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that liberty and education are conducive to the extension of life; and some of the facts which he quotes in support of his theory are of great interest. He begins by quoting the authority of Bouvard in his Votice sur la Vie Humaine in the French colonies from 1831 to 1834. The free population at that period is given as 111,046, the births as 3,026, and the deaths as 3,090. The slave-population he sets down at 260,286, the births, 5,765, and the deaths, 7,214: thus showing that, although the proportion of deaths was nearly alike, this must be accounted for by the circumstance of climate, which would necessarily affect a large portion of the free population, being European, to a greater degree than the slaves, who were all natives; while the superiority of births among the free population indicates the influence of liberty in the increase of the population. As regards the mortality, er, M. Bertillon shows from the tables that have been published, that in the English colonies, before the emancipation, one Negro slave in five or six died; while of the free blacks, who served in the English army, the deaths were only one in thirty-three. He adds that in the French colonies in 1847, the births in the free population always exceeded the deaths, and among the slaves the deaths always exceeded the births. The author then proceeds at great length to notice the mortality in prisons, and draws from the tables which have been published conclusions strongly in favour of his theory. It should be remembered, however, that these tables were made up from returns at a period when the hygienic regime of prisons was very inferior to what it is now; and, although it may be true that the deprivation of liberty may contribute to shorten life, the great mortality in prisons of which he speaks may be attributed to other causes than the effect upon the physical condition of the prisoners arising from a sense of degradation, and other mental sources. To this part of the article, therefore, we

are not disposed to attach the importance assigned by the author ; neither do we accept as positive all that he says of the mortality in the army. His figures, indeed, show a large proportion of deaths. He says, “Men who are no longer free, who live in an absolute and forced communism,

who pass their lives in a narrow subjection, although the chosen part of the population, are more exposed to mortality than freemen.” And then he quotes returns, which show a much higher degree of mortality in the army than among civilians. But does it follow necessarily that this difference is caused by the absence of liberty? We know nothing to indicate that the restrictions to which the soldier is subjected are of a nature to shorten life, either as regards the influence of subjection upon his mind or his physical treatment. The most interesting part of the article in the Presse is that in which the writer treats of the influence of education upon mortality. The statistical information that he gives on this point is exceedingly curious; and we agree with him when he attributes the decline in the state of mortality to the higher degreee of education in the people. As the mind is expanded by education, habits and prejudices which are opposed to cleanliness disappear, and the hygienic ameliorations which we owe to modern science are eagerly adopted. A stronger illustration of this truth cannot be given, than the progress that vaccination has made in those parts of France where education is most general. Cleanliness, which is so conducive to health, is also, in a high degree, the consequence of education; for educated persons become neces

cessarily a higher order of beings, and acquire habits which are opposed to the filth and the promiscuous intercourse of the uneducated. The author gives us a proof of the effect of ignorance on mortality in a table, by which he shows that in the Côtes-du-Nord, where 702 persons out of 1,000 can neither read nor write, the average duration of human life is only 31 years; in the Finistère, where the proportion is nearly the same, the average of life is only 27 years ; in La Vendée, where the number of persons in every 1,000 who can neither read nor write is 621, the average duration of life is only 32 years : whereas, in the Calvados, where the number who can neither read nor write is only 246 in 1,000, the average of life is 49 years; and in the Manche, where the number of totally uneducated is 255 in 1,000, the average of life is 42 years. The nine departments in which the average of duration of life is the lowest, namely, 30 years, are the Finistère, Corrèze, Cher, Haute-Vienne, Puy-de-Dôme, Dordogne, Côtes-duNord, Allier, and Indre; and in these departments the average number of persons in 1,000 who cannot read or write is 752. The departments in which education is most general, there being only 145 persons in 1,000 who cannot read, are the Jura, Haute-Marne, Meuse, Doubs, Haute-Saône, Vosges, Meurthe, Côte-d'Or, Ardennes, Aube, and Moselle; and in these departments the average duration of life is 36 years.

THINGS AND WORDS. The following is said to have been written by Luther on the wall of his chamber with chalk :

Res et verba, Philippus; res sine verbis, Lutherus; verba sine re, Erasmus; nec res, nec verba, Carolostadius.

· Philip Melancthon has both matter and eloquence. Luther has matter without eloquence. Erasmus has eloquence without matter. And Carolostadt has neither matter eloquence."

nor

VARIETIES.

