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he has sought to exhibit language in its whole extent, and in all its relations, as the result of an organized development. This development is the main idea, on which, in a simple manner, he has constructed his system, embracing every part of language, and giving it an organic unity. He has sought to establish his views by an historical examination of the facts of the language. Though they essentially differ from the earlier ones which generally prevailed, yet they have met with a favorable reception, not only among theoretical investigators, but practical teachers.
Of the assistance of Becker, Prof. Sears has availed himself, in every part of the grammar. The syntax of Becker has been, very properly, substituted for that of Noehden, with the exception of what is said on the article. The following brief synopsis may show, in some measure, the mode in which the author handles his topics. The first chapter in the syntax treats of simple sentences, containing the verb and its relations, the qualifications of the nouns, and the relation of the noun in regimen to its verb. These are exhibited, under many subdivisions, with great logical clearness. The second chapter treats of co-ordinate clauses, and of leading and subordinate clauses in compound sentences. The arrangement of words occupies the third chapter, embracing the verb, the qualifications of the noun, and the relation of the noun in regimen to its verb. The last chapter is on the composition of words and on Purism. This arrangement differs, it will be perceived, from that commonly pursued in syntax, but it will be found to be far more philosophical and intelligible.
The American editor has performed his labor with the judgment and accuracy which might be expected, from his intimate knowledge, both of the German language, and of the wants of those who are studying that difficult dialect. The book is not a compilation, or a mere new edition of Noehden. To use a nautical phrase, it has been thoroughly overhauled. Many days of hard labor have been expended upon it. In proof of this, we might appeal to the appendix. The list of irregular verbs occupies fourteen pages in small type, and is the most full and convenient which we have ever seen. Then we have a long list of grammatical terms in German, seven pages of German abbreviations, closing with an elaborate analytical index.
We must add, that the work is printed with exceeding accuracy by the new and enterprising firm at Andover. The book is bound in a substantial manner, and is sold at one dollar and fifty cents, less than half of the price of the English edition.
2. Vorlesungen über das Leben Jesu, für Theologen und Nicht theologen von Dr. OTTO KRABBE, &c. Lectures on the Life of Jesus, for theologians and others, by Dr. Otto Krabbe, Professor of Biblical Theology in the Academic Gymnasium at Hamburg. 1839.
In no department of biblical criticism have German industry and learning, for several years past, been more actively employed, than in that relating to the life and history of Christ. The production of a satisfactory work on this subject is, by no means, an easy task. It presupposes the most extensive exegetical study, mature and consistent theological views, and above all, a spirit of deep piety, the want of which can be supplied by no other qualification. The increased attention which the subject has received in Germany, is owing, mainly, to the
publication of Strauss's celebrated work, "das Leben Jesu," and the necessity thence arising of defending the evangelical history against the attacks made upon it, in this and similar works. It has been said, whether justly or not, in illustration of the difference between the public in Germany and that in England, that a book like this of Strauss, in the latter country, would not have survived a single edition; and, instead of requiring a host of learned treatises for its refutation, might safely have been left to die of itself. On the contrary, in Germany, it has already, since its first publication in 1835, reached a fourth edition; and, owing in part, no doubt, to the ability with which it is written, but in part also to accidental circumstances, among which some would reckon the manner in which the opposition to it was at first conducted, has excited the greatest attention both among the learned and unlearned; and is exercising, for the present, an important influence on the cause of biblical criticism in that country. "Since the appearance of Strauss," says Prof. Tholuck, "a new epoch has taken place, as regards the direction of the criticism of the New Testament." Any one who hears the biblical lectures at the universities, will soon perceive the truth of the remark, in the constant reference which the discussions are made to have to this newest phasis of German neology. It is most gratifying, at the same time, to see the proof, which the controversy on the subject has elicited, that Germany has still so many, who remain firm to the truth, and who can bring to the defence of it ability and learning equal to the crisis. It may not be out of place here to mention some of the principal works which the occasion has called forth, and which are best adapted to admit one into a knowledge of the nature and bearings of the controversy. In clustering them, we give the opinion which is entertained respecting them in Germany, by men, on whose judgment our readers may rely. The first, if this rank may be assigned to any high work, above all others, is, undoubtedly, "The Life of Jesus Christ," by Dr. Neander, of Berlin. The sale of it may be taken as some indication of the favor, with which it has been received. It is an octavo of more than 700 pages, and was first published in 1837; since which, three editions have been exhausted, and a fourth is now demanded and is in preparation. It is written with fervid Christian feeling, with impartial critical scrutiny, with superior historical tact; but, as some complain, with less decision of theological views than could be desired, and with a want of clearness and energy in the mode of representation.