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High. I beseech thee, torment me not. For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man."
According to all the Evangelists therefore, this dæmoniac, or these two dæmoniacs, acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of God. But from St. Mark and St. Luke it appears, that this was not done until after our Lord had some discourse with him. From this discourse, and from the general intelligence which he had before received concerning Jesus, in the intervals of his disorder, he was enabled and disposed to speak of him as he did.
St. Mark alone expressly says, that the man of whom he speaks "worshipped" Christ. But the same thing is said by St. Luke in another phrase, "he fell down before him." And it is implied in what is attested by all the Evangelists, that he acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of God. So in the history of the man born blind, whom our Lord had healed. John ix. 35-38. "Jesus heard that they had cast him out. And when he had found him, he said, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? He answered, and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him? And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee. And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him." So likewise, after our Lord's ascension. Matt. xxviii. 17. " And when they saw him they worshipped him."
I have no intention to add any new arguments concerning the case of the dæmoniacs, mentioned in the New Testament. I rely upon those which were formerly alledged. And let every one judge as he sees best. But I would take this opportunity to propose some observations upon the history of the cure of the two unhappy men in the country of the Gadarenes, which have not been yet mentioned..
In accounting for the loss of the swine several things are said at p. 260, vol. I. The distrac tion, under which the man called Legion had laboured, was very grievous. He was a hideous form, and his action was very violent. When he had conceived the thought of gratifying the evil spirits, by which he imagined himself to be possessed, with the destruction of the swine, he would without much difficulty drive them off the precipice. If some few of them were put in motion, the whole herd would follow..
I would now say more distinctly, that the loss of the swine was occasioned by a fright. When our blessed Lord said, "go," as in St. Matthew: or "he gave them leave," or "he suffered them," as in the other Evangelists: I think, that one or both the demoniacs went hastily towards the swine; and by some noise, or action, a few of them were affrighted; which fright was immediately communicated to the rest, whereupon the whole herd went off with great violence: and the way being steep and leading to the lake, they all perished in the water. This is easy to be apprehended.
There are very few who have not been witnesses to something like this in the horse; who takes fright at very slight things, one knows not what sometimes though at other times from manifest causes. Whenever it happens, he runs away with great violence, to his own perdition and the great hazard and oftentimes great detriment of others: and, if there are several together, the whole set, or team, becomes ungovernable. This is certain, and well known to almost every body.
I have also observed in our fields near London, where have been many horses grazing, if one is frightened, all the rest are alarmed. The same is seen in our fields, where are large herds of horned cattle. If one is disturbed by the barking of a dog, or the sport of idle boys, or any other odd occurrence; all the rest, to the utmost bounds of the enclosure, are alarmed and put in motion. The same is likewise well known of flocks of sheep, and flocks of geese, and sparrows. If one of the flock take fright, all the rest hasten away in the same direction. I believe this to be true of all animals that are gregarious; as were these swine, a large herd, feeding by each other. If one or two of them took fright, and tended toward the lake; all the rest, without exception, would go off the same way with the utmost precipitation.
By all the three Evangelists we are assured, that after the loss of the swine, and the cure of the
On Monday (May 7.) as J-H-, Esq. was coming to town from his house at Carshalton in Surrey, in his postchaise, the horses took fright, just by Newington church, and ran with such violence against a waggon, passing through the turnpike, that one of the horses was killed on the spot, and
the other so much bruised, that he died in an hour afterwards, and the chaise was almost torn to pieces. But happily the gentleman received no hurt, and the driver was but slightly bruised.'-The General Evening Post, Thursday May 10, 1759.
dæmoniacs, the Gadarenes besought our Lord "that he would depart out of their coasts." This I have twice, that is, at p. 240, and p. 243, vol. I. ascribed to the carnal temper of these people: that being apprehensive of suffering in their worldly interests, instead of entreating Jesus to stay with them, a while at least, they joined together with much unanimity in beseeching him to depart out of their coasts.
Nor do I now say, that a sensual temper of mind had no influence on them, for producing that request. Nevertheless, perhaps, that alone was not the whole cause. I therefore would
add as follows.
It is observable from divers instances in the Old Testament, that special and extraordinary manifestations of the Divine Presence were generally awful and affecting to the men to whom they were made, though the message was gracious. I refer not only to Ex. xx. 19. but also to ch. xxxiv. 30. and Judges vi. 22. and xiii. 22. See likewise Ex. xxxiii. 20.
