version, he had "sondrye translacions, not onely in latyn, but also of the Douche (German) interpreters." He says, also, "I haue nether wrested nor altered so moch as one worde for the mayntenance of any maner of sect: but haue with a cleare conscience purele and faythfully translated this out of fyve sundry interpreters, hauying onely the many fest trueth of the scripture before myne eyes." Dr. Geddes "scruples not to affirm that this translation is one of more merit, and is more according to the original (such as Coverdale had it), than the present authorized version, which is commonly read in the churches." The translation and printing were accomplished in the incredibly short period of eleven months. But Coverdale probably made free use of Tyndale's labors. Yet, on account of the ill-savor in which the New Testament of the latter was held, he made a complete revision, and perhaps translated much of the Old Testament


Coverdale's Bible was the basis of others, published subsequently. The Thomas-Matthew-Bible, so called, published in 1537, was a collection of all the books translated by Tyndale, together with the books which he left untranslated, supplied from the version of Coverdale. It was edited by John Rogers, the martyr. He was educated at Cambridge, and brought to the knowledge of the truth through the labors of Tyndale and Coverdale. This continued to be the favorite version, the demand for it, for several years, much exceeding the demand for Coverdale's. It is worthy of notice that this edition, the first to receive the royal sanction, contained substantially the New Testament of Tyndale, which, a few years previously, had been reproached as "false, crafty, and untrue;" and that the version, which had been condemned and burned in England, for reading which, many were burned likewise, and on account of which the author himself was put to death, in less than a year after the author's martyrdom, was "set forth by the king's most gracious license." And, still more, that Tonstall himself superintended an edition of that very version, which, fifteen years before, he had condemned and burned, as full of heresy and error. After Matthews' Bible, was published the "Great Bible," so called, or "Cranmer's Bible," which is not a new version, but a revision of existing ones, the text of Matthew's Bible forming the basis. It was called Cranmer's, because he wrote the prologue to it,

or because a revision of the New Testament, made by him at few years before, was used. Richard Taverner's Bible, in 1539, also gives substantially the same text. Our space will only permit us to say, that the version by Coverdale approaches much more nearly to our present version, than either of those which preceded it. It is his translation of the Psalms which we have in the book of Common Prayer.

The reformers, who fled from the persecutions of queen Mary, and settled at Geneva, employed the quiet which they enjoyed, in making a new translation of the Bible, which was published in 1560. Neal affirms, in his History of the Puritans, that they "compared Tyndale's Bible, first with the Hebrew, and then with the best modern translations." We are indebted to this version for the idea of inserting in italic letters, the words which are not found in the original; preceding versions left such helps to the sense, undistinguished from the inspired text. This version first divided the text into verses, after the example of the fourth edition of the Greek Testament, by Stephens. This version was made by the joint labor of several competent men. The reason for this new version may be gathered from the fact that biblical learning had greatly increased, and the learned were in a much better condition than before, to make a perfect translation. This Bible was displaced only by the king James's version, which is now in use.

In the year 1568, was published, under the superintendence of Archbishop Parker, the "Bishops' Bible." The whole Bible was distributed into fourteen or more portions, and committed to as many different persons for translation. Most of the persons to whom the work was entrusted were bishops; hence the name which is given to their version. It was used upwards of forty years in churches; but in private, it never supplanted the Geneva translation. Its chief interest, at present, is in the fact that it served as the basis of the Bible now in use. But a comparison of our existing version with those of Tyndale and Coverdale, or Cranmer, which is substantially the same, leads us to the inference, that, while the bishops professedly made a new translation, they also used very freely the labors of their predecessors.

The history of the king James's Bible is doubtless too familiar to our readers to be appropriate here. But before dismissing this topic, we add a few items in respect to the Rhemish or



