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or fall together. Doctrine interlocks itself with doctrine, and truth with truth, like the parts of an immense building; and the removal of a pin or a beam is a weakening of the whole. The views which we maintain are written not only in the word of God, but in the very constitution of man. While human nature is such as it is, our views of the main positions of the evangelical creed must continue such as they are. They are indelibly written in our Christian experience. The internal witness, communicated by the work of the Spirit on our hearts, corresponds with the external witness of the sacred word. Even if the Scriptures could be annihilated, heaven would still bear testimony to the same truths which they have always taught. The chief articles of our creed are directly or indirectly implied, in every strain of its worship and its melody, and in every act of its glorified inhabitants.* We have said, that the work before us contains, in connection with the Memoir, such selections from the correspondence of Dr. F., and such casual remarks of the editor, as are adapted to explain and defend the views of the religious sect with which they are both identified. There is a striking exemplification of this on pages 258-261,-a letter on infant baptism. Some of the sentiments contained in this remarkable argument are worthy to claim a moment's notice. The author says: "The Baptists ask us to show the New Testament authority" for infant baptism; "we ask them to show us the New Testament prohibition." If, then, we are to retain every requirement of the Old Testament in full force, which is not distinctly prohibited in the New, we must retain the rite of infant circumcision. Or if it be replied, that rite is prohibited in the New Testament, we may safely ask, where and how is it prohibited? And, as soon as the prohibition is pointed out, we must take the liberty to say, that
*On p. 131, the author of the Memoir makes the following remark: "The regions where the Genevan theology has most prevailed have been most prolific in the various modifications of semi-infidelity." This assertion seems designed to imply, in a covert manner, that Calvinistic views are accountable for semi-infidelity, or have a tendency to produce it. We wonder that the author did not perceive that semi-infidelity is a fruit of human depravity; and that divine truth is not, therefore, accountable for it. It is not a candid, humble, practical belief in the Genevan theology, as containing the substance of the word of God,-a belief such as characterized Edwards, and Brainerd, and Payson, and Haliburton,-that leads to semi-infidelity; but the absence of that belief. They who be lieve in any system most profoundly should be expected to experience the most of its legiti mate effects. But in this case, the semi-infidelity is in those who are most remote from such a belief in the doctrines of Calvinism. If the prevalence of Calvinistic views has revealed darkness, and made it prominent, is it not a proof that those views themselves are light?
rite being prohibited, circumcision being taken away, no ordinance is to be administered to infants, except on the ground of distinct requirement; and such a requirement cannot be shown. Again, he says, "Infants ought to be admitted to baptism, because they are proper subjects of the ordinance. Our Saviour himself has decided this question; 'Of such is the kingdom of heaven.' Are all justified persons fit subjects of the seal? Infants are justified (Rom. 5: 18)." We see not how involuntary infants can be "proper subjects" of an ordinance, which, in its very nature, implies the activity of voluntary choice. The statement that infants are "justified persons, ," in the common use of that term, seems to us very strange theology. It involves with a witness the capital error, denominated, "falling from grace." For, on coming to possess the power of voluntary action, they fall from that state of justification, without an exception.* The passage quoted proves too much. If the use of it here proposed be correct, we see not why all persons should not be baptized, of whatever character they may be. The author proceeds, "But you say, perhaps they will grow up wicked;-not always. If infants and children were taken care of by the church as they should be, I doubt whether there would be so many ungodly children raised up in the bosom of the church." If we are not mistaken, this passage goes far towards the denial of the doctrine of universal depravity. It implies, too strongly to be misunderstood, that some germs of goodness exist in some infants by nature, which are capable of such cultivation, that, with proper care on the part of the church, those children would not grow up to be wicked. Besides the remarks contained in the letter by way of argument, there are some very strange assertions in it, which need only to be introduced as theological curiosities: "I have not the least doubt but the enemy of souls takes this method often [suggesting the importance of believers' baptism], to harass and afflict God's people, and keep them back from more important duties." "The subject is one well suited, by our arch enemy to injure
*Conformably with this sentiment, he speaks afterwards of a "child who had lost his early justification, when he was of the kingdom of God."-p. 261. And that this is his meaning, a state of justification being used by him to imply the state of a penitent sinner, received into favor with God, through faith in Jesus Christ,-we know from a preceding paragraph, where, in speaking of a backslider, he says, as epexegetical of this latter term, one who had "apostatized, and lost his early justification." Every infant, then, who has ever grown up to be wicked, has fallen from grace.
our peace.' "I do not believe it is well-pleasing to God that you should afflict your soul on this question; whereas, I have no doubt it is well-pleasing to Satan. For thereby you are kept from enjoyment, from a growth in grace, and from usefulness." How truly is Satan "clothed as an angel of light," if, agreeably to these suggestions, it is he that stirs up the mind of the believer to inquire, what the will of the Lord is! The true child of God, we conceive, is not likely to be injured in his enjoyment, his growth in grace, or his usefulness, by cherishing an ardent desire to know and keep all God's commandments.
