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him to be risen from the dead.] Ver. 38. "And he said unto them: Why are ye troubled? And why do thoughts arise in your hearts?" Ver. 39. "Behold my hands, and my feet, that it is I myself. Handle me, and see. For a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have." Ver. 40. "And when he had thus spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet." Ver. 41. "And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered; he said unto them: Have ye here any meat?" Ver. 42. "And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb." Ver. 43. "And he took it, and did eat before them."
The words, last quoted, "Have ye here any meat, &c." deserve notice. They should be compared with Mark xvi. 14. "Afterwards he appeared to the eleven, as they sat at meat. Ύφερον, ανακειμένοις αυτοις τοις ενδεκα εφανερώθη. The eleven were yet at table, or were not yet risen up from their places. There is no improbability in this, considering the transactions of the day, and the great concern they had been in for their Lord, and their apprehensions from the Jews. It might well happen, that they had not dined before five after noon. Coming in, then, at that time, when their repast was just over, and finished, or almost finished, he might well put that question: "Have ye here any meat? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb."
Upon this you say, p. 654. He tarried so long with them, that they had time to make ready some fish for supper, which he took a share of.' But the other way of accounting for that question, appears to me preferable. "Have ye here any meat?" EXETI TI Spwolnov evade is properly Εχετι τι βρώσιμον ενθαδε said to persons now risen, or just rising from table. And they gave it him presently. He does not desire them to prepare, or make ready for him. But he asks, if they had any meat at hand, or any thing left. Beza disputes this interpretation of the word. But he acknowledgeth that it is the rendering both of the Vulgate, and of Erasmus. To me it appears very right. And Beza's objections against it are frivolous and ill grounded.
We proceed. Luke xxiv. 44. "And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was with you, that all things must be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me." Ver. 45. " Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the Scriptures." Ver. 46. "And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day." Ver. 47. "And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem." Ver. 48. And ye are witnesses of these things." Ver. 49. And behold I send the promise of my Father upon you. But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, till ye be endowed with power from on high."
Of this appearance of our Lord to the disciples, St. John writes to this purpose, ch. xx. 19-23. "Then the same day, at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had so said, he showed them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace be unto you. As my Father hath sent me, so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed upon them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them: and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained."
Thus concluded the first day of the week, the day on which Jesus rose from the dead. Says St. John, "Then, the same day at evening, being the first day of the week-came Jesus, and stood in the midst." The first evening, according to Jewish computation, began at three after noon, and ended at six after noon, or sun-setting. Of this use of the word, we have divers examples in the New Testament. In the history of the miracle of the five thousand fed with five loaves, St. Matthew says, ch. xiv. 15. " And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past." It was then about three after noon. So likewise Matt. xxvii. 57. "When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, who also himself was a disciple." Every one knows that Jesus expired at three after noon. At that time, called here the evening, came Joseph to take care of the body of Jesus. And when St. John in this text says, "the same day at evening, being the first day of
• Postremo vero unâ sedentibus ipsis undecim.' [recum- Vulg. et Erasmus de accubitu interpretantur, &c. Bez. ad bentibus ipsis undecim. Vulg.] id est, cum unâ domi essent. Marc. xvi. 14.
the week, came Jesus:" he must be understood to say that Jesus came to the disciples, in that space of time, between three after noon and sun-setting, or six after noon. And from the history of the two disciples who had been at Emmaus [as related Luke xxiv.] who had arrived just before Jesus came in, we have argued, that Jesus came in at five after noon, or possibly somewhat sooner, when there was yet an hour's day-light. And I believe, that upon due consideration, it will be thought to be a strange conceit, which has been admitted by some christian commentators, that Jesus did not now appear to the disciples till after sun-setting, when it was night, and even late in the night: which is, really, to expose this history to the scoffs of infidels. St. John says, "the doors were shut," but he does not say that they were shut because it was dark: but "for fear of the Jews:" which they may have been all that day.*
I have still one observation more to mention; which is intended farther to confirm the supposition, that the two did not leave the other disciples, nor set out for Emmaus, till after the report made by Mary Magdalene, and the other women with her, "that they had seen the Lord:" and also to explain more distinctly those words of the two disciples to Jesus. Luke xxiv. 22, 23. "Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre. And when they found not his body, they came, saying, That they had also seen a vision of angels, which said, that he was alive."
I think that these words refer to, and include the second report of Mary Magdalene, and the women with her, which is recorded in John xx. 18. "Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.”
What I would now propose to consideration, is this: neither Mary Magdalene, nor any other of the women, saw any angel when they first went up to the sepulchre. They did not see any angel till some time afterwards, that is, not till after they had been down with the apostles, and returned back to the sepulchre. Nor did John and Peter see any angel when they went up to verify the truth of what the women had said to them. The appearance of the angels was not till after Mary Magdalene was returned to the sepulchre from the apostles: therefore the two disciples, in the words above quoted from Luke xxiv. 22, 23. refer to the second report or testimony of Mary Magdalene, and the women with her.