There are likewise instances in the New Testament. How comfortable the tidings! Luke ii. 8-15. Yet it is said of the shepherds, ver. 9. "And they were sore afraid." And Luke v. 8-10. "When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken. And so were also James and John, the sons of Zebedee. And Jesus said unto Simon: Fear not, henceforth thou shalt catch men." Upon another occasion, Mark iv. 41. "And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another: What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him!" Compare Luke viii. 25. And on the mount. Matt. xvii. 6, 7. "And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid." Compare Mark ix. 6. and Luke ix. 34.
Let us now observe what is said of the Gadarenes. Mark v. 15. "And they (meaning the people of the neighbouring town and country) come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid." To the like purpose exactly in Luke viii. 35. And at ver. 37. it is said: "Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about besought him to depart from them ; for they were taken with great fear."
If Peter desired our Lord "to depart from him, because he was a sinful man:" if he, and the rest, were at other times so astonished that they knew not what to say, nor what to think of themselves: though all the great works which they had seen performed by him were healing and beneficial: well might the people of this country be struck with awe at the sight of the man called legion," sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind." For it was a work of Divine Power and a token of the Divine Presence. And, very probably, they thought themselves unqualified for the residence of so great and holy a person among them.
At their request our Lord departed, and took ship, and returned to the place whence he had come: well knowing that many there were in earnest expectation of him.
But though our Lord himself staid no longer with the Gadarenes, he left there the man whom he had cured. "He prayed, that he might be with him. However Jesus suffered him not. But saith unto him: Go home to thy friends, and tell them, how great things the Lord hath done for thee. And he departed, and began to publish in Decapolis, how great things Jesus had done for him. And all men did marvel." And it is not an unreasonable, nor an improbable supposition, that some of that country did afterwards come over into Galilee or Judea to see Jesus, that they might receive benefit from his great wisdom, or great power.
PAGE AGE 106. Diss. xxviii. Whọ those Greeks were, who desired to see Jesus? And whether they were admitted?' John xii. 20, 21.
Dr. Ward well observes at p. 107. The greater part of Syria was in our Saviour's time called Greece by the Jews. Hence, when he was in the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and a
woman besought him to cast the evil spirit out of her daughter, she is called "a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation," Mark vii. 26. And these Greeks who were desirous to see Jesus, were, probably, of the same nation, and known to Philip, who is here said to have been of Bethsaida "of Galilee."
The same observation is in Grotius upon this text. And I had occasion some while ago, in considering another text, to say: It was common with all authors about that time, to call the people, who inhabited the cities of Asia and Syria, Greeks.'
Our author says, p. 107. They seem to have been proselytes, as they are reckoned among ⚫ those who came up to Jerusalem to worship at the feasts.'
Which expression is ambiguous. For, as many learned men of our time say, there were two sorts of proselytes, some called proselytes of the gate, others proselytes of righteousness; Dr. W-may mean the former, as do Whitby and Hammond. I know nothing of that sort of halfproselytes. I think there were not any such men in any part of the world in the times of our Saviour and his apostles.
That these men were not proselytes, or men circumcised after the manner of the Jews, appears to me very probable. For all proselytes were entitled to the same religious privileges with native Jews, or the descendants of Abraham and Jacob. Such therefore, as it seems, might have had free access to Christ at the temple. The modesty of these persons may make us think of the Centurion, who, when he entreated our Lord to heal his sick servant, that was dear to him, and our Lord was going toward his house with some elders of the Jews, who also joined in the same. request; "he sent friends unto him saying," not only, "that he was not worthy that Jesus should enter under his roof:" but likewise, "that neither thought he himself worthy to come unto him,' Luke vii. 1-8. Moreover Philip himself seems to have hesitated about the propriety of the request of these persons. For he also consulted Andrew, before he made the proposal to our Lord. So is the history. "And there were certain Greeks among them, who came up to worship at the feast. The same came to Philip, who was of Bethsaida in Galilee, and desired him, saying: Sir, we would see Jesus. Philip cometh, and telleth Andrew. And again, Andrew and Philip told Jesus."
Their request to see Jesus, I imagine, implied a desire to have access to his person, and to have some conversation with him. Which request, I think, was granted. Supposing these men to have been uncircumcised Gentiles, it was a favour, and a condescension according to the Jewish maxims. But the woman, who was of the same country, and is also called a Greek, came near to our Lord, and spoke to him several times, and he to her, and at length very comfortably, and healed her daughter. Matt. xv. 21-28. Mark vii. If our Lord yielded so far to the importunity of that woman, why might he not also grant the request of these Greeks, though Gentiles? It is manifest, that she was no better. For our Lord said to her: "Let the children first be filled. It is not meet to take the children's bread, and cast it unto the dogs.'
