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connected with the slaughter of the beasts; and here, accordingly, were these large receptacles, with an arrangement for a fresh supply of water coming in from the west, the source of which has not yet been fully investigated.
From this point the sewerage took an easterly direction, and ran through a triple rock-hewn tank under the lower area of the Temple, about half way between the raised platform and the eastern wall, where it was further diluted by a fresh supply of water introduced by an aqueduct from the enormous tank outside the northern wall of the Temple Close, known as the traditionary Pool of Bethesda. The drain then passes under the wall of the Haram, and skirting it on the east side, along the narrow ridge now occupied by a Moslem burialground, descends steeply to the Fountain of the Virgin, in the valley of the Kidron, where, according to the Mishna, this sewerage from the Temple was disposed of as liquid manure to the market-gardeners.
So much of the water from Solomon's pools as was not required for the use of the Temple, flowed off from the well in front of El-Aksa to an enormous rocky reservoir, called the Royal Pool in the chronicles of the Crusades; from whence it ran by a channel traced by Signor Pierotti, to the same Fountain of the Virgin.
The next point of interest in these recent discoveries, is the secret passage which Herod the Great made, according to Josephus, for the purpose of connecting the fortress of Antonia with the eastern gate of the inner Temple—as the present text of the Jewish historian reads. Such a passage has been found by Signor Pierotti, extending from the Golden Gate in a north-westerly direction. But unhappily he has not been able to follow it along its whole length ; only one section from the Golden Gate about 130 feet long, and another fragment of about 150 feet in length, being at present practicable.
It is true that this would connect Antonia with the eastern gate of the outer, not of the inner Temple. But in the first place, it is obvious that if the passage had been designed to communicate with the inner Temple, it would have run to the northern, not to the eastern gate, which was much more distant from the fortress; and further, as one object of Herod was to provide for his escape into the country, in case of a sedition in the city, that purpose would not have been answered by securing a hidden access only to the gate of the inner Temple. When then, it is considered that the change of a single letter would obviate these difficulties, and place the passage precisely where it is found, it is perhaps not taking too great a liberty with the text to propose to read roũ Ewoev iepoũ (the outer Temple) in the passage in question, instead of του έσωθεν ιερού (the inner Temple) as the text now stands.
The course of Herod's passage is of great importance for determining the position both of the eastern gate and of the fortress Antonia. It has been much disputed, whether that fortress stood entirely without the present area of the Haram, or entirely within it ; or partly within, partly without. Light may be thrown on this question by an angle of
massive masonry, which has been found embedded in the rock towards the north-west corner of the great court of the Mosk, between the raised platform and that corner which presents along its north side a wall of solid rock rising to a height of from twenty to twenty-five feet. Indeed, the whole area in this quarter bears marks of the rock having been worked down to its present level by artificial means; and corroborates the account given by Josephus of the operations of the Jews under Simon the Maccabee, after having driven the Macedonian garrison out of the castle built on the Temple-mount by Antiochus Epiphanes. He tells us that they not only demolished the castle, but rooted up the very rock on which it was built, in order that they might never for the future be subjected to like annoyance. It was a great work, and occupied them three years and six months, although they worked at it incessantly night and day.
It is not likely, then, that this angle of solid masonry can have belonged to a building, not only destroyed to the foundation, but the very site of which was removed. It was more probably connected with the fortress Antonia of later times; and, if so, may serve to explain a perplexing passage of Josephus, who, in speaking of the portents which preceded the destruction of Jerusalem, says that the Jews, by the destruction of Antonia, had made the Temple quadrangular ; while it was written in their oracles that the city should be taken when their Temple became quadrangular. It is vain to inquire to what oracle he refers; but it is obvious to remark that Antonia was not demolished by the Jews, for there is constant reference to it during the siege of Titus. Josephus can only refer to the destruction of some part of the buildings of Antonia contiguous to the Temple, and projecting into the area, the demolition of which made the enclosure quadrangular. The massive masonry lately discovered probably marks the south-east angle of this projection.
That the greater part of the fortress Antonia stood without the Temple Close seems to be proved by another important work which has lately been brought to light.
This is a subterranean passage of noble proportions, partly cut in rock, and partly constructed of very solid masonry, which joins the Haram enclosure near the north-west angle, just east of the minaret, at a depth of about twenty feet below the surface of the rocky pavement of the court, or more than forty feet below the upper surface of the wall of rock, which, as has been already stated, bounds the Haram in this quarter. The direction of this stupendous gallery is northward, bearing slightly to the west. It extends in length 224 feet, passing under the Via Dolorosa. It is 22 feet wide, 29 feet high; covered in at the top with long slabs of stone. There is a door in the side wall, 17 feet high and 9 feet wide, blocked up with solid masonry; and high up in the side walls a row of small openings, as for windows, which seem to be of later date than the gallery itself. Two narrower passages open out of the main vault, one running east, the other west. At the south end of the passage, where it joins the Haram enclosure,
is an ancient door, now blocked up; but Signor Pierotti could discover no corresponding door in the rocky wall or pavement above, by which the vault might have had egress to the Temple Close. It is, therefore, very probably the entrance to Herod's secret passage, leading to the eastern gate already noticed, the direction of which, as far as it can be determined by the parts already explored, is towards this door
The great gallery itself must certainly have belonged to the fortress Antonia, or, perhaps, rather to its predecessor, the Baris, or castle of the Asmonean princes, as it answers very closely to the description of the dark subterranean passage which Josephus mentions as the scene of the murder of Antigonus by the guards of his brother Aristobulus, under the tragic circumstances detailed by the historian. This passage was called Strato's Tower, and was so closely connected with the Baris that the sounds from the vault reached the ears of the high-priest, Aristobulus, who was lying ill in the castle. It was doubtless a covered way designed to connect one part of the fortress with another, for greater security in the case of siege. A little beyond the northern extremity of this passage, but near the surface of the ground, Signor Pierotti accidentally tapped what appeared to be a tank of rotten water, but it continued to flow on, and has never ceased, thus proving itself to be an aqueduct, probably part of that great work of King Hezekiah, recorded in the 2nd Book of Chronicles xxxii. 3, 4, 30, and referred to in his eulogy in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, xlviii. 17.
