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of the Virgin Mary, and the host of inferior saints. It is, too, a striking fact in this connection, that the king of the Sandwich Islands, in a recent interview with a Commodore of our Navy, remarked, that the reason why he expelled the Jesuit missionaries from his dominions was, not from any intended persecution of them on the ground of their religious opinions, but because they violated the laws of his kingdom against idolatry. A little observation, and a moderate share of common sense, is worth more, on a subject of this kind, than all the subtle logic and finespun reasoning in the world; and it would doubtless be difficult to make this monarch understand the precise difference between the reverence claimed by his Jesuit neighbors for the images of the saints, and that which he and his subjects formerly paid to those tawdry, savage, grinning and horrid looking idols which may now be seen in missionary and other museums of the United States.
"A gentleman who has spent many years in the south of Italy, who is familiar with the language, and often attends the Catholic churches, gave me the following account of the preachers. The most decent and devout are those who deliver the panegyrics on the saints. The second class are wild and raving fanatics, who rage, and shout, and sing, and scream, and use the most extravagant gestures and contortions of body, in order to work upon the passions of their hearers, and rouse them up to the highest pitch of excitement. He said that he once saw a preacher of this class, in one of the largest churches of Naples, who, among other extravagant tricks, hurled a cross which he held in his hands at the heads of his audience, as if to prostrate them in repentance, but it was secured to his arm by a cord, so that it did not reach those at whom it was aimed; and though they bowed themselves down to avoid it, they were, in the end, far more frightened than hurt. The third class of preachers are regular buffoons, of the lowest grade, who practise in the pulpit every species of vulgar wit, pantomime, and grimace, in order to excite in the audience the same indecent and boisterous laughter which is caused by similar exhibitions on the stage. As an instance of this, he said that he once heard a clerical buffoon of this class, preaching about the embassy of the Gibeonites to Joshua, and after a number of low jokes, as to the title by which they probably addressed the Jewish leader, he came to the verse which says, that they wore old shoes, and clouted on their feet. In order to elucidate this part of the subject, he had dressed out one of his own feet, in the manner described in the text, and having thrown it over the front of the pulpit so that all the audience might see it, and thus standing on one leg and hanging by the other, he proceeded, amidst immense applause, to comment at length, on this important matter. There was, some years since, in Spain, a friar known by name of Padre Diego de Cadiz, who was regarded as an inspired prophet. He travelled on foot through all parts of the kingdom; and such was the eloquence of his sermons, that large numbers of his hearers often proceeded on the spot, to scourge and to beat themselves most violently, as a penance for their sins. How much good might such a man have effected, had he, instead of enjoining this self-righteous penance, directed his convicted hearers, in accordance with the Scripture, to the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world."-Vol. I, pp. 308-310.
We should be glad to follow Mr. R. through both his volumes, and present extracts on most of the topics upon
which he speaks. But to lay before our readers what ver we deem valuable would be almost to copy the book entire. The accounts given by him of the missionary efforts of Mr. Rule in Gibraltar, and of the brethren in Africa are highly interesting. So, also, are the facts which he states in his official character, as chaplain of the ship in which he sailed. But we must content ourselves with a single extract further, finely illustrating the author's happy style. It is in reference to the buried cities, Pompeii and Herculaneum.
These cities "are supposed to have been founded 1342 years before Christ, so that when destroyed they had stood 1400 years. They were much injured by an earthquake A. D. 63; and on the twenty-fourth of August, in the year 79, were entirely buried by an eruption of Vesuvius. Dion Cassius thus describes their destruction. An incredible quantity of ashes, carried by the wind, filled air, earth, and sea; suffocating men, cattle, birds, and fishes, and burying two entire cities, namely, Herculaneum and Pompeii, while their inhabitants were seated in the theatres. Very few skeletons, however, have been found in the theatres, and hence it is supposed, that most of the people took timely warning and escaped. The Coliseum at Rome, and other places where public shows were held in ancient times, were so constructed, and had so many outlets, that they could be emptied almost instantly. The amphitheatre at Pompeii has ninety-seven places of egress, and so judiciously are they arranged, that 20,000 persons might safely pass out through them in two minutes and a half. It is probable, therefore, that the people, being warned of what was coming, fled for safety to the adjoining river and seacoast, and hastily embarked in such vessels as they could find.