The sequel of the history confirms this supposition. In the hearing of these persons, or soon after they were gone, our Lord made use of these expressions. Ver. 23. "And Jesus answered them, saying: The hour is come, that the Son of man shall be glorified," that is, by the faith of the Gentiles, though many of the Jewish people rejected him. And afterwards, as ver. 32. " And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me." The coming of these persons therefore was very acceptable to our Lord. And he thereupon pleaseth himself with the prospect of the speedy and extensive progress of his doctrine. So after the profession made by the forementioned centurion, of faith in our Lord's power to heal his servant at a distance, "He said to them that followed: I have not found so great faith, no not in Israel. And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven," and what there follows. Matt. viii. 10-12.
a Videntur autem hi Gentiles fuisse Syrophonices. Nam alibi notavimus, Marci vii. 26. 'Exλruda vocari, quæ aliis est Syrophonissa. Et his ob vicinitatem facilior notitia cum Galilæis Bethsaïdensibus, quod illi forte in partes Tyri et Sidonis excurrebant. Grot. ad Joh. xii. 20.
See vol. III. p. 266. ch. xi. § 7. note a.
That the Greeks here spoken of were Gentiles, was the opinion of the ancient writers of the church, as Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Theophylact, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Jerom, and
e Ib. ch. xviii. § 11.
d Haer. 30. num. xxvii.
* In Joh. hom. 66. al. 65, n. 3. p. 390. tom. VIIL
8 Apud Cotelerii Caten Patr. in Jo. p. 309.
others who never were perplexed with the notion of two sorts of proselytes, which has gained so much credit among learned Christians of late times.
And we are likewise assured by Josephus, that Gentiles, or such as were aliens, were wont to come to Jerusalem, to worship there at the time of the Jewish festivals. Though uncircumcised men might not eat the passover, nor offer sacrifices at the temple, they might pray there. And when our Lord cleansed the temple, and drove the buyers and sellers, with their merchandise, from the outer court, he reminded them that it was "written, that God's house should be called an house of prayer for all people." Is. lvi. 7. Matt. xxi. 13. Mark xi. 17. Luke xix. 46.
PAGE 125. Diss. xxxii. How to reconcile St. John's account concerning the time of our Saviour's crucifixion with that of the three other Evangelists.'
St. John writes, ch. xix. 13, 14. "When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat in the judgment seat. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour. And he saith unto the Jews: Behold your King." St. Mark says, xv. 25. " And it was the third hour, and they crucified him."
For reconciling these accounts our learned author says, p. 127, 128. And about six in the morning Pilate brought him forth to the Jews, and said: "Behold your king." This is the 'time which John refers to, and calls the "sixth hour," that is, of the civil day. The three following hours were employed in preparing for his crucifixion, and that of the two robbers, and carrying them to the place without the city. At the conclusion of those three hours he was 'crucified. Which Mark calls the "third hour," that is, of the natural day. And by the same ⚫ reckoning must be understood the "sixth hour," at which the darkness commenced: and also "the "ninth hour," when he expired: as related by all the Evangelists, except John: who has used the Roman way of reckoning in some other places also, as ch. i. 39. iv. 6, and xx. 19. And it is not improbable, that he writing so late might choose that way of reckoning the hours of the day, which was customary among the Romans: as the others had followed that, which 'was practised by the Jews.'
To me it seems, that St. John reckons the hours of the day as the other Evangelists do, according to the custom of the Jews. Nor do I comprehend, how any historian could write intelligibly of transactions in Judea, without observing the Jewish custom, unless he gives particular notice of it.
In the history of the nobleman of Capernaum, who came to Jesus, "beseeching him to come down and heal his son," it is said, John iv. 51, 52. “And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth. Then inquired he of them the hour when he began to amend: and they said unto him, Yesterday, about the seventh hour the fever left him." These persons must be supposed to speak according to the ordinary custom of the country in which they lived. And by the "seventh hour" must be meant about one of the clock afternoon, according to our computation.
And in chap. xi. 9. our Saviour himself says, very agreeably to the Jewish manner," Are there not twelve hours in the day?" But I do not insist upon this as decisive, because the Romans, and others, might express themselves in like manner, meaning the natural day.
John iv. 5, 6. "Then cometh Jesus unto a city called Sychar: now Jacob's well was there: Jesus therefore being wearied with his journey sat thus on the well. And it was about the sixth hour," that is, says Whitby, about noon.' So it is generally understood, and very rightly, as I apprehend.
* Αλλ' υδε τοις αλλόφυλοις, όσοι κατα θρησκειαν παρησαν. De B. J. 1. 6. cap. ix. 3.
b Vid. supr. cap. i. 39. Causam sitis ostendit, quia et multum itineris fecerat, et jam erat meridies. Grot. in ver. 6.
