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“ With Butler, a large portion of the Indians withdrew, and their march presented a picture at once melancholy and ludicrous. Squaws, to a considerable number, brought up the rear, a belt of scalps stretched on small hoops around the waist for a girdle, having on, some four, some six, and even more, dresses of chintz or silk, one over the other; being mounted astride on horses, (of course all stolen,) and on their heads three, four, or five bonnets, one within another, worn wrong side before."--Miner's History, p. 237.

Mr. Miner presents two charges against Col. John Butler which will lie against his name to the end of time; and in mitigation of which there is not a relieving circumstance. The first is “his position-accepting command, lending his name, and associating with those blood-thirsty and unprincipled savages who were placed under his orders.” His confession, after the capitulation, that he could "do nothing with them,” brands him with infamy. How came he to lead on a band of murderous savages, whom he knew he could not control, to an assault upon a defenseless settlement ? But “the deepest stain on the character of Butler, next to his taking the command of such a horde of merciless and ungovernable wretches, arises out of the fact that but two prisoners were taken and saved at the time of the battle.” It is altogether likely that the greatest number who fell, were cruelly massacred upon the retreat; and it is certain that many of them were first made prisoners and then tortured and butchered in cold blood. That his own men took part in the pursuit and butchery on the day of the battle, there can be no doubt; and that he tried to prevent the subsequent massacres, there is no evidence. But to return to the narrative.

We shall now only be able to touch a few details of the history. In August Col. Butler returned with Capt. Spaulding's company and some of the settlers, and buried the remains of those who fell upon the field of battle, and labored to secure some of the grain which was now ripe. But companies of Indians infested the country, who took prisoners, shot men who were laboring in the fields, and stole horses, and whatever else they could carry away.

Col. Hartley, of the Pennsylvania line, was ordered to join Col. Butler. A detachment of one hundred and thirty men marched on the 8th of September to the West Branch, and thence to Sheshequin. On the 29th a battle ensued, in which several on both sides were killed. The Indian settlement was broken up, and besides horses and cattle recovered, a considerable amount of plunder was taken. -Miner, p. 240.

But the savages followed almost upon the heels of Hartley's men, and resumed their work of murder, kidnapping, and plunder.

Immediately after Col. Hartley's expedition in 1779, Gen. Washington took measures to carry out a plan, which had been under consultation, of sending a powerful armament into the country of the Six Nations, to destroy their towns and chastise them for their incursions upon the frontier settlements, and the cruelties and barbarities which they had perpetrated. The expedition was committed to the charge of Gen. Sullivan, who collected his forces at Wilkesbarre, and thence transported his artillery and baggage up the river in boats, and forming a junction with a division of the army under the command of Gen. Clinton, at Tioga Point, proceeded to the prosecution of the objects of the expedition. Col. John Butler, at the head of the British and tories, and Brant, in command of the Indians, made a stand, a little below Newtown on the Chemung River, with fifteen hundred or two thousand men; but were routed with considerable loss, and left the Indian towns, and the fields loaded with fruit, to be overrun and desolated by an avenging foe.

“Not a moment of delay was allowed. Being now in the Indian country, hundreds of fields, teeming with corn, beans, and other vegetables, were laid waste with rigid severity. Every house, hut, and wigwam, was consumed. Cultivated in rude Indian fashion for centuries, orchards abounded, and near a town, between the Seneca and Cayuga Lakes, there were fifteen hundred peach trees, bending under ripe, and ripening fruit; all were cut down. The besom of destruction swept, if with regret and pity, still with firm hand, through all their fair fields and fertile plains. Deeply were they made to drink of the bitter chalice they had so often forced remorselessly to the lips of the frontier settlers within their reach. Some idea of the extent of country inhabited by the Indians, the number of their towns, and the great quantity of produce to be destroyed, may be formed, when it is stated that an army of four thousand men were employed, without a day's (except indispensable) remission, from the 29th of August

, until the 28th of September, in accomplishing the work of destruction. The furthest north-west extent of Gen. Sullivan's advance was to Genesee Castle, at the large flats on the beautiful river of that name.”—Miner's History, pp. 271, 272.

But notwithstanding the success of Gen. Sullivan's expedition, it did not result in the security of Wyoming from the incursions of the savages. Still, parties of Indians continued their visits, and from time to time exercised their propensities for plundering, kidnapping, and murder. For three years the settlement was in a constant state of alarm, and many strange and interesting incidents marked its history. The capture and escape of Thomas Bennet and Lebbeus Hammond, of Pike, Vancampen, and Rogers ; the kidnapping and late discovery of Frances Slocum; with a multitude of other events as full of romance as any of the scenes found in the writings of Sir Walter Scott; are all detailed by Mr. Miner from the best authorities, and would be interesting to our readers, but want of space forbids their introduction here.

“ The number of lives actually lost in Wyoming, during the war, it is impossible to estimate with certainty ; probably three hundred, being one in ten of every inhabitant, or exceeding one-third of the adult male population at the commencement of the war. Connecticut, to have suffered in the same proportion, would have lost near twenty-three thousand, and the United Colonies three hundred thousand.”—Miner's History, p. 307.

Upon the termination of the war with Great Britain, the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania presented a petition to congress, praying for a hearing touching the difficulties with Connecticut in relation to the title to the lands upon the Susquehannah. To this, Connecticut promptly responded, and the question was submitted to an arbitration agreed upon by the parties, and assembled in Trenton, N. J., in Dec., 1782. The following was the decision :

“We are unanimously of opinion that Connecticut has no right to the lands in controversy.