"Herculaneum, being near the foot of Vesuvius, is covered with solid lava, and successive eruptions, which have overflown it, have buried it to the depth of from twenty to a hundred feet. Thus, most that has been done there, is by excavations; and one must pass under this immense bed of lava to see the parts of the city which have been explored. The first discovery of the place in modern times, was made by a peasant at Portici, A. D. 1713. While digging a well, he came to some pieces of mosaic, and further researches brought to light valuable statues and other curiosities. Little was effected, however, until 1736, when the king of Naples took the matter in hand, and all done since has been under the direction of government.
"The distance of Pompeii from the base of the mountain is such, that the streams of lava did not reach it. A bed, or rather a succession of distinct layers, of pumice stone, ashes, and cinder, buried the city to the depth of fifteen or twenty feet. The fact that substances were found there, either burned or melted, shows that in some parts of the city there must have been fires, caused probably by the red-hot stones that fell. Pompeii was discovered about 1750, by some peasants who were at work in a vineyard.
"The whole number of skeletons found is about three hundred, of which sixty-three were in what is called the Forum Nundinanium, or more commonly the Barracks. Thirty-four were in a single group, and
the rest scattered here and there. It is supposed, from the armor near and upon them, that these were soldiers, who, knowing that by the Roman law death was the penalty of leaving their stations, died at their posts.
"The temple of Isis is a place of much interest, not only from its perfect preservation, but also from the numerous distinct relics found there of its former occupants, and the religious rites which they practised. The priests were probably dining when the eruption occurred, as in one of the apartments a table was found, with a human skeleton near it, and the bones of fowls and fish, a faded garland of flowers, eating utensils, and the remains of eggs, bread, and wine. Another skeleton was leaning against the wall, with the axe used in sacrifices in his hand; while others near had the same instrument, probably with the design of cutting through the door, that thus they might escape. One of these priests seems to have attempted to carry off the treasures of the temple, but was overwhelmed near the Tragic Theatre. Beside his skeleton were found three hundred and sixty coins of silver, fortytwo of bronze, and eight of gold, all secured in a cloth so strong as to have sustained no injury during the seventeen centuries which they had been there.
"In one place were four skeletons embracing each other, supposed to be those of a mother and her three children, who clung to each other for security in that wild and fearful hour of sudden and awful destruction. In another place were the bones of a lady, who had perished with her rings and other ornaments upon her, while scattered around were her costly mirrors, and various other articles of luxury and pride, which she used in gratifying her taste and adorning her person. It were easy to fill a volume in pursuing the mournful detail of what was found in this City of the Dead; but suffice it to say, as to those who perished, many of them doubtless preferred the chance of safety there was in continuing in their houses, to the imminent danger there was in exposing themselves during the awful darkness which prevailed, to the deadly sulphureous vapors, and the destructive showers of redhot stones and boiling water, which ever and anon were pouring down. "The houses of Pompeii were from one to four stories high, built of stone, which was covered with plaster and painted. The roofs were flat, and were broken in by the weight of stones and ashes which fell upon them. The lower stories had small windows, with shutters of wood, while in the second story there was glass in thick, small panes. In some of the baths and public buildings, however, there were large squares of glass, of a fine quality. Most of the paintings, statues, household furniture, ornaments, coins, domestic and religious utensils, surgeon's instruments, and other articles without number, found in these buried cities, may be seen in the vast museum at Naples, called the Studii. Between five and six hundred manuscripts have also been discovered, many of which were in a single small room at Herculaneum. They are unrolled by means of numerous silk threads, passed between the folds of the burnt parchment or papyrus. These are moved by a screw, and as fast as a fold is parted from the mass, it is secured by paper and gum Arabic. The English have, in times past, done much at this business; and though some works of interest have been brought to light, yet I am not aware that any thing of high importance, that is new, has been discovered. I have not time here to describe the spacious Forum and the costly temples of the gods, with their massive
columns, and the altars of pagan sacrifice, just as they were seventeen centuries ago. Nor can we pause to examine the shops and houses, showing, as they do most fully, the habits and domestic economy of the old Romans. A light is thus thrown upon the darkness of the past, such as no other means could supply; and it is with emotions of no common interest that one wanders through this City of the Dead, and marks the traces of those who once were there. He sees the pavements of the streets deeply worn with wheels, as if it had been done but yesterday. The basins of the fountains, and the mouths of stone from which the water poured, are all in their places. He enters the court of a private dwelling; and, raising a small flat slab of marble, he sees the pipes of iron branching off, by which water was carried to the various apartments, and lying by them is the key by which the pipes were opened, and which even now fits well to its place. He wanders through the halls and sleeping apartments of the houses, all unchanged, even to the paintings on the walls, the mosaics of the floors, and the shrines where the household gods were worshipped. In the shops, too, he sees the oven of the bakers, the large earthen jars for oil and wine, the places where food was prepared, and even marks of the cups from which liquors were drank.
