Compact city extended : outline for future policy research and design
The Netherlands first developed a policy on the compact city about twenty-five years ago, following the economic crises of the 1970s and the earlier policy of clustered dispersal. The four major Dutch cities in the western Randstad conurbation were then confronted with massive outflows of middle and higher-income residents. At the same time, there were new insights into the importance of strong cities in the emerging global network economy. Issues of rural sustainability, mobility, and quality of life were also reconsidered in relation to this urban agenda. It was against this background that a national compact city policy took shape, beginning in the mid-1980s. Now we must redefine that policy in response to globalization, information technology, economic change, and the growing importance of sustainable spatial development. This new context differs fundamentally from that of twenty-five years ago. Less financing is available, and time-tested business models are breaking down. European environmental regulations have become more rigid, all the most promising projects have already been carried out, the established roles of the public and private sectors have come into question, and there is often little if any cohesion. The articles in this collection take stock of the situation and explore a number of ways that a compact city policy can be meaningful and effective today. Contributors from the worlds of research, government, enterprise, and design propose new alliances that can enable these different sectors to achieve their goals in partnership.
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Adriaan Geuze Amsterdam approach architecture area authorities become beleid Bergpolderflat binnenstedelijke Boelens bouwen building business central centre centres cities city centre city’s compact city policy compacte stad compactestadbeleid construction conurbatie cultural demand density design develop developed dichtheid different districts Dutch economic environment especially facilities form Frank de Vries future gemeente goed Groningen Haag Hague Hamit Karakus health high housing including infrastructure investment Kop van Zuid kwaliteit landscape large level life locations major maken market ment municipal municipalities municipality national government Netherlands network nieuwe number office space ontwikkeling onze organization parks people Pi de Bruijn place plan Policy Document population possible potential projects public quality Randstad Randstadrail regio’s regional residential residual retail Rotterdam ruimte ruimtelijke ordening sector shopping social space spatial planning stedelijk gebied steden sustainable time tion trend University urban areas urban development urban regions Utrecht value verstedelijking Vinex Wateringse Veld Wilhelminapier woningen work years zoals Zuidas