Let us observe the history, as it lies in St. John's gospel, xx. 1, 2. "The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them: They have taken away the Lord ou of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him." She says not a word of the appearance of angels, or any information received from them. Therefore no such thing had happened.
It follows, ver. 3-10. "Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So they ran both together, and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying. Yet went he not in. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, and the napkin that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed, [that is, finding nothing in the sepulchre but the clothes, he believed that the body was taken away as Mary Magdalene had said:] For as yet they knew not the scripture: That he must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again to their own home." Therefore neither did these apostles see any angels at the sepulchre, or near it. For no such thing is here mentioned or hinted. It is also confirmed by St. Luke's account of the same visit, or journey to the sepulchre, ch. xxiv. 12. "Then arose Peter, and came unto the sepulchre, and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.' ." He seeth not any angels. Nor does he receive any information from angels. He only sees, and views the sepulchre, and observes, that the body was gone, and the clothes were left lying by themselves. Nor could he forbear to wonder greatly.
We are next to attend to what follows the quotation before made from John xx. where at
• What is above said, is very similar to some observations of the author of the Remarks upon Dr. Ward's Dissertations,
p. 285, &c. to whom therefore I refer you: for there the same point is handled more at large.
ver. 11, 12. "But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white, sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain."
When the two disciples, John and Peter, returned to their home in Jerusalem, Mary still stayed behind. "But Mary stood without at the sepulchre, weeping." And well she might, considering how ignominiously her Lord had been put to death a few days ago: and now the body was missing and gone: and, as she thought, removed and carried away, but whither, and by whom, she could not tell. In this distress, and now first upon this occasion, there is an appearance of angels.
"But Mary stood without weeping. And as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre and seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain." No such beings had been seen before by any of the women, or the disciples, who had looked into the sepulchre, and been in it, and scarched it, once and again. "And they say unto her: Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord. And I know not where they have laid him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her: Woman, why weepest thou? Whom seekest thou? She supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. Jesus saith unto her: Mary. She turneth herself, and saith: Rabboni, which is to say, Master. Jesus saith unto her: Touch me not: for I am not yet ascended to my Father. But go to my brethren, and say unto them: I ascend to my Father, and your Father, and to my God, and your God. Mary Magdalene came, and told the disciples, that she had seen the Lord, and that he had said these things unto her."
Since therefore there was no appearance of angels to the women, when they first came to the sepulchre, those words, Luke xxiv. 23, "And certain women, when they found not his body, came, saying that they also had seen a vision of angels, which said, that he was alive." These words, I say, must relate to the second report of Mary Magdalene, and the other women, recorded by St. John, in the verse just cited, ch. xx. 18.
I am not aware, that any considerable difficulties can be raised against this account. I think, we may safely follow the order of things related by St. John, who had seen and read the other gospels.
St. Luke xxiv. 1-11. puts together the whole testimony of the women. But we know from St. John, that their testimony consisted of two reports; brought down to the apostles at dif ferent times, and at a considerable distance of time from each other, one made, before John and Peter went to the sepulchre, the second report afterwards, as we have seen.
When St. Luke says xxiv. 12. " Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre," he does not intend to say, that happened not till after all was done, which is related in the former eleven verses. Our version, indeed, is, "then arose Peter," seeming to intimate, that he did not go to the sepulchre till after the message delivered by the women to the apostles, by the direction of the angels. But there is nothing of that kind in the original. The words are: 0 de Пeтpos avasas espaμev εTI TO MEIOV: that is, " And Peter arising, went to the sepulchre." Or, morcover, beside the report and testimony of the women, "Peter also arose, and ran unto the sepulchre," &c.'
έδραμεν επι το σημείον:
I shall now make a paraphrase of those words of the two disciples to Jesus in the way to Emmaus. Luke xxiv. 22, 23, 24. 66 Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre. And when they found not his body they came, saying, That they had also seen a vision of angels." [And they said they also had seen the Lord themselves.] But in a matter of so great importance, and so very unlikely, we all thought it best to pay little regard to their testimony." And certain of them which were with us, went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said. But him they saw not."
• I think, I have rightly inserted that in my paraphrase of that place. Dr. Doddridge seems to have been aware, that to much was implied. Therefore, in his notes upon ver. 23, he says: and what is added in the next verse, with relation *to Peter and John, who are the men there spoken of, ("but ⚫ him they did not see") may perhaps imply, that the wo
· men pretended also to have seen Jesus himself. And in his paraphrase of ver. 24, he says: but him they did 'not see though the women apprehended, he had actually ' appeared to them himself, and declared, that he was risen, and would show hunself to his disciples.'