Under the multiplied labors which his station demanded, and which he performed with the utmost faithfulness, the health of Dr. F., which, it will be remembered, was always feeble, at length gave way. To this painful result, the extraordinary efforts incident to a revival of religion in the University in 1834, contributed no small share. His medical friends advised him to cross the ocean, hoping that the relaxation of his labors and the change of climate and scenery would restore the wasted energies of his constitution. University, having been placed on a more stable footing, also needed books and apparatus, which could be purchased to the best advantage by an agent sent directly to Europe. Accordingly, it was resolved by the trustees, "to give the president a commission to Europe, for the twofold purpose of benefiting his health, and advancing the interests of the institution." By a renewed attack of illness, however, as well as by the claims of pressing duties, his voyage was deferred till September, 1835.
Dr. F. was absent from America a little more than fourteen months. During this period he visited England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Italy, Switzerland, and some parts of Germany. On his return he prepared for the press an account of his travels, in a volume of 700 pages 8vo. "It speedily ran through seven editions, and not less than 8000 copies have been sold." His journey and visit, though marked by some painful occurrences, resulted in extending his fame and his usefulness, and the estimation in which he was held. It was also an additional means of binding together, in ties of mutual friendship, Christians living on both sides of the water. He maintained the character and the tastes of his profession.
As Sir Humphrey Davy was unmoved by the attractions of the Louvre, and as Howard, though a man of refined taste, would not turn aside from his mission of benevolence to survey the ruins of the Acropolis or the Parthenon, so Dr. F. was less interested in the wonders of nature and art in foreign countries, than in the moral condition of the people among whom he sojourned. His ruling passion was not personal gratification, but the spiritual and intellectual advancement of his fellow-men.
The return of Dr. F. to the seat of his labors was hailed
with unmingled joy. "His health appeared, to many, much improved. He had enriched the library and apparatus of the Wesleyan University with important additions, to the value of about seven thousand dollars; besides a handsome donation from the British Conference, of books, among which were a complete set of the Arminian and Methodist Magazine, and the entire works of Richard Baxter, in 23 vols. 8vo., and Mr. Wesley's Christian Library. He also received benefactions from individuals in England, consisting of money, books, and contributions to the cabinet of Natural History." He applied himself with zeal to his appropriate duties, having lost none of the excellent qualities which he formerly exhibited, through contact with foreign dignitaries, and a familiarity with the institutions of the old world. During the next two years, besides fulfilling the duties of his office, he wrote several papers for the periodical press, designed to correct errors, or to awaken activity in the cause of doing good. In the summer of 1838, his health became prostrated, by reason of unusual exertions; and it was with great difficulty that he attended the exercises of the Commencement, at the University. Symptoms of a painful character which he had experienced while in Europe, were revived and aggravated. But after several weeks' confinement, "he again ventured into the pulpit, and preached two or three touching sermons from his chair." On the last evening in that year, he preached from the words,-" Few and evil have the days of the years of my life been, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers, in the days of their pilgrimage." Though comparatively in the highest vigor of life,-at the early age of forty-six,—there seemed to be in the event something mournfully prophetic of what was soon to occur. "It was touching to see him upon
his elevated seat, for he was obliged to preach in a sitting posture, discoursing of life, death and immortality.” After this, though troubled with a swelling of the limbs and difficulty of breathing, he wrote several letters to his friends on public and private business, and, on January 13, 1839, he preached his last sermon. His disease now made rapid inroads, and brought with it great uneasiness and pain. But his dying bed was that of a Christian, characterized by humility, patience, disinterestedness, piety, affection. He that reads the record will say, "Lord, it is good for us to be here." On Feb. 22, the glorious hope was realized, and he ascended to join "the church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven."
The grave covers defects. Though we could not subscribe to all Dr. F.'s opinions, we believe him to have been a great and good man. Far be it from us to have uttered a word in disparagement of a believing brother, who, though his views differed from our own, we doubt not was a sincere Christian. We trust, in a spirit of candor, and actuated by the love of truth, we have presented to our readers the criticisms that seemed due to a work, which, incorporated into the inventory of public property, as a living energy, is, in future years, to exert its influence among our countrymen.
THE most plausible pretender to divine revelations that has appeared in modern times, and the one who has drawn after him the greatest number of respectable followers, is Emanuel Swedenborg. This gentleman was born at Stockholm, Jan. 29, 1688. His father, who was a Swedish bishop, was a man of learning and celebrity in his time. The son received a very thorough education, and devoted the former part of his life almost exclusively to theological studies and pursuits. He travelled extensively in different parts of Europe; was in much favor with Charles XII, King of Sweden, and with