Bears Sleekheaded men, and such as sleep o' nights." — Act I., Scene 2.

are reported to have been surprised by means of a mirror, which they Cæsar also had Cassius in great jealousy, and suspected him much : would gaze on, affording their pursuers an opportunity of taking the wbereupon he said on a time to his friends, “What will Cassius do, surer aim. Elephants were seduced into pitfalls, lightly covered with think ye? I like not his pale looks.” Another timo, when Cæsar's hurdles and turf, on which a proper bait to tempt them was exposed. friends complained unto him of Antonius and Dolabella, that they -STEEVENS. pretended some mischief towards him, he answered them again, “ As for those fat men and smooth-combed heads (quoth he), I never

I grant I am a woman, but withal reckon of them ; but these pale-visaged and carron-lean people, I

A woman that Lord Brutus took to wife.” — Act II., Scene 1. fear them most:” meaning Brutus and Cassius.- PLUTARCH.

I being, O Brutus (said she), the daughter of Cato, was married "A common slave (you know him well by sight)

unto thee, not to be thy companion in bed and at board only, like s Held up his left hand, which did flame and burn.”

harlot; but to be partaker also with thee of thy good and evil forAct I., Scene 3.

tune. Now for thyself, I can find no cause of fault in thee touching

our match: but for my part, how may I shew my duty towards Strabo the philosopher writeth that divers men were seen going up

thee, and how much I would do for thy sake, if I cannot constantly and down in fire: and furthermore, that there was a slave of the

bear a secret mischance or grief with thee which requireth secrecy soldiers that did cast a marvelous burning flame out of his hand, in

and fidelity? I confess that a woman's wit commonly is too weak to asmuch as they that saw it thought he had been burned; but when

keep a secret safely: but yet, Brutus, good education and the comthe fire was out, it was found he had no hurt.-PLUTARCH.

pany of virtuous men have some power to reform the defect of na- “Good Oinna, take this paper,

ture. And for myself, I have this benefit moreover, that I am the And look you lay it in the pralor's chair,

daughter of Cato and wife of Brutus. - PLUTARCI, Where Brutus may but find it.” – Act I., Scene 3.

And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead." For Brutus, his friends and countrymen, both by divers procure

Act II., Scene 2 ments and sundry rumors of the city, and by many bills also, did This line recalls a passage in “ HAMLET : ” — openly call and procure him to do that he did. For under the image

"A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, of his ancestor Junius Brutus (that drave the kings out of Rome),

The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead they wrote, “O that it pleased the gods thou wert now alive, Bru

Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets." tus!” And again, “ That thou wert here among us now!” His tribunal, or chair, where he gave audience during the time he was

“ Por. I pr'y thee, boy, run to the senate house : prator, was full of such bills: “Brutus, thou art asleep, and art

Stay not to answer me, but get thee gone. not Brutus indeed!" -- PLUTARCI.

Why dost thou stay?

Luc. To know my errand, madam." — Act II., Scene 3.

Perturbation of mind is admirably expressed in “ KryG RICHARD The genius and the mortal instruments

III.," as here by Portia :-
Are then in council.” — Act II., Scene 1.

Rich, Dull, unmindful villain!
Shakspeare is describing what passes in a single bosom; the insur Why stay'st thou here, and go'st not to the duke?
rection which a conspirator feels agitating the little kingdom of Cat. First, mighty liege, tell me your highness' pleasure.”

510

“ Et tu, Brute ? - Then fall, Cæsar !– Act III., Scene 1.

Suetonius relates that, according to some authorities, Cæsar exclaimed in Greek, as Brutus approached to stab him, " And thou, my son?” He makes no mention of the Latin phrase attributed to him in the text, neither does Plutarch, who states that the conspiratorg “ compassed him on every side, with their swords drawn in their hands, that Cæsar turned him nowhere but he was stricken by some. Men report also, that Cæsar did still defend himself against the rest, running every way with his body; but when he saw Brutus with his sword drawn in his hand, then he pulled his gown over his head, and made no more resistance."

The often-quoted words probably appeared for the first time in the earlier Latin play on the subject, by Dr. Eedes.

extraordinary pretensions, in which we have observed the line supposed by our contemporary to be " omitted in all modern editions." These are, - Whittingham's (7 vols., Chiswick, 1814); Hurst and Robinson's (2 vols., 1819); Fraser and Crawford's (Edinb., 1 vol., 1838: Orr, London); Sherwood's (London Stage edition, 1 vol., 1825). These copies have all come casually under our notice, and there are doubtless many others that give the line quoted : at the same time, it must be admitted that we have also seen several in which it is wanting. Our contemporary has unwittingly fallen into so many mistakes as to be supposed errors of all preceding modern editions, particularly with reference to the three great Roman plays, that it is but fair towards others to enter a general caution on the subject, without impeaching the special merits of the critic alluded to.

T'here is no harm intended to your person,

Nor to no Roman else." — Act III., Scene 1.