-Tholuck's "Credibility of the Evangelical History, with a critique of the Life of Jesus by Strauss." This exhibits the well known characteristics of the author; it is replete with evidence of extensive reading and erudition, abounds in lively and striking thoughts, in interesting facts and illustrations; but is not always so guarded, on every point, as to be incapable of rejoinder from an opponent.-KRABBE'S "Lectures on the Life of Jesus," named at the head of this notice; they are written throughout with a polemic aim against Strauss, with a judicious appropriation of the best materials, which have been furnished by others. "The Life of Jesus, scientifically treated," by Joн. KUHN, 1838, part first; a work of the highest merit, exhibiting great originality, a lively Christian interest on the subject, and the fruits of extensive, critical study.-ULLMAN'S "Historical or Mythic?" 1838, relates to the same controversy, and is highly commended.-"The Life of Jesus," by HASE, professor at Jena, first published 1839, before the appearance of Strauss's book, and now again in a third edition 1840, although a mere compendium, is invaluable, as a manual of the litera
ture relating to the subject. Its general stand-point is rationalistic, with an important advance, however, in the last edition, as compared with the first, towards orthodox views.-Besides these, and others which might be mentioned, HARLESS, professor at Erlangen, Tuch, at Bonn, Hengstenberg, at Berlin, and Müller, at Halle, names well known in this country, have taken part in these discussions, by the publication either of separate works, or of important articles in the leading critical journals. We cannot believe that views like those of Strauss are destined to attract much attention, still less to gain much currency here; but should it prove otherwise, we are happy to know, that the country which has produced the poison, can assist us, to such an extent, in applying the remedy. H.
3. Hermeneutik des Neuen Testaments, von Dr. HENRIK N. KLAUSEN, ordentlichem Professor der Theologie an der Universität zu Kopenhagen, &c. Hermeneutics of the New Testament, by Dr. Henry N. Klausen, ordinary professor in the University at Copenhagen, translated from the Danish into German by C. O. SCHMIDT, Phiseldek.
This work deserves an extended notice, instead of the mere announcement, to which we must here confine ourselves. As a storehouse for the history of exegetical theology, it stands unrivalled. More than two-thirds of the book, an octavo of 475 pages, are devoted to this subject, presenting it with a fulness and accuracy of research, exhibited in no similar treatise within our knowledge. The author divides the historical portion of it into five sections; in the first of which he traces the history of New Testament interpretation, from the time of the apostles to the sixth century; in the second, from the seventh century to the Reformation; in the third, from the beginning of the Reformation to the end of the sixteenth century; in the fourth, from the beginning of the seventeenth to the middle of the eighteenth century; and in the fifth, from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present time. The characteristics of these several periods are sketched with a discriminating hand, illustrated, at the same time, by copious examples, which show the author's perfect mastery of the subject, and point out the sources of information for others, who may wish to institute an independent examination for themselves. The sections on the Greek of the New Testament are peculiarly valuable; the view which they present of its idioms and peculiarities, although concise, is given with uncommon distinctness and unity. We would by no means endorse for the correctness of the work in all respects. The parts of it, which relate to the science and principles of interpretation, are less satisfactory, and not so free, as could be wished, from a rationalistic bias. These occupy, however, but a subordinate place; they are the historical portions which constitute its chief feature, and impart to it its character. H.
4. Novum Testamentum, Græce et Latine. CAROLUS LACHMANNUS, recensuit, &c. New Testament, in Greek and Latin, from the Recension of Charles Lachmann. Vol I. Berlin. 1842.
We are happy to announce the publication of this work of Lachmann, which has been so long expected. It is to be regarded, in this department, as one of the first critical products of the age. It will be distinguished, of course, from the edition of the New Testament, published by
the same author in 1837. In that edition, the object was, simply to present the text of the New Testament,as found in some of the oldest manuscripts, without reference to their critical value,as determined by other considerations, as well as that of antiquity; so that, in adhering to this rule, he was led frequently to admit readings, which are acknowledged to be incorrect. In the work now published, on the contrary, the author has endeavored to settle the true reading of the New Testament text, in conformnity with all the laws of criticism, applicable to the case. The Recension is not the result of so extended a comparison of manuscripts, as has been made by some others, who have labored in this department; but, so far as carried, has been conducted, it is said, with the greatest fidelity; and, as regards the use, which has been made of the early Christian fathers, -a source of illustration hitherto by no means exhausted, the examipation is more complete, probably, than has been attempted in any case heretofore. The authorities consulted, notwithstanding their limited number, are of so important a character, and have been used with such care, as, in the opinion of competent judges, to supersede the necessity of a wider comparison, and to establish the text upon as sure a basis as can, in the nature of the case, be attained. The present volume contains the text of the gospels; the remainder will follow in time.