PERSECUTION AT FLORENCE. - of the “Christian Times" who writes (From a Correspondent of “The from Tuscany, that “the Grand Duke, Times.”,- By letters received from when a petition was presented to him Florence it appears that on the 7th on their behalf, peremptorily rejected instant the Court of Cassation reject it, saying it was a matte of conscience ed the appeal for a reversal of the with him, and justice must have its sentence pronounced against the course.Madiai. It is generally supposed that this has been obtained in con- PERSECUTION IN FRANCE. - The sequence of the urgent demands of Gazette de France states that the the Government, and with the view Bishop of Luçon had refused to auof inspiring a wholesome fear in the thorise the singing of a Te Deum on public mind by an example of terrible the birthday of Napoleon, unless the severity. By the sentence now con- body of a Protestant, who had been firmed, Madame Madiai will be sub- interred by order of the Mayor in the jected to forty-five months' hard Catholic cemetery, should be removed labour at the galleys, and her husband therefrom. The Prelate notified his to fifty-six months', besides having resolution in the following terms :to defray the whole expense of the “ The diocese is plunged into afflictrial; and it will be remembered that tion in consequence of the non-executheir sole crime has been the abandon- tion of the orders of the Minister of ment of the communion of the Ro- Public Worship with regard to the mish Church, and, according to the Cemetery of Cugand. Canticles of Jiteral terms of the sentence, “for thanksgiving would be unbecoming following the pure Gospel" (puro under such deplorable circumstances, Evangelo).

and His Grandeur has informed the To this add, from a Correspondent Goverument, that he wonld not order

a Te Deum to be chanted on the 15th. part of his kingdom. The official proAugust unless that evil had ceased." clamation says: “ The English and

Americans who reside in the kingdom The following is a decree published of Siam are allowed to enjoy greater by the Prefect of the Aisne :-- privileges than formerly. They are

“ LAON, August 21. allowed to travel to and fro in the “We, Prefect of the Department of kingdom wherever they please. They the Aisne, having seen the report of are permitted to follow the dictates the gendarmerie of Bohain, from of their own consciences in religious which it appears that on the 11th of observances ; to erect chapels and this month a numerous meeting took cemeteries according to their wishes; place in the commune of Fresnoy-le- and in all respects they are allowed Grand, in the Protestant school-house, unreserved freedom, so long as they and before the door of that house, do not infringe upon the customs and with the apparent object of hearing laws of the country.” religious lectures and sermons, and having examined the 291st article of NEW PLANET.-Mr. Hind has an. the Penal Code, considering that meet- nounced the discovery of another new ings of the nature of that in question planet. The newly-found planet, to may lead to a violation of public order, use the words of Mr. Hind, “shines have decreed, and decree, as follows ; as a fine star of between the eighth - Article 1. All religious meetings and ninth magnitudes, and has a very which shall be held without per- steady yellow light. At moments it mission in any place but that allocated appeared to have a disc, but the night for public worship are formally for- of its discovery was not sufficiently bidden in the arrondissement of St. favourable for high magnifiers. At Quentin, and particularly in the 13h. 13m. 168. mean time, its right commune of Fresnoy-le-Grand. Ar- ascension was 18h. 12m. 58 8s., and ticle 2. The Sub-Prefect of St. Quentin its north polar distance 98° 16/0911. is charged with the execution of the The diurnal motion in R. A. is about present decree.

1m 2s. towards the west, and in N. Viscount de BEAUMONT VASSY." P. D. two or three minutes towards

the south.” Mr Hind is now the TOLERATION IN SIAM.-The King great discoverer of planets; and were of Siam has allowed free toleration to it the fashion to confer fortune-names, all religions, and also permits free he would infallibly be known as “the access by the Missionaries to every | Star-Finder."

POETRY.

NATURE.
O, who has gazed on evening sky,
Painted with summer's richest dye,
And seen the fitful lines of light
Gracefully wait advancing night,
In golden tinge, or deeper glow,
Or whiten'd traceries' tenuous flow,
Flung by the breeze, for mortal view,
O'er heaven's vast dome of fading blue;
0, who has watch'd Eve's virgin fingers
Unveil the couch where darkness lingers,
Nor felt his heart with rapture beat,
And fall’n subdued at Nature's feet?

Say ye, whose ear has caught the moan
Of Thunder, rising from his throne
Of massive cloud, and lightning's bound,
His sable robe engirding round,
To tread where feeble stars retire,
And hide the silver'd moon in fire;-
Say that ye silent heard in awe,
And own'd majestic Nature's law!

Whether she through the rolling years
Her garb of fleecy whiteness wears ;
Lets fall her fertilising tears,
And in a mourning-robe appears;
Or blithesome dons her mantle green,
And smiles when genial Spring is seen;
Arrays herself with Summer's vest,
And is with fairest foliage drest;
Or on the bright autumnal morn
Skips lightly o'er the waving corn:
Her graceful form new charms reveals,
And the beholder's spirit steals.
I love thee, Nature, and thy courts,
Where oft my willing step resorts :
I love thee, whether Beauty twine
The spangled ornaments of thine,
Or hoar Sublimity, as seer,
Bids, with mysterious spell, revere.

I love thee; for thou art to me
A symbol of the Deity !
Where's the inanimate that's dumb ?

thousand mingling voices come From hill, from vale, from earth, from skies : Hark ! let the widening chorus rise! 'Tis God-thy gentlest tones proclaim, Thy fiercest accents speak the same: 'Tis God-thy myriad creatures own In icegirt clime or burning zone : 'Tis GOD-I read in Nature's page Portray'd in each revolving age.

I love thee, Nature. Though thy light
With flickering beam awake my sight,
Though purer lustre's sacred ray
Illume my being's heavenward way ;
I love thee : for thy kindling eye,
Thy smile or frown, thy song or sigh,
Declare that wisdom, power, and love
All concentrate in One above,

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