The use of two negatives, not to make an affirmative, but to deny “ Most noble brother, you have done me wrong.— Act IV., Scene 2. more strongly, is common to Chaucer, Spenser, and other of our

About this time, Brutus sent to pray Cassius to come to the city ancient writers. Hickes observes that, in the Saxon, even four nega

of Sardis, and so he did. Brutus understanding of his coming, went tives are sometimes conjoined, and still preserve a negative significa

to meet him with all his friends. There, both armies being armed, . tion. - STEEVENS.

they called them both Emperors. “ Cry · Havock l' and let slip the dogs of war." — Act III., Scene 1.

Now, as it commonly happeneth in great affairs between two per

sons, both of them having many friends, and so many captains un. In military operations of old, the word “harock” signified that der them there ran tales and complaints betwixt them. Therefore, no quarter should be given. By the “dogs of war," are probably before they fell in hand with any other matter, they went into a little meant famine, sword, and fire. As in "KING HENRY V.:"

chamber together, and bade every man avoid, and did shut the doors

to them. They then began to pour out their complaints one to the “ Leashed in like hounds, should famine, sword, and fire,

other, and grew hot and loud, earnestly accusing one another, and Crouch for employment."

at length fell both a-weeping.- PLUTARCH. “ Those that will hear me speak, let them stay here."

By heaven, I had rather coin my heart, Act III., Scene 2.

And drop my blood for drachmas, than to wring A great number of men being assembled together, one after anoth

From the hard hands of peasants their vile trash er, Brutus made an oration unto them, to win the favor of the peo

By any indirection !” – Act IV., Scene 3. ple, and to justify what they had done. All those that were by, said they had done well, and cried unto them that they boldly came down

This is a noble sentiment, altogether in character, and expressed from the Capitol: whereupon Brutus and his companions came

in a manner inimitably happy. For “to wring" implies both to get boldly down into the market-place. The rest followed in troop, but unjustly, and to use force in getting: and “hard hands” signify Brutus went foremost, very honorably compassed in round about both the peasant's great labor and pains in acquiring, and his great with the noblest men of the city. -- PLUTARCH.

unwillingness to quit his hold. - WARBURTON.

Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears.

“Cas. A friend should bear his friend's infirmities ; I come to bury Cæsar, not to praise him.” -- Act III., Scene 2.

But Brutus makes mine greater than they are.

Bru. I do not till you practice them on me.” Then Antonius, thinking good his testament should be read open

Act IV., Scene 3. ly, and also that his body should be honorably buried, and not in

The meaning is this :-"I do not look for your faults: I only see hugger-mugger, lest the people might thereby take occasion to be

them, and mention them with vehemence, when you force them into worse offended if they did otherwise, Cassius stoutly spake against it,

my notice by practising them on me." - Jouxson. but Brutus went with the motion, and agreed unto it: wherein it seemeth he committed a second fault: for the first fault he did was

What should the wars do with these jigging fools ? " when he would not consent to his fellow-conspirators that Antonius should be slain; and therefore he was justly accused that thereby

Act IV., Scene 3. he had saved and strengthened a strong and grievous enemy of

By “jigging fools" is meant silly poets. A jig signified (as mentheir conspiracy. The second fault was when he agreed that Cæsar's tioned in the notes to "HAMLET," Act ii.) a metrical composition, as funerals should be as Antonius would have them; the which indeed

well as a dance. marred all. For, first of all, when Cæsar's testament was openly

read amongst them, whereby it appeared that he bequeathed unto

With this she fell distract, every citizen of Rome, seventy-five drachmas a man, and that he left

And her attendants absent, swallowed fire." his gardens and arbors unto the people which he had on this side of

Act IV., Scene 3. the river Tiber, in the place where now the temple of Fortune is And for Portia, Brutus' wife, Nicholaus the philosopher, and Valebuilt, the people then loved him, and were marvelous sorry for him. rius Maximus do write that she, determining to kill herself (her -PLUTARCH.

parents and friends carefully looking to her to keep her from it),

took hot burning coals and cast them into her mouth, and kept her I am not Cinna the conspirator." - Act III., Scene 3.

| mouth so close that she choked herself. - PLUTANCI. " Through a most extraordinary license, or indolence in the colla

"Bru. Speak to me what thou art. tion of copies, this entire line is omitted in all modern editions."

Gaost. Thy evil spirit, Brutus." -- Act IV., Scene 3. PICTORIAL SIIAKSPEARE.

The line in question was first, probably, omitted in the last edition As they prepared to pass over again out of Asia into Europe, there of Steevens aud Reed (1803); at least we have found it in all those went a rumor that there appeared a wonderful sign unto him. earlier copies that have hitherto fallen in our way. We will, there Brutus was a careful man, and slept very little.