"In the barracks at Pompeii, were the skeletons of two soldiers chained to the stocks; and in the vaults of a country house near the city were the bones of seventeen persons, who seem to have fled there to escape from danger. They were found enclosed in an indurated tufa, and in the same way was preserved a perfect cast of a woman, with an infant in her arms. Although the rock fully retained the outline of her form, the bones alone remained: attached to these was a chain of gold, and on her fingers were rings, set with jewels. Thus was she adorned for the embrace of Death; and though near a score of centuries have passed since she was buried there, yet how distinctly does the record of this scene present before the mind, like a thing of yesterday, that dying mother's fond affection for her dying child.
"Fishing nets were very abundant in both cities, and are often quite entire. Linen, with the texture well defined, has been found at Herculaneum; and in a fruit shop, there were vessels full of almonds, chestnuts, walnuts, and other fruit, all retaining their shape. A loaf of bread was also found in a baker's shop, with his name stamped upon it. On the counter of an apothecary was a box of pills, changed into a fine earthy substance, and by the side of it a small roll, apparently prepared to be cut into pills.”—Vol. I, pp. 119, 121–123, 129, 130.
We have only to add that the books before us are printed with great correctness, in good type and on fine paper, and are presented to the public in a very attractive style. The first of Mr. Rockwell's volumes is adorned by a very beautiful steel engraving of the colonnade of St. Peter's at Rome.
POEMS BY WILLIAM B. TAPPAN, 1834, 1836, 1840, 1842.
THE recent appearance of a new volume of poetry by Mr. Tappan, furnishes us an occasion to make a few remarks upon his productions. He has already been favorably known to the community for many years. We believe some of his earliest efforts appeared in print as far back as the year 1818. His works have received the seal of public approbation on both sides of the Atlantic. Soon after the first collection of them was made, in a volume containing two hundred and fiftyseven pieces, they called forth from the poet Montgomery the following expressions of sympathy and approval. "You have very agreeably added one to the number of those who constitute my world of contemporary spirits yet in the flesh, but to me known only as intelligences with whom I can hold communion of thought, and interchange of feeling, without the probability, or the necessity, of personal knowledge in this world; though with a hope, not irrational, not unfounded, that amidst the ages of eternity, and among the infinity of joys prepared by the Redeemer for those that love him, we shall see and know as we are known; and have to congratulate each other on 'glory, honor and immortality,' the portion of the blest in the kingdom of heaven, brighter, nobler and more excellent than ever was sought, or won, or entered into the imagination to conceive, by those who gained most of the world, and the good the world has to give, yet found it all too little for their wants. I congratulate you on having devoted, not the first fruits only, but I may say, the successive harvests of your Parnassus, not to the fabled deity and the ideal goddesses that were said of old to rule there, but to the true God, and to his glory in the service of his temple and his people on earth. May you have a present and future reward here, and an eternal one hereafter."
We are proud to rank among our countrymen a poet who has won to himself so many laurels, and who knows so well how to wear them with humility and Christian sincerity. Without the advantages of an early classical education, and engaged in common with his fellow-citizens in the daily cares