“We are also unanimously of opinion, that the jurisdiction and preemption of all the territory lying within the charter of Pennsylvania, and now claimed by the state of Connecticut, do of right belong to the state of Pennsylvania.”Ibid., p. 308.

Of this decision the people of Wyoming did not complain, fully expecting to be “quieted in their possessions” under the government of Pennsylvania. They supposed their individual claims to the right of pre-emption had not been submitted nor adjudicated, and with them, as things stood, it was not a matter of much importance whether they were to be subject to the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania or Connecticut, provided they might remain in the peaceable possession of their lands. But from the proceedings which followed, the settlers soon found that the object of Pennsylvania was their utter expulsion from the homes which had already cost them infinite vexation and much precious blood. There was an affectation of conditions of compromise, but they resolved themselves into these points :

“1st. Pledges to be given, such as could not admit of denial or evasion, for their obedience.

“ 2d. A disclaimer in writing, publicly, plainly, and unequivocally given, of all claims to their lands held under title from Connecticut. Then follow the merciful terms.

“ 3d. The settler to take a lease of half his farm for about eleven months, giving up possession at once of the other half. On the first of April following to abandon claims, home, possession, to his adversary.

• 4th. The widows of those who had fallen by the savages, to be indulged in half their possessions a year longer.

“And 5th. The Rev. Mr. Johnson to be allowed to occupy his grounds (under disclaimer and lease, of course) for two years.”—Miner's History, pp. 324, 325.

The settlers remonstrated, and stood firmly to their positions. The agents of the government of Pennsylvania proceeded to constitute townships, and take possession of the lands. The settlers were not subdued by the dangers and troubles through which they had passed. Though war had diminished and weakened them, they were not prepared tamely to submit to downright usurpation and oppression. The soil which had drunk the blood of their dear friends—fathers, brothers, and sons—was too sacred to be lightly abandoned. Their homes they were determined to hold, peaceably if they could, forcibly if they must. Seeing themselves likely to fail of maintaining their rights, the law being in the hands of those interested, they seized their old rusty guns and hurled defiance at their oppressors. Col. Butler, Col. Jenkins, and Col. Franklin led on the Connecticut people in the maintenance of their rights, always exhausting negotiation and diplomacy before they had recourse to forcible measures. Col. Armstrong, the author of the famous “Newburg Letters,” was commissioned to visit the scene of strife, with an armed force of four hundred men, and restore peace. Finding the Pennamites and Yankees in the field in the attitude of war, he required both parties to give up their arms and cease hostilities, promising “impartial justice and protection.” The Yankees feared “treachery,” but Col. Armstrong “ pledging his faith as a soldier and his honor as a gentleman” that the opposite party should also be disarmed, they finally submitted.

“ They paraded, were ordered to “ground arms—they were then commanded— right about-march ten steps-halt-right about!' which they obeyed; when Col. Armstrong ordered his men to advance and take up the grounded arms. Thus far was according to their expectations ; but their surprise was merged in bitterest mortification, when Col. Armstrong gave rapid orders, as rapidly obeyed, to surround the disarmed settlers, and make them all prisoners-resistance was vain, and escape hopeless. Not a musket was taken from Patterson's forces, but they beheld the successful treachery of Col. Armstrong with unrestrained delight, and taunting exultation. A soldier's faith should be unsullied as the judicial ermine—the pledged honor of a gentleman, more sacred than life. Both were basely violated, and language is too poor to paint in proper colors the detestable deed.”—Miner's History, pp. 354, 355.

The poor fellows were now bound with cords, and hurried off, some to Easton, and others to Northumberland, and thrown into prison. Armstrong returned to Philadelphia to herald his triumph; but to his great mortification he almost immediately learned that most of the Yankees were released on bail, and were again in the field. Skirmishes ensued, and lives were lost on both sides.

A sympathy was now quite general in Pennsylvania for the settlers. Armstrong's perfidy was known and execrated, and when he returned to Wyoming, having been authorized to raise a force sufficient to reduce the Yankees, he could only bring into the field about one hundred men. In an assault upon a party who occupied three block houses at Tuttle's Creek he was repulsed, and one of his subalterns, a Capt. Bolen, was killed. This was the last blood that was spilt in these unfortunate conflicts. September 15, 1784, the legislative assembly of Pennsylvania“ ordered the settlers to be restored 10 their possessions."

A portion of the settlers had, by means of the oppressive measures of Pennsylvania, become wholly disaffected with her; and led on by Col. Franklin, a most active and able political demagogue, they made a stand against the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, and actually commenced incipient measures for the organization of the disputed territory into a new state. The settlers were now themselves divided into two factions; one under the influence of Col. Pickering, who acted under the authority of Pennsylvania, and the other led on by Col. Franklin, who acted partly for himself, and partly for the dear people. The feud was, however, finally terminated by the apprehension and imprisonment of Franklin, who, after he had lain in jail in Philadelphia for several months, so far lost his ardor as to ask pardon of the legislature, and promise allegiance to the state ; which promise he, for many years, faithfully fulfilled. So terminated all the wars of the valley of Wyoming.

Of various other interesting particulars connected with the history of this far-famed spot, we have not space to speak. The reader will find ample satisfaction in the perusal of the works at the head of this paper, in relation to a multitude of important and interesting matters to which we have not been able to make the least allusion. To them we refer our readers, and particularly to the work

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