Quia, inquit, lassus erat de viâ, et instabat meridies, maximus videlicet diei æstus. Bez. in loc.
So says Cyril of Alexandria, not very far below the beginning of the fifth century, in his comment upon this text; whom I transcribe in the margin. And in like manner Isaac, surnamed the Great, who flourished about the middle of the same century. Among his works Dr. Asseman reckons five sermons concerning the Samaritan woman. The first of which begins in At the sixth hour, when the day was grown hot, our Saviour came to the well.' I think this must be right. For I do not see how those ancient writers, who lived not very remote from Judea, could be mistaken.
Josephus dwelt at Rome, and wrote after the destruction of Jerusalem. Nevertheless he also computes the hours in the same way. Giving an account of an assembly at Taricheas in Galilee, in a proseucha, or oratory; he says, There certainly would have been a great disturbance, if the assembly had not been dissolved by the approach of the sixth hour, at which time we are
wont to go to dinner on the sabbaths.' And he assures us, That the priests at the temple were employed in killing paschal lambs from the ninth hour to the eleventh.'
John i. 35-39. “ Again, the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples. And looking upon Jesus, as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God. And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. And they said to him: Rabbi, where dwellest thou? He saith unto them: Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour." Or, as it is said in the margin of some of our bibles, two hours before night.' Which explication is very reasonable and obvious. The connexion leads us to think, that the day was declining, when these disciples went to the house where Jesus dwelt. Nor is there any consideration that should induce us to think of our ten in the forenoon. For inquisitive, attentive, and well-disposed men, as these were, might learn a great deal in the space of two hours' conversation with so excellent a master as they now applied to.
There still remains one text more to be considered. John xx. 19. "Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them: Peace be unto you.'
As our author here particularly refers to Dr. Benson, I must observe what he says: We have yet a more evident proof, that St. John followed the Roman method of reckoning the hours of the day. For speaking of that very day, on which our blessed Lord rose from the dead, he first mentions his appearing to Mary Magdalene. And then intimates, that he appeared to other of his disciples, that same day. But his words are very remarkable. "The same day, when it was evening, being the first day of the week :" and the disciples had bolted the doors for fear of the Jews" Then came Jesus and stood in the midst of them," &c. Now, no Jew would have used that language. No! When "the evening was come," they would have called it "the second day of the week." St. John, therefore, in this place, hath, in effect, (though not in express words) told his attentive readers, that he has followed the Roman computation of the hours of the day. For, according to that, it was still the first day of the week, and the same day on which our Lord arose: notwithstanding the sun was set, and the "evening come. And the Jews would, unquestionably, have reckoned it "the second day of the week."
This whole argument, as every one sees, depends upon the supposition, that this appearance of our Lord to his disciples was after sun-set, and perhaps late in the night: as Grotius, and some others have thought. But other learned men are rather of opinion, that our Lord showed himself to his disciples by day-light. Nor is it said, that the doors had been shut by the disciples because it was night, but " for fear of the Jews."
Ευαφορμώς επί τη πηγή καταλυοντα δεικνύει τον Ιησεν. Ηλιε γαρ ακμαιοτατήν από μεσων αψίδων τοις επι της γης την ακτινα καταχέοντος, και ακάτοις τα σώματα καταφλεγοντος CoλRIS, TO MEY ETI πpoow Caditev en alquiov. x. λ. Cyr. H. in Joan T. IV. p. 179.
Primus sic incipit. Horâ sextâ, quum dies incaluisset, venit ad puteum Dominus. Ap. Assem. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 232. p. 79
ε Και παντως αν εις φασιν εχώρησαν, ει μη την συνοδεν διέλυσεν επέλθυσα έκτη ώρα, καθ ̓ ἣν τοις σαββασιν αρισοTOLEITAI VOμIμOY 5 μ. Jos. Vit. § 54. p.26.
d... καθ ̓ ἣν θύεσι μεν απο εννάτης ώρας μέχρι ένδεκατης.
De B. J. 1. 6. ix. 3.
See the History of the first planting the Christian Religion, second edit. App. n. 4. p. 52, 53.
f Jam multâ nocte. Grot. in Jo. xx. 19.
Existente vesperâ, et quidem satis serâ, januis clausis. Quod licet a plerisque consideretur, ut signum provectæ noctis, nobis tamen minime ita videtur. Circumstantiis enim omnibus rite perpensis, videtur concludendum esse, quod adhuc ante sextam vespertinam hæc apparitio discipulis contigerit. Lampe in Joh. loc. T. III. p. 685. Et confer. Wolf.