However it must be acknowledged, that beside the women, two of the disciples, and those of the best understanding, and the most eminent among us, have also been at the sepulchre. The 'occasion of it was this. Some of the women, who were very early at the sepulchre, came 'down to us in great haste, saying, "They have taken the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him," John xx. 2. Whereupon two, and those the most eminent of the disciples, went themselves to the sepulchre, and found it even as the women had said, that is, that the body was gone, and nothing left beside the clothes, in which it had been 'covered. But him they saw not: [as the women have since said, that they have seen him.']
Whereupon, our Lord, as if out of patience at their stupidity and inconsideration," says to them: O fools, and slow of heart, to believe all that the prophets have spoken," &c.
• ver. 25.
These two do not mention the visit made to the sepulchre by Peter and John, last, because it was not made till after the women had seen "a vision of angels," but, as the more considerable thing. The women's testimony they slighted. "Their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not," Luke xxiv. 11. For these two disciples they had some regard, but not so much as they should. And therefore our Lord says to them: "O fools, and slow of heart," and what there follows.
From all which it appears to me evident, that the two disciples did not set out for Emmaus, till after the report made to the apostles by Mary Magdalene, "that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her :" as related John xx. 18.
This observation I have deferred till now, that I might not disturb and interrupt the preceding argument.
I have now performed all that I intended. For I never proposed to go any farther, than the appearances of our Lord to the disciples, and others, on the day of his resurrection.
Shall I now recollect, and sum up what has been said under this fifth and last article of our inquiry?
Early on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and Salome, and other women, who had come up with our Lord to Jerusalem from Galilee, and had often attended upon him, went up to the sepulchre, bringing the spices, which they had prepared. As they were going, they said among themselves, "Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? For it was very great." But, when they came nigh to the sepulchre, they perceived that the stone was rolled away. That obstacle therefore to their performing the intended office of respect, in embalming the body, of which they had been apprehensive, was removed. Which afforded them, for the present, a good deal of satisfaction. But when they had entered in, they found not the body of the Lord Jesus. This filled them with the utmost surprise and concern. Whereupon, with the consent and approbation of all the rest of the women, Mary Magdalene, and some others of them, ran down immediately, in all haste, to the apostles at Jerusalem, telling them, that they had been at the sepulchre, that they found the stone rolled away from the door of it: that they therefore entered in, but found not the body of Jesus: " They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, [said they,] and we know not where they have laid him." Peter and John therefore ran to the sepulchre, entered into it, and found every thing exactly agreeing to the report of the women. The body of Jesus was gone, but the cloths, with which he had been covered, remained, every part of them, and lying in great order. So that they could not but wonder greatly at what had happened. But, as it was not safe or prudent for them to stay there, they soon went away again to their own home. But Mary Magdalene, and the other women, who had come back to the sepulchre from the apostles, stayed behind. And soon after those disciples were gone away, there appeared to them two angels, and one of them said to them, "Fear not. Ye seek Jesus, who was crucified. He is not here. He is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead. And they departed quickly from the sepulchre, with fear and great joy, and did run to bring the disciples word. As they were going to tell his disciples, behold Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came, and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. Then said Jesus unto them: Be not afraid. Go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee. And there shall they see me. Now when they were going, behold some of the watch came into the city, and showed unto the chief priests all the things that were done." So in Matt. xxviii. 5-11. or, as in John xx. 18. "Mary Magdalene came,
and told the disciples, that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unt her." When she, and the rest of the women, now came down to the apostles, it might be about seven or eight, at the latest about eight or nine in the forenoon. Nor did the women, nor any of the disciples, go up to the sepulchre any more after this. These just mentioned, are all the journies to the sepulchre which are recorded by the evangelists. Some while after the return of these women, and after they had reported their testimony to the apostles, two of their company went to the village, called Emmaus; where Jesus appeared to them also, and was known to them, about three of the clock in the afternoon, or sooner. And about the same time the Lord appeared also to Peter, though we cannot exactly say the place. Jesus having clearly made known himself to the two at Emmaus, as they were sitting down to table, he afterwards withdrew, when it was about three after noon. They then rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them. They arrived there about five after noon, or sooner. Immediately after which "Jesus [also] came, and stood in the midst," and graciously manifested himself to them, giving them full assurance that it was he himself.
According to different computations, Jesus showed himself to his disciples and followers four or five times on the day on which he rose from the dead. First to Mary Magdalene, and the women with her at the sepulchre next to the two, who went to Emmaus, then to Peter, and at length to the eleven at Jerusalem, who were assembled together, about five of the clock in the afternoon. If we compute the appearance to Mary Magdalene, to be distinct from that to the women, there are five appearances, otherwise, they are four only.
Thus I have digested the history of our Saviour's resurrection, and his first appearances to the disciples. I please myself with the persuasion, that I have done it in a plainer manner, than it has been done of late by some others. These thoughts therefore are now referred to your consideration. And I remain, with true esteem,
Your friend and well-wisher,
END OF THE OBSERVATIONS UPON DR. MACKNIGHT'S HARMONY.