5. Universalism examined, renounced and erposed; in a series of lectures embracing the experience of the author during a ministry of twelve years, and the testimony of Universalist ministers to the dreadful moral tendency of their faith. By MATTHEW HALE SMITH. Boston. Tappan & Dennet. 1842. pp. 396. 12mo.
This book is a temperate discussion of the errors of the sect, with which the author formerly was identified. It is divided into seven lectures, embracing an account of the early history of Mr. S., and of the method of his conversion, together with a review and refutation of the arguments, by which the system of Universalism is commonly sustained. It is written in a clear and earnest style, and seems to be the production of a sane mind. The orderly manner in which the subject is treated, part by part, and the facts brought to light from the penetralia of the sanctuary of error, at whose shrine the author so long ministered, are calculated to make the advocates of the system exceedingly uncomfortable. The work is strictly controversial; but the argument is presented in an eminently practical form. The writer may not have the learning or the acuteness, manifested in the work of the younger Edwards, the opponent of Chauncy; but his position has given him the means of constructing a refutation, far more apposite to the existing phases of the error, far more pungent and biting, than any man, who had not officiated in the inner temple of the sect, could have invented. His appeal is to the personal confessions of his former brethren. His objections to Universalism are not merely arguments, based on the meaning of words, or on theological reasonings; but facts, of which his experience of twelve years has put him in possession. Mr. S. informs us that the present form of Universalism can date no farther back than 1818; and that not one doctrine that entered into the system, as taught by Mr. Murray, enters into it now." When Mr. M. came to this country, and established the first congregation of that sect at Gloucester, Mass., in 1770, he differed from the evangelical community in but one thing. "Were he now alive, he would have no more sympathy with Universalism, than
with atheism." Thus we see the downward tendency of error. men begin to "swerve from the truth, and to turn aside unto fables," there is no stopping-place for them, until they reach the awful abyss of universal negation,-the miserable refuge of the lowest infidelity. The only safe rule for us is the scriptural one: "Thy word is a light to my feet, and a lamp unto my paths." We hope the book may find its way among those who need its enlightening influences. For it cannot fail to do good. We wish men to understand that, if there be any virtue in the laws of hermeneutics, it is a solemn and alarming truth, that the doctrines of future rewards and punishments must stand or fall together; and, that he who expunges a hell from the word of God, by the very same act, also annihilates heaven. If there is not reserved for the wicked the eternal penalty of sin, the hope of the Christian is also vanity. If none are to be lost, none will be saved. Alórios is still αιώνιος, whether the noun to which it belongs be κόλαςις or ζωή.
6. Attractions of Language, by BENJAMIN F. TAYLOR, A. M. With an Introduction by ASAHEL C. KENDRICK, A. M., Professor in the Literary and Theological Institution, Hamilton, N. Y. Hamilton. J. & D. Atwood. 1842. pp. 202. 12mo.
This little book is introduced to the favorable regards of the public by the recommendations of several of the officers of the Hamilton Institution, and of other literary gentlemen. It is written in a light, airy style, and gives evidence of the author's fine command of words, with which he sports, as children do with toys. He is a man of lively imagination, to whom all nature speaks in intelligible, if not in articulate, language. He has evidently studied natural history with great enthusiasm; and, from several of its departments has industriously collected facts, with which he has adorned, not to say filled, his interesting treatise. The title-page, which, by the way, is too much like a table of contents, gives a very good analysis of the book; "a popular view of natural language, in all its varied displays, in the animate and the inanimate world; and as corresponding with instinct, intelligence and reason; a physiological description of the organs of voice; an account of the origin of artificial, spoken language; and a brief analysis of alphabetical sounds." Under the first head, he describes the instruction which we may suppose to be administered by the various flowers; the violet, for example, suggesting humility; the olive, peace; the palm, victory; the snow-drop, hope; the honeysuckle, affection. Then, day and night, the seasons, the stars, the comets, and God's various works, all have a language, by which they instruct, and warn, and encourage those who give heed to their silent eloquence. This is, of course, in part fanciful. From the still language of inanimate nature, he proceeds to the language of brute animals; and endeavors to fix the limits between instinct, intelligence and reason. Many interesting facts, illustrating the power of instinct, serve to render this part of his work highly entertaining. Next to this comes the sign-language of the human organs, the shades of feeling expressed by the countenance, the manual alphabet of the deaf and dumb, and an account of the organs of articulate or inarticulate speech. The third part, which treats of the language of reason, is to us the most interesting, inasmuch as it has more to do with the studies of the rhetorician and the grammarian. The speculations of the author are marked by good sense; and, although he does not aspire, in these unassuming