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whole of this figure is ruled by lines, the angles of which are harmonic
—so musical that they may be represented by tonicomediant and dominant; and that the curves which circumscribe the subdivisions possess this quality no less than the angles. It is interesting to find that the curve which dominates through the structure of man is the curve which rules the heavens—the ellipse. *
A necessary connection exists between Sculpture (and no less Painting) and the science of Anatomy. In the ancient Grecian marbles we perceive a striking contrast: we see heads of magnificent placidity, and of grandeur of organisation ; heads of surpassing intellectuality united to bodies apparently of exaggerated muscularity and salient framework. There were clearly two types familiar to the Grecian artist-the men of thought, the philosopher, poet, and orator; and the athletes, whose bodies were subjected to gymnastic training. No doubt the conflicts in the arena, in which all the muscles of the body were brought into various and violent actions, were frequently witnessed and noted by the keen eye of the ancient sculptor, who had not the opportunity that artists now enjoy, of studying calmly the same muscles upon the dissected corpse, or even upon casts taken from it. Galen himself was obliged to study the ape, in order to come to his approximating knowledge of human anatomy. The Greek or Roman arrived at the knowledge of the interior construction of the figure, by what he saw without; the modern may learn directly what is concealed by the outward integuments and represent its external action.
The modern science of Ethnography, which classifies the different types of races and nations, and at the same time pays attention to the habits, manners, and customs of different countries, is also a most desirable adjunct to both branches of representative art. Great poets have shown themselves to be not above studying common subjects, or the mechanical operations of practical science, when they had to introduce them into their verses (e.g. Schiller, in the “Song of the Bell”); so our conclusion must be, that a great artist should despise no branch of knowledge, but should endeavour to acquire every variety of it. “Ut pictura poesis—as painting so is poetry,” says Horace, and adds
“Ego nec studium sine divite vena,
Of ARCHITECTURE, as a fine art, we may repeat what has been said of the human figure ; the proportions and parts of its perfect productions are no less tonic or musical : lines and angles-there being here no curves-are reducible to the same harmonic scale. This
* See The Principles of Beauty. By John A. Symonds, M.D. 1857.
Nor genius without study, can effect.
Art of Poetry, 409.
has been shown to be the case in the Parthenon, the grandest of all classical edifices ; and also in Lincoln and Salisbury cathedrals.Science, however, comes directly into contact with Architecture in the Constructive element–in the value and fitness of the materials employed in building. The necessity for this is but too evident in the disintegration of the stone of which the new Houses of Parliament are built. A commission, comprising architects, chemists, and geologists, was formed to select the best stone for the building ; but the recommendation of the men of science was not carried out; and in 1861, it was said before a committee—“ We” (the builders) " did not look at the stone with the eyes of chemists; we looked at it as builders.” The committee, therefore, recommended that a series of chemical experiments (with the view of arresting the decay) should be conducted under chemical supervision. 2. Science comes also into contact with Architecture in the adjustment of weight and support -- the balancing of the parts of a building. In the first stages of architecture, we are struck with the massiveness of construction-in the old Grecian, the Roman, the Etruscan, and in the Norman. This ponderous solidity was probably due to timidity and ignorance. As science advanced, architecture became slimmer. In the sixteenth century, the architects considerably lightened their style ; altering the old Norman arch into the pointed, and the round massive piers into clustered columns; thus cutting out masses of sustaining material without apprehension of insecurity.--A striking example of the most salutary, because uncontrolled intervention of science in a matter relating to architecture occurred in the history of St. Peter's, at Rome. Although the architect, Michelangelo, had taken the greatest precaution for the security of the dome, yet in 1681 numerous cracks appeared in various directions through the cupola. Marble dovetails placed across the crack broke with alarming rapidity, and it was feared that in a few years the whole dome might fall in. Various remedies were suggested by architects; but the Pope Benedict XIV. wisely observed that this was not the business of Art but of Science. A commission of three eminent mathematicians (Boscovich, Le Sueur, and Jacquier) was appointed to examine the case. In 1742 they issued their report, showing by their calculations, that the entire dome with its lantern came to the weight of 55,248 tons, and that there was a balance of 1674 tons on the side of pressure against support ; concluding with the remark," that irreparable ruin must be apprehended, unless a timely and efficient remedy was applied.” The remedy they proposed was entirely scientific-to put six more solid iron girders round the huge periphery of 420 feet. No time was lost. In 1743 two girders were braced round the drum, and in 1744 three more were added. We have here a notable instance of Science coming to the rescue of Art in one of its most painful crises. The proposed cure fully answered ; and now, after 120 years, no sign has been given of subsequent damage.