Another remarkable confirmation of the hypothesis that the fortress Antonia occupied the site determined by the subway just noticed, is found in the situation of the Roman arch, commonly known as “the Arch of the Ecce Homo,” which spans the Via Dolorosa about 90 feet west of the point where that street passes over the subterranean gallery. It had long been doubted whether the arch in question was a Roman arch. That doubt has now been removed by the accidental discovery of the north side portal of the Gateway. It had been covered for centuries by débris, and was accidentally brought to light by a landslip, occasioned by an excavation being made in the neighbourhood, for the foundation of buildings connected with the establishment of the “ Filles de Sion.” This portal is unquestionably of Roman workmanship, as is also the larger arch; and there was no doubt a corresponding portal on the south side, which may still be discovered. Thus the gateway would resemble those ancient arches which are still found in Rome, imitations of which were not unfrequent in the provinces which also furnished models for Temple Bar and the Marble Arch!
Such a gateway in this situation could be nothing else than the communication between the city and the fortress Antonia, or the successor of that fortress, which may possibly have been erected • when Jerusalem was restored by Hadrian, under the name of Ælia Capitolina.
From this it results that the house of the Turkish Pasha occupies the site of the official residence of the Roman Governor, and that the
barracks of the Turkish troops are in the same position as that occupied by the Roman garrison at the era of the Gospel narrative. Nothing changes in the East.
WEEKLY EVENING MEETING,
Friday, February 27, 1863.
The Rev. JOHN BARLOW, M.A. F.R.S. Vice-President, in the Chair.
John LUBBOCK, Esq. F.R.S.
AFTER explaining the circumstances which led to the discovery by Dr. Keller, of the Pfahlbauten,* or Lake-habitations of Switzerland; and after referring to the account given by Herodotus, of the Pæonians, who dwelt on platforms over Lake Prasias, Mr. Lubbock proceeded to state that the Lake-villages of Switzerland might be divided into three classes :-Firstly, those in which all the instruments are made of stone and bone, and which are therefore said to belong to the Stone age; secondly, those in which objects made of bronze also occur, and which therefore are said to belong to the Bronze age ; and thirdly, those in which implements of iron have been discovered. Of the first class at least fifty Lake-villages have been described ; the second class is even more numerous; but of the third, only very few are known.
On the larger lakes several of these curious villages have been discovered : thus, on the Lake of Bienne twenty are known; on the Lake of Geneva, about twenty-four; on the Lake of Constance, more than thirty; and on that of Neufchatel, as many as forty-six,
As a type of the Pfahlbauten belonging to the Stone age, Mr. Lubbock took the one at Wauwyl, which is a small station on a flat plain, on the railway from Sofingen, in the canton of Lucerne. Originally a lake, the growth of peat turned it into a marsh, which has now been drained.
Here and there a few piles may be seen, projecting two or three feet above the general surface; and on examining the peat at these spots, and comparing them with its structure elsewhere, it appears that when the plain was under water, the natives had made small artificial islands, by heaping together leaves, branches of trees, and mud, and
. For further details, the Memoirs by Dr. Keller and Prof. Troyon, and the article in the Natural History Review for January, 1862, may be consulted ; also M. Morlot's admirable. Leçon d'Ouverture d'un Cours sur la haute Antiquité.'
enclosing them by, as it were, walls of piles to prevent them from being washed away.
Mr. Lubbock had the advantage of visiting this interesting spot with Col. Suter, MM. Suter, Morlot, and Fickart, on which occasion several ancient implements made of stone and bone were obtained, besides numerous fragments of pottery, and many bones of animals which had been used as food.
The total list of objects hitherto found at Wauwyl is as follows: Stone axes, principally of serpentine
| Not all
274 articles of stone.
13 20 18 43
The implements of bone are less numerous ; those found at Wauwyl, as elsewhere, appear to fall into four principal divisions. Pointed bones, or awls.
Axe-handles Besides which are a few teeth, artificially perforated; and one or two harpoonlike instruments, making altogether nearly a hundred articles made of bone.
There are also a few objects made of wood ; but these, even if originally numerous, would be difficult to distinguish from the surrounding peat, especially as it contains so many branches, and they would also be very difficult to extract entire. Perhaps, therefore, implements of wood may have been much more varied and common than the collections would appear to indicate.
It is impossible to give any numerical statistics about the pottery on account of the fragmentary state in which it is found. It is however very rude and coarse, containing grains of quartz; and there is no evidence that the potter's wheel was in use.
We know nothing as yet about the manner in which the ancient inhabitants of Wauwyl were clothed. In some of the other settlements, however, which belong also to what is called the Stone age, although possibly to a later portion of it, as for instance in the Pfahlbauten at Robenhausen, on Lake Pfeffikon, and Wangen, on Lake Constance, pieces of rude stuff made of flax and straw have been found.
Similarly, Robenhausen and Wangen have supplied us with nu. merous specimens of wheat and barley, both as single grains and in the ear, with pieces of apples and pears, and even with a few cakes of bread or biscuit.