After he fore, merely mention four editions of subsequent date, and of no had slumbered a little after supper, he spent all the rest of the night

511

in despatching of his weightiest causes; and after he had taken or- to kill him. Volumnius denied his request, and so did many others der for them, if he had any leisure left him he would read some book and amongst the rest, one of them said there was no tarrying for till the third watch of the night, at what time the captains, petty them there, but that they must needs fly, captains, and colonels, did use to come unto him,

Then Brutus, rising up, “We must fly, indeed (said he), but it So, being ready to go into Europe, one night (when all the camp must be with our hands, not with our feet.” Then, taking every took quiet rest), as he was in his tent with a little light, thinking man by the hand, he said these words unto them with a cheerful of weighty matters, he thought he heard one come in to him, and, countenance: “It rejoiceth my heart that not one of my friends casting his eye towards the door of his tent, that he saw a wonder. hath failed me at my need; and I do not complain of my fortune, ful, strange, and monstrous shape of a body coming towards him, but only for my country's sake: for, as for me, I think myself hapand said never a word. So Brutus boldly asked what he was, a god pier than they that have overcome, considering that I leave a perpetor a man, and what cause brought him thither. The spirit answered ual fame of our courage and manhood; the which our enemies, the him, “I am thy evil spirit, Brutus, and thou shalt see me by the city conquerors, shall never attain unto by force or money: peither can of Philippes." Brutus, being no otherwise afraid, replied again unto let (hinder) their posterity to say that they, being naughty and unit, * Well, then, I shall see thee again."

just men, have slain good men, to usurp tyrannical power not perThe spirit presently vanished away; and Brutus called his men taining to them.” into him, who told him that they heard no noise, nor saw any thing Having said so, he prayed every man to shift for themselves; and at all. Thereupon Brutus returned again to think on his matters as then he went a little aside with two or three only, among the which he did before: and when the day broke he went unto Cassius, to Strato was one, with whom he came first acquainted by the study of tell him what vision had appeared unto him in the night. — PLU- rhetoric. He came as near to him as he could, and taking his sword TARCH.

by the hilts with both his hands, and falling down upon the point of it, ran himself through. Others say that not he, but Strato (at his request), held the sword in his hand, and turned his head aside, and that Brutus fell down upon it, and so ran himself through, and died

presently.- PLUTARCH. They mean to warn us at Philippi here." -- Act V., Scene 1. “ To warn ” meant formerly to summon, as well as to caution. As in " KING JOAX:"“ Who is it that hath warned us to the walls?”

Gildon long ago remarked that Brutus was the true hero of this And in “ KING RICHARD III.:” –

tragedy, and not Cæsar. Schlegel makes the same observation. The " And sent to warn them to his royal présence."

poet has portrayed the character of Brutus with peculiar care, and

developed all the amiable traits, the feeling, and patriotic heroism of " Ride, ride, Messala, ride, and give these bills

it with supereminent skill. Ile has been less happy in personifying Unto the legions on the other side." — Act V., Scene 2.

Cæsar, to whom he has given several ostentatious speeches, unsuited In the meantime, Brutus, that led the right wing, sent little bills to his character, if we may judge from the impressions made upon to the colonels and captains of private bands, in which he wrote the us by his own Commentaries. The character of Cassius is also order of the battle. -- PLUTARCH,

touched with great picety and discrimination, and is admirably corn

trasted to that of Brutus: his superiority “in independent volition, " Statilius shewed the torchlight; but, my lord,

and his discernment in judging of human affairs, are pointed out; " He came not back." -- Act V., Scene 5.

while the purity of mind and conscientious love of justice in Brutus, unfit him to be the head of a party in a state entirely corrupted :

these amiable failings gave, in fact, an unfortunate turn to the cause men slain in battle; and to know the truth of it there was one, call

of the conspirators. ed Statilius, that promised to go through his enemies (for otherwise

The play abounds in well-wrought and effecting scenes. It is it was impossible to go see their camp), and from thence, if all were

scarcely necessary to mention the celebrated dialogue between Bru. well, that he should lift up a torchlight in the air, and then return

tus and Cassius, in which the design of the conspiracy is opened to again with spted to him. The torchlight was lift up as he had prom- !

Brutus:— the quarrel between them, rendered doubly touching by ised, for Statilius went thither. Now Brutus, seeing Statilius tarry

the close, when Cassius learns the death of Portia ; and which one long after that, and that he came not again, he said, “If Statilius be

is surprised to think that any critic susceptible of feeling should alive, he will come again:” but his evil fortune was such that, as

pronounce “ cold and unaffecting ; ” — the scene between Brutus and he came back, he, lighted in his enemies' hands, and was slain. -

Portia, where she endeavors to extort the secret of the conspiracy PLUTARCH.

from him, in which is that heart-thrilling burst of tenderness which

Portia's heroic behavior awakens: Sit thee down, Clitus ; slaying is the word.” — Act V., Scene 5.

“ You are my true and honorable wife : Now the night being far spent, Brutus, as he sat, bowed towards

As dear to me as are the ruddy drops Clitus, one of his men, and told him somewhat in his ear: the other

That visit my sad heart." answered him not, but fell a-weeping. Thereupon he proved Dar. danus, and said somewhat also to him. At length he came to Vo The speeches of Marc Antony over the dead body of Cæsar, and lumnius himself, and, speaking to him in Greek, prayed him for the the artful eloquence with which he captivates the multitude, are studies' sake which brought them acquainted together, that he justly classed among the happiest effusions of poetic declamation. would help him to put his hand to his sword, to thrust it in him SINGER.

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