In the concluding remarks, the Cardinal made reference to the
advantages Science may derive from Art ; an example of which occurs in the assistance which astronomy has obtained from photography, portraits of the sun and moon, and other celestial bodies, having been thus taken by Mr. Warren De la Rue.
GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING,
Monday, February 2, 1863.
WILLIAM POLE, Esq. M.A. F.R.S. Treasurer and Vice-President,
in the Chair.
The following letter from Lieut.-General Knollys to his Grace the President was read :
“ SANDRINGHAM, NORFOLK, - MY LORD DUKE,
* 23rd Jan. 1863. “ I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Grace's letter of the 22nd inst. transmitting, as President of the Royal Institution, a Resolution passed unanimously by that body, to the effect that His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales was elected an Honorary Member and Vice-Patron of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
“ His Royal Highness has directed me to request your Grace to express to the Members of the Royal Institution the high gratification He experienced at receiving this announcement; and in conveying his thanks, His Royal Highness desires to assure both your Grace and them of the pride He shall feel in occupying not only so honourable a post, but one that has been so distinguished by its connection with his lamented Father. “ I have the honour to be, my Lord Duke, “ Your most obedient servant,
“ W. KNOLLYS. “ His GRACE THE DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, K.G.
&c. &c. &c."
The Earl of Clanwilliam,
Peter Vanderbyl, Esq.
Michael Smith, Esq. was admitted a Member of the Royal Institution.
The Special Thanks of the Members were returned toThe Executors of the late J. WALKER, Esq. C.E. D.C.L. F.R.S. M.R.I.
for their Present to the Institution of a Marble Bust of Professor
FARADAY, by Mr. Matthew Noble, M.R.I.; and to-
The PRESENTS received since the last Meeting were laid on the table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same : viz.
FROM Governor-General of India-Geological Survey of India—Annual Report, 1861-2.
8vo. Memoirs, Vol. IV. Part 2. 1862. 8vo.
Palæontologica Indica. Part 2. 4to. 1862. Secretary of State for India — Meteorological and Magnetical Observations at
Bombay, in 1860. 4to. 1861. American Philosophical Society—Transactions. New Series. Vol. XII. Part 2.
4to. 1862. Proceedings. No. 67. 8vo. 1862. Astronomical Society, Royal-Monthly Notices, Nos. 1, 2, 8vo. 1862-3. Asiatic Society of Bengal-Journal, No. 286. 8vo. 1862. Barlow, The Rev. John, M.A. F.R.S.—The Bishop of Labuan. By Spencer St.
John. 8vo. 1862. Bavarian Academy, Royal-Sitzungsberichte, 1862. Band I. Heft 1-4. Band II.
Heft 1 & 2. 8vo. Callender, G. W. Esq. (the Author)-Anatomy of the Parts concerned in Femoral
Rupture. 8vo. * 1863. Casa Laving, Marquis de-Fac-Simile of Inscriptions on Two Roman Brass Tablets
found near Malaga, in Spain; lithographed at the expense of the Marquis. Edited by Dr. Em. Rod. de Berlanga. (In Portfolio III.] (See a Memoir by
T. Mommsen, in Vol. III. of Abhandlungen der Kön. Sachsischen Gesellschaft.) Chambers, G. F. Esq. M.R.I.-J. Powles, New Granada : its Internal Resources
(K 89) 8vo. 1862. Chemical Society-Quarterly Journal, New Series, No. 1. 8vo. 1863. Civil Engineers, Institution of-Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. XX. 8vo. 1861.