Douay version. It grew out of the division of Catholics and Protestants, generally, and of the Geneva translation in particular. Some of the leading Catholics supposed that the notes, appended by the Geneva translators to several texts in their version, were directed against the system of popery. Hence they wished to furnish a suitable antidote to the Protestant poison. The Douay version was undertaken, after the accession of Elizabeth to the English throne had given to the reformed religion the pre-eminence. The chief agent in the work was William Allen, a student at Oxford, and a man of distinguished abilities. By his efforts the English seminary at Douay was established, to serve as a refuge to Catholics who fled from their own country, on account of their religion. He was appointed canon of Rheims, and established an institution of learning there. Bitterly opposed as he was to the Protestants, his project of translating the Scriptures is thought by some to have been chiefly a fruit of sectarian hostility. His translators were three in number,-Gregory Martin, Richard Bristow, and Thomas Worthington, of whom, the first is supposed to have been the chief. The New Testament was printed at Rheims, in 1582, and the Old at Douay, in the years 1609 and 1610. It is a version made from the Latin Vulgate, declared by the Council of Trent to be authentic, and, of course, to be of like authority with the words of the Holy Ghost, although, as we have seen, the text of it is, in many instances, corrupted; "in some places being more than the Greke, in others lesse than the Greke," etc. The translators even affirm in their preface, that the Latin is of higher authority than the Greek, in passages where they disagree. They introduce many words directly from the Latin, untranslated. They pervert the plain text, to suit the dogmas of their own creed. Without the aid of their notes, it is easy to detect the sect, whose organ the version is. It has a stiffness, a distance from the bosoms of men, a remoteness from their common affairs, rendering it quite unfitted to be a light to our feet and a lamp to our paths. It changes the original "the Lord," to the form "our Lord," for the good reason that “the heretics use the simple phrase!" The author of the preface also re-avows the principle, that it is not good that men of all grades should at all times read the Scriptures freely in the vernacular tongue, but only certain approved persons: agreeably to the decree of the Council of Trent, "that the Holy Scriptures, though truely and Catholikely translated

into vulgar tongues, yet may not be indifferently readde of all men, nor of any other than such as have expresse license therevnto of their lawful ordinaries, with good testimonie from their curates or confessors, that they be humble, discrete, and devout persons, and like to take much good and no harme thereby." EDITOR.



Letter to a young Philologian. By BARTHOLD G. Niebuhr. Translated from the German, by H. B. HACKETT, Professor in Newton Theological Institution.

THE following Letter of the celebrated Niebuhr has been received with great favor in Germany. It was what it purports to be, a private letter, addressed to a young friend, of his acquaintance, and was first given to the public, in the memoirs of the author. It has since been reprinted in various forms, and translated into some other languages; and is prized so highly, that teachers in the German gymnasia, and professors, at the universities, recommend it to their pupils, who are engaged in classical philology, as especially deserving their attention. With the exception, perhaps, of some remarks, presupposing certain modes of instruction, which are not much practised here, it is equally adapted to be useful among us. Indeed, those parts, which might seem irrelevant at present in this country, may prove not amiss, by showing to us our deficiencies, and awakening a desire for improvement. At all events, the correct moral tone, as well as the spirit of literary enthusiasm which pervades the letter, the style of scholarship so extensive and thorough, yet unostentatious, which it holds up to view, and the valuable practical suggestions which it contains, supported as they are by the authority of so distinguished a master in philology, will render it not unacceptable, it is hoped, especially to such as are themselves engaged in classical studies, whether as teachers or learners.

For an interesting sketch of the life and character of Niebuhr, see the March number of the Review for 1841. TR.

On being informed by a letter from your mother, that you manifest a decided inclination for philological studies, I expressed to her my joy at this, and desired her, and your father, not to oppose this inclination by projecting for you other plans of life. I think I said to her, that since philology is the introduction to all other studies, he who pursues it with zeal, while at school, as if it were to constitute his occupation for life, prepares himself for every other science to which he may choose to direct his attention at the university. And besides, philology is so delightful to me, that for one so dear, who stands in so near a relation to me as yourself, I could desire no other calling sooner than this. There is none more quiet and tranquil, none which, by the nature of its duties and labors, is better adapted to secure peace of the heart and conscience. And how often have I lamented with sorrow, that I myself abandoned it, and entered upon a restless life, in which old age itself perhaps will overtake me, ere I have arrived at permanent peace. The office especially of a teacher is perfectly honorable; and notwithstanding all the evils which mar its ideal beauty, really presents to a noble heart one of the happiest paths of life. This was the destination which I once selected for myself, and from which I feel that I ought never to have been diverted. I am well aware, that having now been spoiled by the great sphere in which I have spent my active life, I should no longer be qualified for it; but for one to whom I so sincerely and heartily wish well as to yourself, it is my desire that he may not be thus spoiled, nor suffer any yearning for other objects to draw him from the quiet, and the safe, retired circle in which I, like you, have passed my youth.

Your honored parent wrote me that you wished to submit to me an exercise for the purpose of giving me proof of your diligence, and of showing me what progress you have already made. I requested her to encourage you in this design, not only that I may give you, and your friends some evidence of the sincere interest which I take in you, but also because here in philology, I happen to be not wholly without experience. I know the aim which one should propose to himself; and have a sufficiently distinct idea both of the paths

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