Proceedings, Jan. 1863. 8vo. Condy, Henry B. Esq. (the Author)-Air and Water : their Impurities and Purifi
cation. 8vo. 1862. De la Rue, Warren, Esq. F.R.S. M.R.I. (the Author )–The Total Solar Eclipse
of July 18, 1860. (From Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. for 1862. 4to. 1862.) Devincenzi, M. G. (the Author)-Cultivation of Cotton in Italy. (L 13) 8vo.
Relazione: Esposizione Internazionale del 1862. (M 7) 4to. 1862.
Technologist for December, 1862, aud January, 1863. 8vo.
Genève: Société de Physique-Mémoires. Tome XVI. Partie 2. 4to. 1862. Hogg, John, Esq. (the Author)—On some Inscriptions from Cyprus; and on the
supposed Scriptural Names of Baalbec. (From Trans. of Roy. Soc. Lit.)
8vo. 1862. Holland, Sir Henry, Bart. D.C.L. M.D. F.R.S. M.R.I. (the Author)- Essays on
Scientific and other Subjects. New Edition. 8vo. 1862. Horticultural Society, Royal-Proceedings, 1862, No. 12. 1863, No. 1. 8vo. Institut Impérial de France, Académie des Sciences-Mémoires : Tome XXXIII.
et Atlas. 4to. 1861. Sapplément aux Comptes Rendus. Tome II. 4to. 1861.
Mémoires présentés par divers Savans. Tomes XVI et XVII. 4to. 1852. Kupffer, M. A. T. (the Director)—Annales de l'Observatoire Physique Central de
Russie. 1859. 2 vols. 4to. 1862. Larrance, R.M. M.D. (the Author)-On Localized Galvanism applied to the
Treatment of Paralysis, &c. (011) 12mo. 1858. Lloyd, W. Watkyss, Esq. M.R.I. (the Author) - On Proportion in Architectural
Design. (M7) 4to. 1863. Lubbock, John, Esq. F.R.S. M.R.I. (the Author)-North American Archæology.
(From Nat. Hist. Review, 1863.) Mailly, M. Ed. (the Author)- Essai sur les Institutions Scientifiques de la Grande
Bretagne. No. 3. (O 14) 12mo. 1863. Mechanical Engineers’ Institution, Birmingham-Proceedings: July. 8vo. 1862. Müller, Professor Max (the Author)-On Ancient Hindu Astronomy and Chrono
logy. (In Vol. IV. of Rig Veda.) 4to. 1862. Musgrave, Rev. George M. N.A. (the Author) – Ramble through Normandy.
16mo. 1855. Pilgrimage into Dauphiné. 2 vols. 16mo. 1857. By-Roads and Battle-Fields in Picardy. 8vo. 1861, Newton, Messrs.--London Journal (New Series) for January, 1863. Svo. Petermann, A. Esq.(the Editor) – Mittheilungen aus dem Gesammtgebiete der
Geographie. Nos. 11, 12. 4to. 1862. Photographic Society-Journal, Nos. 128, 129. 8vo. 1862. Prince, C. Leeson, Esq. (the Author)-Meteorological Journal. 1862. Roma, Accademia Poniificia de' Nuovi Lincei- Atti. Anno XIV. Sess. 1, 2. 4to.
1861. Royal Society of London-Philosophical Transactions :-1861, Parts 2 and 3; 1862,
Part 1. 4to. 1862. Proceedings, Nos. 51, 52. 8vo. 1862. Scottish Society of Arts, Royal-Transactions, Vol. VI. Part 2. 8vo. 1862. Statistical Society-Journal, Vol. XXV. Part 4. 8vo. 1862. Upsal, Royal Society of Sciences-Nova Acta. Series III. Vol. IV. Fasc. 1.
• Upsalá Universitets Arsskrift. 1861. 8vo. 1862. Vereins zur Beförderung des Gewerbsfleisses in Preussen—Verhandlungen, Sept. Oct.
1862. 4to. Vincent, B. Assistant-Secrelary and Keeper of the Library, R.I. (the Editor)
Haydn's Dictionary of Dates. Eleventh Edition. (Two Copies.) 8vo. 1863.
WEEKLY EVENING MEETING,
Friday, February 6, 1863.
JAMES GLAISHER, Esq. F.R.S.